AlHusari
ii
Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 Historical review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Control system fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.1 Concept of a system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.2 Openloop systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.3 Closedloop systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.4 The control problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.5 Examples of control systems . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 A first analysis of feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.1 Effect of feedback on tracking and disturbance
1.3.2 Effect of feedback on sensitivity . . . . . . . . .
1.3.3 Effect of feedback on stability . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.4 The cost of feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1
1
2
2
3
4
4
5
8
9
9
10
10
2 System Modelling
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 The Laplace transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.2 Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.3 Theorems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.4 More examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.5 Inverse Laplace transform . . . . . . . . .
2.2.6 Partial fraction expansion . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Transfer Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Models of Electric Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 Models of mechanical systems . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.1 Translational motion . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.2 Rotational motion . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6 DC motors in control systems . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7 System modelling diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.1 The block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.2 Signalflow graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.3 Conversion from block diagram to SFG .
2.7.4 Construction of block diagrams Examples
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11
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43
45
iii
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iv
CONTENTS
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49
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4 Stability Analysis
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Boundedinput boundedoutput stability . . . . . . .
4.2.1 Relationship between characteristic equation
stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 RouthHurwitz Stability Criterion . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.1 General properties of polynomials . . . . . .
4.3.2 RouthHurwitz stability criterion . . . . . . .
4.4 Applications in feedback design . . . . . . . . . . . .
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85
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82
CONTENTS
6.3
vi
CONTENTS
Chapter
Introduction
1.1
Historical review
Control theory has developed rapidly over the last 80 years. A significant
and rapid development due mainly to digital computers. Indeed, recent developments in digital computers especially their increasingly low cost facilitate their
use in controlling complex systems and processes.
The period 19301940 was important in the history of control, since remarkable theoretical and practical results, such as those of Nyquist were reported.
During the following years and until about 1960, further significant research and
development was reported, due mainly to Ziegler and Nichols, Bode, Wiener and
Evans. All the results of the last century, and up to about 1960, constitute what
has been termed classical control. Progress from 1960 to date has been especially
impressive, from both the theoretical and the practical point of view. This last
period has been characterized as that of modern control, the most significant
results of which have been due to Astrom, Doyle, Francis, Kailath, Kalman,
Zames, and many others.
The main differences between the classical and the modern control approaches are the following: classical control refers mainly to single inputsingle
output systems. The design methods are usually graphical (e.g., root locus,
Bode and Nyquist diagrams, etc.) and hence they do not require advanced
mathematics. Modern control refers to complex multiinput multioutput systems. The design methods are usually analytical and require advanced mathematics. In todays technological control applications, both classical and modern
design methods are used. Since classical control is relatively easier to apply than
modern control, a control engineer may adopt the following general approach:
simple cases, where the design specifications are not very demanding, he uses
classical control techniques, while in cases where the design specifications are
very demanding, he uses modern control techniques.
It should be noted that classical control techniques which have existed since
1940s predominate in the overall practice of control engineering today. Despite
the impressive progress since the 1940s, practical applications of modern control
techniques are limited. This is indeed a serious gap between theory and practice.
To reduce this gap, techniques of modern control engineering should be designed
1
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
1.2
1.2.1
In the case of the ship shown in Figure 1.2, the rudder and engines are the
control inputs, whose values can be adjusted to control certain outputs, for
example heading and forward velocity. The wind, waves and current are disturbance inputs and will induce errors in the outputs (usually called controlled
variables) of position, heading and forward velocity. In addition, the disturbances will introduce increased ship motion (roll, pitch, etc.) which again is not
desirable.
Generally, the relationship between control input, disturbance input, plant
and controlled variable is shown in Figure 1.3.
Control systems can be divided into two categories: the openloop and the
closed loop systems.
1.2.2
Openloop systems
Figure 1.3 represent an openloop control system. Note that the system input
does not depend on the output, i.e., the input is not a function of the output.
A very simple example of an openloop system is that of the clothes washing
machine. Here, the control signal is the input to the washing machine and
forces the washing machine to execute the desired preassigned operations, i.e.,
water heating, water changing, etc. The output of the system is the quality
of washing, i.e., how well the clothes have been washed. It is well known that
during the operation of the washing machine, the output (i.e., whether the
clothes are well washed or not) it not taken into consideration. The washing
machine performs only a series of operations contained in the control input
without being influenced at all by the output.
The main problem with openloop control is that the controlled variable
is sensitive to changes in disturbance inputs. So, for example if a heater is
switched on in a room, and the temperature climbs to 20 C, it will remain at
that value unless there is a disturbance. This could be caused by leaving a door
to the room open, for example. The internal room temperature will change. For
the room temperature to remain constant, a mechanism is required to vary the
energy output from the heater.
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
1.2.3
Closedloop systems
A closedloop system is a system whose input depends on the output, i.e., the
input is a function of the output. For a room temperature control system, the
first requirement is to detect or sense changes in room temperature. The second
requirement is to control or vary the energy output from the heater, if the sensed
room temperature is different from the desired room temperature. In general,
a system that is designed to control the output of a plant must contain at least
one sensor and controller as shown in Figure 1.4.
The controller and plant lie along the forward path, and the sensor in the
feedback path. The measured value of the plant output is compared at the
summing point with desired value. The difference, or error is fed to the controller
which generates a control signal to drive the plant until its output equals the
desired value.
1.2.4
We may state the control problem as follows: given a physical system or process that is to be accurately controlled and the desired system response, find a
controller whose output is such that, when applied to the system, the output of
the system is the desired response. Generally speaking to be able to accurately
control a system, closedloop or feedback operation is required. Typical aims of
feedback are:
disturbance rejection
transient response shaping
sensitivity reduction
closedloop stability
tracking improvement
Solving a control problem generally involves:
choosing sensors to measure the plant output
1.2.5
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
1.3
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
(1.1)
(1.2)
(1.3)
1.3.1
(1.4)
1
GC
r+
d
1 + GC
1 + GC
Without control the map from the disturbance d to the ouput y is simply 1.
Any disturbance d will be seen directly (without reduction) on the output y.
With control, the map from disturbance d to output y is
1
1 + GC
therefore
any disturbance
d will be seen with a factor on the output y. Hopefully,
1
factor can reduce the disturbance. It can be seen that if C 1
the
1 + GC
(large or high loop gain), then
1
0
1 + GC
which implies that the effect of the disturbance d is eliminated. Similarly, the
map from reference r to output y is
GC
1 + GC
and if C 1 it can be seen that
GC
1
1 + GC
which implies that y = r, i.e., the output is tracking the reference closely. In
conclusion: Good tracking and disturbance rejection both require high loop gain.
1.3.2
Generally, any control system will contain parameters that change with temperature, pressure, humidity, time, and so on. However, we prefer that the control
system characteristics not vary as these parameters vary. Of course, the system characteristics are a function of the system parameters, but in some cases
the sensitivity of system characteristics to parameter variations can be reduced.
10
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
GC
(1.5)
1 + GC
Clearly H is the map from reference r to output y, (it is usually referred to
as the overall system gain). The sensitivity of the system gain H to changes
in C for example is defined as a measure of the percentage change in H to a
percentage change in C. One such definition is
H=
S=
H C
H/H
=
C/C
C H
S=
(1.6)
1.3.3
1.3.4
Almost all the benefits of feedback can be achieved, provided that the loop gain
is sufficiently high. Unfortunately, for most plants, high loop gain tends to drive
the system into instability. Dont forget u = Ce so if C 1, the control signal
u will be large and this gets amplified in the feedback loop over and over causing
instability. Other disadvantages of closedloop systems but not limited to:
require the use of sensors which increase the system costs
more complex design, harder to build
power costs (due to high gains) are high
It is essential in the design of controllers to tradeoff between high gain, disturbance rejection, tracking and stability. For good design tradeoff knowledge on
dynamic behavior of the system is essential. In conclusion: In most cases the
advantages of feedback far outweigh the cost and feedback is utilized.
Chapter
System Modelling
2.1
Introduction
If the dynamic behavior of a physical system can be represented by an equation, or a set of equations, this is referred to as the mathematical model of
the system. Such models can be constructed from knowledge of the physical
characteristics of the system, i.e. mass for a mechanical system or resistance for
an electrical system. Because the systems under consideration are dynamic in
nature, the descriptive equations are usually differential equations. Differential
equations are often the initial description of a system. The variables are just
the inputs and outputs. If the differential equations can be linearized, then the
Laplace transform can be utilized to simplify the method of solution. a singleinput singleoutput process is described by its transfer function: the ratio of the
Laplace transform of output and input.
2.2
The Laplace transform is a very powerful analysis tool for a certain class
of systems, namely, linear timeinvariant systems. It transforms the problem
from the time (or t) domain to the Laplace (or s) domain. The advantage in
doing this is that complex timedomain differential equations become relatively
simple sdomain algebraic equations. It is then possible to manipulate the
algebraic equation by simple algebraic rules to obtain the solution in the sdomain. When a suitable solution is arrived at, it is inverse transformed back
to the timedomain.
2.2.1
Definition
11
12
Example 2.1
Example 2.2
F (s) =
eat est dt =
2.2.2
1
e(s+a)t
=
s + a 0
s+a
Properties
df (t)
= sF (s) f (0)
dt
f ( )d =
F (s)
s
Shift in time
L[f (t T )] = eT s F (s)
for T 0
Shift in frequency
L[et f (t)] = F (s )
13
Covolution
L[f1 (t) f2 (t)] = F1 (s)F2 (s)
2.2.3
Theorems
t0
2.2.4
s0
More examples
In this section more examples are given to demonstrate the utilization of the
Laplace transform properties. For the subjects treated in this course, the direct
evaluation of the Lapalce transform integral is almost never used.
Find the Laplace transform of f (t) = cos t. [Linearity property]
Example 2.3
1 jt
(e + ejt )
2
F (s) =
1
2
d2 f
. [Differentiation property]
dt2
df
dt t=0
Example 2.4
14
Example 2.5
2.2.5
1.
2.
3.
unit ramp t
4.
tn
n!
sn+1
5.
eat
1
s+a
6.
tn eat
7.
sin t
8.
cos t
9.
eat sin t
10.
eat cos t
1
s
1
s2
n!
(s + a)n+1
s2 + 2
s
s2 + 2
(s + a)2 + 2
s+a
(s + a)2 + 2
2.2.6
Q(s)
P (s)
15
where P (s) and Q(s) are polynomials of s. Rational functions are defined as the
ratio of two polynomials. It is assumed that the order of P (s) in s is greater
than that of Q(s), F (s) is said to be strictly proper. The polynomial P (s) may
be written
P (s) = sn + an1 sn1 + + a1 s + a0
where a0 , a1 , , an1 are real coefficients. The roots of the polynomial P (s)
are referred to as poles of the function F (s).
Case 1: F (s) has distinct real poles
If all the poles of F (s) are real but distinct, F (s) can be written as
F (s) =
Q(s)
Q(s)
=
P (s)
(s + s1 )(s + s2 ) (s + sn )
K1
K2
Kn
+
+ +
s + s1
s + s2
s + sn
Example 2.6
s+2
s3 + 4s2 + 3s
s+2
s(s + 1)(s + 3)
K1
K2
K3
+
+
s
s+1 s+3
K3 = (s + 3)F (s)
s=1
s + 2
1
=
=
s(s + 3) s=1
2
s=3
s + 2
1
=
=
s(s + 1) s=3
6
With the partial fraction the solution can be looked up in the tables at once to
be
2 1
1
f (t) = et e3t
3 2
6
16
1
s(s2 + s + 1)
K1
K2 s + K3
+ 2
s
s +s+1
s + 12 + 21
1
s (s + 12 )2 + 34
3
4t
1
et/2 sin
3
3
4t
Q(s)
Q(s)
=
P (s)
(s + s1 )(s + s2 ) (s + snr )(s + si )r
A1
K1
K2
Knr
A2
Ar
+
+
+ +
+
+ +
s + s1
s + s2
s + snr s + si
(s + si )2
(s + si )r

{z
} 
{z
}
n r terms of distinct poles
17
Example 2.8
1
s(s + 1)3 (s + 2)
K1
A3
K2
A1
A2
+
+
+
+
s
s + 2 s + 1 (s + 1)2
(s + 1)3
s=1
1
1
1
1
+
2s 2(s + 2) s + 1 (s + 1)3
2.3
1
1 1 2t
+ e
et t2 et
2 2
2
Transfer Functions
The classical way of modelling linear timeinvariant systems is to use transfer functions to represent inputoutput relations between variables. A transfer
function is nothing more than the s plane representation of a physical system
that can be described by an ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients.
The transfer function of a linear timeinvariant system is the ratio of the Laplace
transform of the output to the Laplace transform of the input, with all initial
conditions assumed to be zero
H(s) =
Y (s)
X(s)
The transfer function of a system represents the relationship describing the dynamics of the system under consideration. Another way of defining the transfer
18
function is to use the impulse response. The transfer function of a linear timeinvariant systems is defined as the Laplace transform of the impulse response,
with all initial conditions set to zero
H(s) = L[h(t)] =
Example 2.9
Y (s)
X(s)
Find the transfer function of the system described by the following differential
equation:
dy
d2 y
+3
+ 2y = 5
dt2
dt
with initial conditions
y(0) = 4 and y(0)
=3
Solution Take Laplace transform and set all initial conditions to zero
s2 Y (s) + 3sY (s) + 2Y (s) =
Y (s) =
5
s
5
s(s2 + 3s + 2)
2.4
1
Y (s)
= 2
(5/s)
s + 3s + 2
19
V (s) = sLI(s)
For a capacitor,
dv(t)
dt
which transforms into the sdomain (assuming zero initial conditions) as
i(t) = C
V (s) =
1
I(s)
sC
Determine the transfer function H(s) = Vo (s)/Io (s) for the circuit shown in
20
Figure 2.3.
Solution By current division,
I2 =
(s + 4)Io
s+4+2+
But
Vo = 2I2 =
1
2s
2(s + 4)Io
1
s + 6 + 2s
Hence,
H(s) =
Example 2.11
Vo (s)
4s(s + 4)
= 2
Io (s)
2s + 12s + 1
For the circuit shown in Figure 2.4, find the transfer function I2 (s)/V( s).
Solution The first step in the solution is to convert the network into Laplace
transform for impedance and circuit variables, assuming zero initial conditions,
as shown in Figure 2.5. The circuit requires two simultaneous equations to
solve for the transfer function. These equations can be found by summing voltages around each mesh through which the assumed currents I1 (s) and I2 (s) flow.
Around Mesh 1,
R1 I1 (s) + LsI1 (s) LsI2 (s) = V (s)
21
Around Mesh 2,
LsI2 (s) + R2 I2 (s) +
1
I2 (s) LsI1 (s) = 0
Cs
LCs2
I2 (s)
=
V (s)
(R1 + R2 )LCs2 + (R1 R2 C + L)s + R1
2.5
22
2.5.1
Translational motion
The motion of translation is defined as a motion that takes place along straight
lines. The variables that are used to describe translational motion are acceleration, velocity, and displacement. Newtons law states that the algebraic sum
of forces acting on a rigid body in a given direction is equal to the product
of the mass of the body and its acceleration in the same direction. Table 2.2
shows forcedisplacement translational relationship for spring, viscous damper
and mass. the constants K, B, and M are called spring constant, coefficient of
viscous friction, and mass, respectively.
Table 2.2: Force displacement translational relationship for spring, viscous damper
and mass.
Component
Forcedisplacement
f (t) = Kx(t)
f (t) = B
dx(t)
dt
f (t) = M
Example 2.12
d2 x(t)
dt2
Find the transfer function X(s)/F( s) for the system shown in Figure 2.7(a).
1
M s2 + Bs + K
Figure 2.7: (a) Mass, spring and damper system; (b) block diagram.
23
Figure 2.8: (a) Freebody diagram of mass, spring and damper system; (b) transformed freebody diagram (in s domain).
the differential equation of motion using Newtons law to sum to zero all of the
forces shown on the mass in Figure 2.8(a):
M
d2 x(t)
dx(t)
+B
+ Kx(t) = f (t)
2
dt
dt
1
X(s)
=
F (s)
M s2 + Bs + K
2.5.2
Rotational motion
Rotational mechanical systems are handled the same way as translational mechanical systems, except that torque replaces force and angular displacement
replaces translational displacement. The mechanical components for rotational
systems are the same as those for translational systems, except that the components undergo rotation instead of translation. The rotational motion of a body
can be defined as motion about a fixed axis. The extension of Newtons law
of motion for rotational motion states that the algebraic sum of moments or
torque about a fixed axis is equal to the applied angular force or the product
of the inertia and the angular acceleration about the axis. Table 2.3 shows the
components along with the relationships between torque and angular velocity,
as well as angular displacement.
The constants K, D (or sometimes denoted as B) and J are called spring constant, coefficient of viscous friction, and moment of inertia, respectively.
The rotational system shown in Figure 2.9 consists of a disk mounted Example
on a
2.13
24
Table 2.3: Torqurangular displacement relationship for spring, viscous damper and
inertia.
Component
Torqueangular displacement
shaft that is fixed at one end. The moment of inertia of the disk about the axis
of rotation is J. The edge of the disk is riding on the surface, and the viscous
friction coefficient between the two surfaces is B. The inertia of the shaft is
negligible, but the torsional spring constant is K. Assume the torque is applied
to the disk, as shown; then the torque or moment of equation about the axis of
the shaft is written from the freebody diagram of Figure 2.9(b) as
T (t) = J
d2 (t)
d(t)
+B
+ K(t)
2
dt
dt
(2.2)
2.6
25
A common actuator in control systems is a DC motor. A motor is an electromechanical component that yields a displacement output for a voltage input.
We will derive the transfer function for one particular kind of electromechanical
system, the armaturecontrolled dc servomotor. The motors schematic is shown
in Figure 2.10
(2.3)
(2.4)
The relationship among the armature current ia , the applied armature voltage
va , and the back emf e is found by writing a loop equation around the Laplace
transformed armature circuit:
Ra Ia (s) + La sIa (s) + E(s) = Va (s)
(2.5)
The torque developed by the motor is proprtional to the armature current, thus
Tm (s) = Km Ia (s)
(2.6)
where Tm is the torque developed by the motor and Km is a constant of proportionality, called the motortorque constant. Rearranging Equation (2.14)
yields
Tm (s)
Ia (s) =
(2.7)
Km
1 Because the generated electromotive force (emf) works against the applied armature voltage, we call it the back emf.
26
To find the transfer function of the motor, we first substitute Equation (2.12)
and Equation (2.7) into Equation (2.13), yielding
(Ra + La s)Tm (s)
+ Ke s(s) = Va (s)
Km
(2.8)
Now we must find Tm (s) in terms of m (s) if we are to seperate the input
(s)
. The freebody
and output variables, and to obtain the transfer function Vma (s)
diagram for the rotor, shown in Figure 2.10, defines the positive direction and
shows the two applied torques, T and bm . Therefore,
(Jm s2 + bs)m (s) = Tm (s)
(2.9)
(2.10)
m (s)
Va (s)
is found to be
Km
m (s)
=
Va (s)
s [Ra (Jm s + b) + Km Ke ]
Km
=
s [Jm Ra s + bRa + Km Ke ]
The relations of the armaturecontrolled DC motor are shown schematically in
Figure 2.11
2.7
2.7.1
Block diagrams may be considered as a form of system description that provides a simplified overview schematic diagram of a system. It describes the
27
Block diagram transformations and reduction techniques are derived by considering the algebra of the diagram variables. For example, consider the block
diagram shown in Figure 2.12. This negative feedback control system is described by the equation for the error signal, which is
E(s) = R(s) B(s) = R(s) H(s)Y (s)
Because the output is related to the error signal by G(s), we have
Y (s) = G(s)E(s)
thus,
Y (s) = G(s)[R(s) H(s)Y (s)]
Solving for Y (s), we obtain
Y (s)[1 + G(s)H(s)] = G(s)R(s)
28
Therefore, the transfer function relating the output Y (s) to the input R(s) is
Y (s)
G(s)
=
R(s)
1 + G(s)H(s)
The gain of a singleloop negative feedback system is given by the forward gain
divided by the sum of one plus the loop gain. When the feedback is added instead of subtracted, we call it positive feedback. In this case the gain is given by
the forward gain divided by the sum of 1 minus the loop gain.
A control system may have several feedback control loops as the one shown
in Figure 2.13. In principle, the block diagram of a closedloop system, no matter how complicated it is, it can be reduced to the standard single loop form
shown in Figure 2.12. Reduction of complex block diagrams is facilitated by a
series of easily derivable transformations which are summarized in Table 2.4.
29
Then eliminating the inner loop containing H2 /G4 , we obtain Figure 2.16(a).
Finally, by reducing the loop containing H3 , we obtain the closedloop system
transfer function as shown in Figure 2.16(b).
Example 2.14
30
Example 2.15
Solution Moving the first summing point ahead of G1 , and the final take
off point beyond G4 gives a modified block diagram shown in Figure 2.18(a).
The block diagram in Figure 2.18(a) is then reduced to the form given in Figure
2.18(b).
31
G1 G2 G3 G4
(1+G1 G2 H1 )(1+G3 G4 H2 )
G 1 G 2 G 3 G 4 H3
(G1 G4 )(1+G1 G2 H1 )(1+G3 G4 H2 )
G1 G2 G3 G4
(1 + G1 G2 H1 )(1 + G3 G4 H2 ) + G2 G3 H3
Transformation
Equation
1.
Cascaded blocks
Y = (P1 P2 )X
2.
Combining
blocks in parallel
Y = P1 X P2 X
3.
Removing a block
from a forward
loop
Y = P1 X P2 X
4.
Y = P1 (X P2 Y )
5.
Removing a block
from a feedback
loop
Y = P1 (X P2 Y )
6.
Rearranging
summing
junctions
Z =W X Y
7.
Z = PX Y
Block diagram
32
8.
Z = P (X Y )
9.
Moving a takeoff
point in front of a
block
Y = PX
10.
Moving a takeoff
point beyond a
block
Y = PX
11.
Moving a takeoff
point in front of
a summing junction
Z =X Y
12.
Z =X Y
33
Find the complete output for the system shown in Figure 2.19 when both inputs
act simultaneously.
Y (s)
Solution The block diagram shown in Figure 2.19 can be reduced and simplified to the form given in Figure 2.20.
Y (s)
Putting R2 (s) = 0 and replacing the summing point by +1 gives the block diagram shown in Figure 2.21. In Figure 2.21 nothe that Y1 (s) is response to R1 (s)
acting alone.
Y1 (s)
1 2
Y1 (s)
2 H2
= 1+G
1 G 2 H1
R1 (s)
1+ G
1+G2 H2
Example 2.16
34
or
Y1 (s) =
G1 G2 R1
1 + G2 H2 + G1 G2 H1
Now if R1 (s) = 0 and the summing point is replaced by 1, then the response
Y2 (s) to input R2 (s) acting alone is given by Figure 2.22. The choice as to
whether the summing point is replaced by +1 or 1 depends upon the sign at
the summing point.
Y2 (s)
Note that in Figure 2.22 there is a positive feedback loop. Hence the closedloop
transfer functionn relating R2 (s) and Y2 (s) is
G G H
1 2 1
Y2 (s)
1+G2 H2
=
R2 (s)
1 G2 H1
1 G
1+G2 H2
or
Y2 (s) =
G1 G2 H1 R2
1 + G2 H2 + G1 G2 H1
2.7.2
G1 G2 R1 G1 G2 H1 R2
1 + G2 H2 + G1 G2 H1
Signalflow graph
35
points or nodes are used to represent variables. The nodes are connected by
line segments, called branches. A signal can transmit through a branch only in
the direction of the arrow. As an example consider a linear system represented
by a simple algebraic equation
y2 = a12 y1
where y1 is the input, y2 is the output, and a12 is the gain between the two
variables. The SFG representation is shown in Figure 2.23
Example 2.17
36
37
Masons Rule
Given an SFG or block diagram, the task of solving for the inputoutput relations by algebraic manipulation could be quite tedious. Fortunately, there is a
general gain formula available that allows the determination of the inputoutput
relations of an SFG by inspection.
Masons states that the inputoutput transfer function associated with a signalflow graph is given by
P
Pk k
G= k
(2.11)
where
P
P
P
P
= 1 L1 + L2 L3 + + (1)m Lm
and
Pk = gain of the k th forward path
L1 = gain of each closed loop in the graph
L2 = product of loop gains of any two nontouching loops (loops are called nontouching if they have no node in common)
..
.
Lm = product of loop gains of any m nontouching loops
k = the value of remaining with the loops touching the path Pk are removed
Procedures to solve SFG by using Masons rule:
1. Identify the no. of forward paths and determine the forwardpath gains.
2. Identify the no. of loops and determine the loop gains.
3. Identify the nontouching loops taken two at a time, three at a time and
so on. Determine the product of the nontouching loop gains.
38
Example 2.18
Solution
1. Forward path: There is only one forward path between R(s) and Y (s),
and the forwardpath gain is
P1 = G(s)
2. Closed loops: There is only one loop; the loop gain
L1 :
G(s)H(s)
3. Nontouch loops: There are no nontouching loops since there is only one
loop.
4. and 1 : The forward path is in touch with the only loop. Thus, 1 = 1,
and
= 1 L1 = 1 + G(s)H(s)
5. Using (2.11), the closedloop transfer function is written as
P1 1
G(s)
=
1 + G(s)H(s)
39
Determine the gain between y1 and y5 using the gain formula for the SFG shown
in Figure 2.25.
Solution
1. Forward path: There are three forward paths between y1 and y5 and
forwardpath gains are
P1 = a12 a23 a34 a45
Forward path:
y1 y2 y3 y4 y5
P2 = a12 a25
Forward path:
y1 y2 y5
Forward path:
y1 y2 y4 y5
2. Closed loops: The four loops of the SFG are shown in Figure 2.26. The
loop gains are
L1 :
a23 a32
a34 a43
a44
hence
X
3. Nontouch loops: There is only one pair of nontouching loops; that is, the
two loops
y2 y3 y2
and
y4 y4
Thus the product of the gains of the two nontouching loops is
L2 :
4. and k : = 1
L1 +
= 1 (a23 a32 + a34 a43 + a24 a43 a32 + a44 ) + a23 a32 a44
All the loops are in touch with forward paths P1 and P3 . Thus, 1 =
3 = 1. Two of the loops are not in touch with forward path P2 . These
loops are: y3 y4 y3 and y4 y4 . Thus,
2 = 1 a34 a43 a44
5. Using (2.11), the closedloop transfer function is written as
P1 1 + P2 2 + P3 3
a12 a23 a34 a45 + (a12 a25 )(1 a34 a43 a44 ) + a12 a24 a45
=
1 (a23 a32 + a34 a43 + a24 a43 a32 + a44 ) + a23 a32 a44
G=
Example 2.19
40
node, we simply connect a branch with unity gain from the existing node y2 to
a new node also designated as y2 , as shown in Figure 2.28.
Example 2.20
Determine the gain between y1 and y2 using the gain formula for the SFG
shown in Figure 2.28.
Solution
1. Forward path: There is only one forward path between y1 and y2 and
forwardpath gain is
P1 = a12
Forward path:
y1 y2
2. Closed loops: The four loops of the SFG are shown in Figure 2.26. The
loop gains are
L1 :
a23 a32
a34 a43
a44
hence
X
3. Nontouch loops: There is only one pair of nontouching loops; that is, the
two loops
y2 y3 y2
and
y4 y4
Thus the product of the gains of the two nontouching loops is
L2 :
4. and k : = 1 (a23 a32 + a34 a43 + a24 a43 a32 + a44 ) + a23 a32 a44
Two of the loops are not in touch with forward path P1 . These loops
are: y3 y4 y3 and y4 y4 . Thus,
1 = 1 a34 a43 a44
5. Using (2.11), the transfer function between y1 and y2 is written as
G=
=
P1 1
Note that is the same as in Example 2.19 regardless of which sink node
is chosen.
41
We can show that by including a source node (y1 in this case), we may write
y7 /y2 as
P
k Pk k
y7 /y1
y7
from y1 to y7
=
= P
y2
y2 /y1
k Pk k
from y1 to y2
Since is independent of the sources and sinks, the last equation is written
P
P
k k k
y7
y7 /y1
from y1 to y7
=
=
P
y2
y2 /y1
k Pk k
from y1 to y2
Note that does not appear in the last equation. However, you must evaluate
it to be able to find k .
Determine the gain between y7 and y2 for the SFG shown in Figure 2.29.
Solution We start by determining y2 /y1 :
1. Forward path: There is only one forward path between y1 and y2 and
forwardpath gain is
P1 = 1
Forward path:
y1 y2
y4 y5 y4
y2 y3 y4 y5 y2
y4
with gains
L1 :
G1 H1
G3 H2
G1 G2 G3 H3
H4
Example 2.21
42
L1 = (G1 H1 + G3 H2 + G1 G2 G3 H3 + H4 )
3. Nontouch loops:
Product of loop gains of any two nontouching loops (there are four
possible combinations), thus:
L2 :
and
X
G1 G3 H1 H2
G1 H1 H4
G3 H2 H4
G1 G2 G3 H3 H4
L2 = G1 G3 H1 H2 + G1 H1 H4 + G3 H2 H4 + G1 G2 G3 H3 H4
4. and k : = 1
L3 :
G1 G3 H1 H2 H4
P
P
L1 + L2 L3 , therefore,
= 1 + G1 H1 + G3 H2 + G1 G2 G3 H3 + H4 + G1 G3 H1 H2
+ G1 H1 H4 + G3 H2 H4 + G1 G2 G3 H3 H4 + G1 G3 H1 H2 H4
Two of the loops are not in touch with forward path P1 . These loops are:
y4 y5 y4 and y4 y4 . Thus,
1 = 1 + G3 H2 + H4 + G3 H2 H4
5. Using (2.11), the gain between y1 and y2 is written as
1 + G3 H2 + H4 + G3 H2 H4
P1 1
y2
=
=
y1
Forward path:
y1 y7
P2 = G1 G5
Forward path:
y1 y2 y3 y6 y7
2.7.3
43
An equivalent SFG for a block diagram can be drawn by performing the following
steps:
1. Identify the input/output signals, summing junctions & pickoff pointsthey
are replaced with nodes.
2. Interconnect the nodes & indicate the directions of signal flow by using
arrows.
3. Identify the blocks they are replaced with branches. For each negative
sum, a negative sign is included with the branch.
4. Label the input/output signals and the branches accordingly.
5. Add unity branches as needed for clarity or to make connections.
6. Simplify the SFG eliminate redundant nodes/branches (only if the node
is connected to branches of a single flow in & a single flow out with unity
gain).
44
Example 2.22
Convert the block diagram in Figure 2.31 to a signal flow graph and determine
the transfer function using Masons gain formula.
Figure 2.31: (a) Block diagram a control system. (b) Equivalent signalflow graph.
Solution
1. Forward path:
P1 = G1 G2 G3
P2 = G1 G4
2. Closed loops:
L1 :
G1 G2 H1
G2 G3 H2
G1 G2 G3
G1 G4
G4 H2
2.7.4
45
Construct a block diagram for the mechanical system described by the following
set of equations
B2 s + K
F (s)
X3 (s) +
m1 s2 + (B1 + B2 )s + k
m1 s2 + (B1 + B2 )s + k
B3
X2 (s) =
X3 (s)
m2 s + B3 + B4
B2 s + K
B3 s
X3 (s) =
X1 (s) +
X2 (s)
(B2 + B3 )s + k
(B2 + B3 )s + k
X1 (s) =
(2.12)
(2.13)
(2.14)
Example 2.23
46
Construct a block diagram for a system described by the following set of equations
1
Pc (s)
CRd s + 1
1
Pi (s) =
Pc (s)
CRi s + 1
Pc (s) = KX(s)
a
b
E(s) +
Y (s)
X(s) =
a+b
a+b
A
Y (s) =
[Pi (s) Pd (s)]
Ks
Pd (s) =
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.18)
(2.19)
47
48
Chapter
Introduction
This chapter refers to the timedomain analysis of linear timeinvariant control systems. The problem of timedomain analysis may be briefly stated as
follows: given the system (i.e., given a specific description of the system) and
its input, determine the timedomain behavior of the output of the system.
In the analysis problem, we will use selected input signals to test the response
of control systems. This response will be characterized by a selected set of
response measures. The basic motivation for system analysis is that one can
predict (theoretically) the systems behavior.
3.2
50
The total response of the system is always the sum of the transient and steadystate components. In the design problem, specifications are usually given in
terms of the transient and steadystate performance, and controllers are designed so that the specifications are all met by the design system.
For control system design, we need a basis of comparison of performance of
different designs. One way of setting up this basis is to specify particular test
signals and compare the response of different designs to these signals.
3.3
3.3.1
The unit impulse function is based on a rectangular function (t) such that
(t) =
1
,
0 t ,
>0
As 0, (t) approaches the unit impulse (t). The major properties of this
function are
Z
1.
(t)dt = 1
0
2.
0
3. L[(t)] = 1
It is very useful for modeling shock inputs.
3.3.2
t0
= L[r(t)] =
1
s
3.3.3
t0
= L[r(t)] =
1
s2
3.3.4
51
= L[sin t] = 2
s + 2
3.4
3.4.1
dy(t)
+ by(t) = cr(t)
dt
Y (s)
c
=
R(s)
as + b
c/b
1 + (a/b)s
which is written as
G(s) =
3.4.2
K
1 + s
Step response
The response of the control system to the unitstep input is called the unitstep
response. When r(t) is a unit step
K
1
1
Y (s) =
=K
s( s + 1)
s s + 1/
= y(t) = K(1 et/ ) = K Ket/
(3.1)
The first term is called the steadystate response and K is called the steadystate
value. The second term is called the transient response. If > 0 the transient
response tends to 0 as t . The step response of a firstorder system as given
in (3.1) is shown in Figure 3.1. Note that the exponentially decaying term has
an initial slope of K/ ; that is,
d
K
K
K Ket/
= et/
=
dt
t=0
t=0
52
Mathematically, the exponential term does not decay to zero in a finite length
of time. However, if the term continued to decay at its initial rate, it would
reach a value of zero in seconds. The parameter is called the time constant
and has the units of seconds. The exponential function decays to about 2% of
its initial value within 4 time constants. The output y(t) reaches about 63% of
its final vaue when t = .
Example 3.1
Vout (s)
1
=
Vin (s)
1 + sRC
3.4.3
(K = 1, = RC)
Steadystate response
The concept of finding the steadystate response to a unit step for a system of
any order is now developed. Suppose that
Y (s) = G(s)R(s)
where G(s) is a given transfer function. From Section 2.2.3, the finalvalue
theorem of the Laplace transform is
lim y(t) = lim sY (s) = lim sG(s)R(s)
s0
s0
53
exists, i.e., y(t) has a final value. For the case that the input is a unit step, R(s)
is equal to 1/s and
lim y(t) = lim sG(s)
s0
1
= lim G(s)
s s0
(3.2)
= G(0)
G(0) is often called the dc gain of the system and is defined as the ratio of the
output of a system to a constant input after all transients has decayed. Care
must be taken to apply the Final value Theorem only to stable systems (i.e.,
y(t) is bounded) and with at most a single pole at s = 0.
Find the dc gain of the system whose transfer function is
G(s) =
3(s + 2)
(s2 + 2s + 10)
s=0
3.5
3.5.1
(3)(2)
= 0.6
(10)
dy(t)
d2 y(t)
+b
+ cy(t) = er(t)
2
dt
dt
Y (s)
e
= 2
R(s)
as + bs + c
(a/c)s2
e/c
+ (b/c)s + 1
which is written as
G(s) =
K
(1/n2 )s2 + (2/n )s + 1
Example 3.2
s2
Kn2
+ 2n s + n2
54
n2
s2 + 2n s + n2
(3.3)
where
s1 , s2 = n n
2 1
are the roots of the characteristic equation and are the poles of G(s).
3.5.2
Pole locations
>1
=1
55
1 2
are complex conjugate and have negative real parts. The real parts are zero if
= 0 and the system is called undamped.
0<1
Figure 3.7: Pole locations in the splane and the corresponding transient response
type.
56
3.5.3
Step response
n2
s(s2 + 2n s + n2 )
K1
K2 s + K3
+ 2
s
s + 2n s + n2
=1
s=0
1
s + 2n
s s2 + 2n s + n2
s (s + n )2 + n2 2 n2
1
s + 2n
=
p
2
s
(s + n )2 + n 1 2
Y (s) =
Y (s) =
s (s + n )2 + d2
d (s + n )2 + d2
(3.4)
where
d = n
p
1 2
is called the damped natural frequency. Taking the inverse Laplace transform
n t
y(t) = 1 en t cos d t p
e
sin d t
2
1
!
n t
=1e
cos d t + p
sin d t
1 2
(3.5)
Using the trigonometric identity, sin(a + b) = sin a cos b + cos a sin b, (3.5) can
be written as
1
y(t) = 1 p
en t sin(d t + )
(3.6)
1 2
57
where
1
1 2
(3.7)
p
is as shown (note that cos = and sin = 1 2 ). The step responses for a
secondorder system are shown in Figure 3.8 for several values of as a function
of n t.
1
= tan
y(t)
n t
Figure 3.8: Step response for secondorder system.
s (s + n )2 + 0
d (s + n )2 + 0
1
1
n
=
s s + n
(s + n )2
p
1 2
58
K2
K3
1
+
+
s s + n + d
s + n d
as
y(t) = 1 + K2 e(n +d )t + K3 e(n d )t
As an exercise find K2 and K3 .
The effect of the characteristic equation roots on the damping of the secondorder system is further illustrated by Figure 3.9
Figure 3.9: Step response comparison for various pole locations in the splane.
3.6
59
Mp yss
100%
yss
(3.8)
60
where Mp is the peak value of the time response, and yss is the steady state
value or the final value of the response.
The settling time, Ts , is defined as the time required for the system to settle within a certain percentage, , of the input amplitude. This band of is
shown in Figure 3.10. In other words it is the time required for the transient
to decay to a small value so that y(t) is almost in the steady state. For second
order systems we usually determine the time, Ts , for which the response remains
within 2% of the final value. From Figure 3.11 we can determine an approximate
to Ts by computing the time when the decaying exponential en t reaches 2%:
en Ts = 0.02
or
n Ts 4
Therefore, we have
4
n
The steadystate error of the system may be measured on the step response of
the system as shown in Figure 3.10. To obtain analytic expressions for Tp we
first differentiate (3.6) to obtain
p
n
en t sin 1 2 n t
y(t)
=p
1 2
Ts 4 =
n = 1, 2, 3,
n
p
n 1 2
61
p
=
2
d
n 1
(3.9)
t=Tp
n /n 1 2
p
n 1 2
sin d
+
e
=1 p
1 2
2
1
=1 p
e/ 1 sin( + )
1 2
2
p
1
e/ 1 sin()
=1+ p
(noting that sin = 1 2 )
2
1
2
= 1 + e/ 1 = Mp
1 2
Thus the product n Tp is also a function of only , and this is also plotted in
Figure 3.12. Since Tp is an approximate indication of the rise time, Figure 3.12
also roughly indicates rise time. As increases from 0 to 1, Mp , Ts , and the
percent overshoot decreases, while Tp and Tr increase.
Figure 3.12: Percent overshoot and normalized peak time versus damping ratio .
62
Comment
The transient response of the system may be described in terms of two factors:
1. The speed of response, measured by the rise time, Tr , and the peak
time, Tp .
2. The tracking properties, i.e., the closeness of the response to the desired
response, is measured by the % overshoot and the settling time, Ts .
It is important to realize that the two factors are contradictory requirements;
thus, a compromise must be obtained.
Example 3.3
4
s2 + 2s + 4
d = n 1 2 = 3 rad/s
= = 1.82s.
d
3
4
The settling time is found to be Ts =
= 4s.
n
2
The maximum % overshoot = 100e/ 1 = 16.3%
3.7
Figure 3.13 illustrates the relationships between the location of the characteristic equation roots and , n , and d . For the complex conjugate roots
shown,
63
n is the radial distance from the roots to the origin of the splane.
n is the real part of the roots.
d is the imaginary part of the roots.
is the cosine of the angle between the radial line to the roots and the
negative axis when the roots are in the lefthalp splane, or = cos .
The effect of increasing n and on pole locations in the splane is shown in
Figure 3.14.
Figure 3.14: Pole locations tin the splane as n and increases respectively.
4
4
=
n
The settling time is then inversely related to the real parts of the poles. If in
Faster response
design the settling is specified to be less than or equal to some value Ts,desired ,
64
n 4/Ts,desired , and the pole locations are then restricted to the region of
the splane indicated in Figure 3.15. Hence the speed of response is increased
by moving the poles to the left in the splane.
% Overshoot and pole locations
The angle in Figure 3.13 satisfies the relationship
p
1 2
1
= tan
= cos1
(3.10)
(3.11)
Decreasing the angle reduces the percent overshoot. Hence, specifying the
percent overshoot to be less than a particular value restricts the pole locations
to the region of the splanre, as shown in Figure 3.16
The peak time is inversely proportional to the imaginary part of the pole.
65
Lines of constant Tp , % overshoot, and Ts are shown in Figure 3.17. Note that
Ts2 < Ts1 ; Tp2 < Tp1 ; and %OS1 < %OS2 .
Example 3.4
= 3.14 =
after taking natural log of both sides
tan
tan = 1
Thus, = 45o , hence = cos 45o = 0.707. A settling time of 2s implies n 2.
Hence the pole locations are limited to the regions of the splane shown in Figure
3.18. The pole locations that exactly satisfy the limits of the specifications are
s = 2 j2.
Example 3.5
66
72 + 32 = 7.616 rad/s
= = 0.449s
d
7
4
4
The settling time Ts is Ts =
= = 1.33s
n
3
The peak time Tp is Tp =
3.7.1
In Figure 3.20 the step responses are shown as the poles are moved in vertical
direction, keeping the real part the same. We see that the frequency changes, but
the envelope remains the same. Since all curves fit under the same exponential
decay curve, the settling time is virtually the same for all waveforms.
Figure 3.20: Step response as poles move with constant real part.
In Figure 3.21 the step responses are shown as the poles are moved in horizontal
67
direction, keeping the imaginary part the same. As the poles move to the left,
the response damps out rapidly, while the frequency remains the same. Notice
that the peak time is the same for all waveforms.
Figure 3.21: Step response as poles move with constant imaginary part.
In Figure 3.22 the poles are moved along a constant radial line. We see that the
% overshoot remains the same. The farther the poles are from origin, the more
rapid the response.
Figure 3.22: Step response as poles move with constant damping ratio.
3.8
Steadystate accuracy
It has been observed, in the previous sections, that much information about
a system can be obtained from the analysis of its response to test inputs. In
control system design, one of the major objectives is to be able to track reference
inputs precisely, and to maintain this precision in the face of disturbances. In
many cases an error between the desired and resulted final value does occur. In
this section, we consider how such precision can be achieved.
3.8.1
Error signal
Consider the feedback system in Figure 3.23. Assume the feedback loop is stable. We have seen in Section 1.3 how a feedback control system can reduce
68
R(s)
1 + G(s)
s0
s0
sR(s)
1 + G(s)
s0
sR(s)
1
=
1 + G(s)
1 + G(0)
Note that in this case, the steadystate error is determined by the dc gain of
G(s). The larger is dc gain, the smaller is the steadystate error. Furthermore,
if G(s) has one or more poles at s = 0, then lims0 G(s) = . In this case,
ess = 0. A pole at s = 0 implies G(s) includes an integrator. The number of
poles at the origin of the loop gain (i.e. the number of integrators)
defines the systems type number, N.
Type zero systems (N = 0) do not include an integrator and therefore have
a finite dc gain G(0). The constant G(0) is denoted by Kp , the position error
constant, and is given by
Kp = lim G(s)
s0
69
1
1 + Kp
1
1
Ramp Input Now consider the steady state error in response to a ramp input
r(t) = t. The Laplace transform of the ramp input is R(s) = 1/s2 and
s(1/s2 )
1
1
= lim
= lim
s0 1 + G(s)
s0 s + sG(s)
s0 sG(s)
ess = lim
Again, the steadystate error depends upon the number of integrators, N . For
a type zero system, N = 0, the steadystate error is infinite. For a type one
system, N = 1, the error is
1
ess =
Kv
where Kv the velocity error constant and is computed as
Kv = lim sG(s)
s0
For N 2, Kv is infinite and the steadystate error for a ramp input is zero.
Parabolic Input for a parabolic input r(t) = t2 /2, we take R(s) = 1/s3 ,
the steadystate error is
s(1/s3 )
1
= lim 2
s0 1 + G(s)
s0 s G(s)
ess = lim
The steadysate error is infinite for type zero and type one systems. For type
two, N = 2, and we obtain
1
ess =
Ka
70
The error constants and the steadystate error for the three inputs are summarized in Table 3.1.
Table 3.1: Summary of steadystate errors.
Type
0
1
2
Example 3.6
R(s) =
ess =
1
s
R(s) =
1
1 + Kp
ess = 0
ess = 0
1
s2
R(s) =
1
s3
Error constants
Kp = lim G(s)
1
Kv
Kv = lim sG(s)
1
Ka
Ka = lim s2 G(s)
s0
s0
s0
200(s + 1)2
(s + 2)(s + 3)(s + 4)
Find the steadystate error when (a) r(t) is a unit step, (b) r(t) is a unit ramp.
Solution G(s) is a type zero system, therefore for a step input, the position error constant, Kp = G(0) = 200/24 = 8.333. Then
ess =
1
1
=
= 0.1071
1 + Kp
9.333
71
ess =
1
=
Kv
72
Chapter
Stability Analysis
Stability is the most crucial issue in designing any control system. One of the
most common control problems is the design of a closed loop system such that
its output follows its input as closely as possible. If the system is unstable such
behavior is not guaranteed. Unstable systems exhibit an unbounded output,
i.e., a response blowing up to infinity as time increases. This usually cause the
system to suffer serious damage such as burn out, break down or it may even
explode. Therefore, for such reasons our primary goal is to guarantee stability.
As soon as stability is achieved one seeks to satisfy other design requirements,
such as speed of response, settling time, steady state error, etc.
4.1
Introduction
To help make the later mathematical treatment of stability more intuitive let
us begin with a general discussion of stability concepts and equilibrium points.
Consider the ball which is free to roll on the surface shown in Figure 4.1. The
ball could be made to rest at points A, E, F , and G and anywhere between
points B and D, such as at C. Each of these points is an equilibrium point of
the system.
A small perturbation away from points A or F will cause the ball to diverge
from these points. This behavior justifies labeling points A and F as unstable
73
74
equilibrium points. After small perturbations away from E and G, the ball will
eventually return to rest at these points. Thus E and G are labeled as stable
equilibrium points. If the ball is displaced slightly from point C, it will normally
stay at the new position. Points like C are sometimes said to be neutrally stable.
So far we assumed small perturbations, if the ball was displaced sufficiently
far from point G, it would not return to that point. We say the system is stable
locally. Stability therefore depends on the size of the original perturbation and
on the nature of any disturbances.
Stability deals with the following questions. If at time t0 the system is perturbed from its equilibrium point, does the system return to that point, or
remain close to it, or diverge from it?
As we shall see in this chapter, stability of a feedback system is directly related to the location of the roots of the characteristic equation of the system
transfer function.
4.2
A continuoustime system is stable if and only if every bounded input produces a bounded output. Consider a bounded input x(t) such that x(t) < B
for all t. Suppose that this input is applied to an LTI system with impulse
response h(t). Then
Z
y(t) =
h( )x(t )d
Z 0
h( ) x(t ) d
0
Z
B
h( ) d
0
Example 4.1
For an LTI system with impulse response h(t) = e3t u(t), determine the stability of this causal LTI system.
Solution Using (4.1), hence
Z
1 3t
1
3t
e dt = e = <
3
3
0
0
and this system is stable.
4.2.1
To show the relation between the roots of the characteristic equation and stability, let G(s) be a transfer function representation of an LTI system. Then,
75
bm sm + bm1 sm1 + + b1 s + b0
an sn + an1 sn1 + + a1 s + a0
(4.2)
n
X
Ki epi t
(4.3)
i=1
where pi are the roots of (4.2). The system is stable if and only if every term
in (4.3) goes to zero as t :
e pi t 0
for all pi
This will happen if all the poles of the system are strictly in the LHP, where
Re{pi } < 0
If any poles are repeated, the response must be changed from that of (4.3)
by including a polunomial in t in place of Ki , but the conclusion is the same.
Figure 4.2: Time functions associated with pole locations in the splane.
76
Stable
Marginally stable
Unstable
The following examples illustrates the stability conditions of systems with reference to the poles of the transfer function G(s).
Table 4.2: Stability examples.
Transfer function G(s)
Stability condition
G(s) =
20
(s + 1)(s + 2)(s + 3)
Stable
G(s) =
20(s + 1)
(s 1)(s2 + 2s + 2)
G(s) =
20(s 1)
(s + 2)(s2 + 4)
G(s) =
10
(s2 + 4)2 (s + 10)
77
range of values of a parameter that ensures stability. For example in the springmassdamper system the characteristic equation is M s2 + Bs + K, one can not
determine the ranges of M, B and K to ensure stability.
An alternative to locating the roots of the characteristic equation is given by
RouthHurwitz stability criterion, which is presented next.
4.3
4.3.1
Consider the second order polynomial, assuming all coefficients are real
P (s) = s2 + a1 s + a0 = (s p1 )(s p2 )
2
= s (p1 + p2 )s + p1 p2
(4.4)
(4.5)
and a0 = p1 p2
If p1 and p2 are stable, we have a1 > 0 and a0 > 0. Consider next the third
order polynomial
P (s) = s3 + a2 s2 + a1 s + a0 = (s p1 )(s p2 )(s p3 )
= s3 (p1 + p2 + p3 )s2 + (p1 p2 + p2 p3 + p1 p3 )s p1 p2 p3
and by comparing the two equations we have
a2 = (p1 + p2 + p3 )
a1 = (p1 p2 + p2 p3 + p1 p3 )
a0 = p1 p2 p3
Again if all roots are stable, all the coefficients will have the same sign. However, this condition is not sufficient, for it is quite possible that an
equation with all its coefficients nonzero and of the same sign still
will not have all the roots in the left half of the splane. Consider for
example the polynomial s3 + s2 + 2s + 8, clearly all the coefficients have the
same sign however not all roots are in the LHP.
Consider a general nth order polynomial
P (s) = sn + an1 sn1 + + a1 s + a0
= (s p1 )(s p2 ) (s pn )
78
n
X
pi
i=1
an2 =
an3
..
.
a0 = (1)n
n
Y
pi
i=1
We conclude
If all roots are stable, all the polynomial coefficients will be positive.
If any coefficient is negative, at least one root is unstable.
If any coefficient is zero, not all roots are stable.
4.3.2
and work with P (s) instead. Note that in the case a0 = 0, P (s) will have at
least one root at the origin and we conclude that the LTI system is marginally
stable or unstable.
The Routh array
The first step in the RouthHurwitz criterion is to arrange the coefficients of the
characteristic polynomial into an array as follows
sn
n1
an
an2
an4
an6
an1
an3
an5
an7
79
an
an2
an4
an6
n1
an1
an3
an5
an7
n2
b1
b2
b3
b4
n3
..
.
c1
..
.
c2
..
.
c3
..
.
c4
..
.
..
.
s2
k1
k2
l1
m1
an
an1
s
s
s
s
where
b1 =
1
an1
an
an1
an2
an3
b2 =
1 an1 an3
c1 =
b2
b1 b1
..
.
1 k1 k2
m1 =
l1 l1 0
an1
1 an1
c2 =
b1 b1
an4
an5
an5
b3
Once the Rouths array has been completed, we investigate the signs of the
coefficients in the first column of the array. The roots of the equation are all in
the left half of the splane if all the elements of the first column of the Rouths
array are of the same sign. The number of unstable roots is equal to the number
of sign changes in the first column of the array.
Consider the third order polynomial:
Example 4.2
P (s) = s3 s2 + s + 6
This equation has one negative coefficient. Thus, we know without applying
Rouths test that not all the roots of the equation are in the LHP.
Example 4.3
6
The two sign changes (from +1 to 6 and from 6 to +8) indicates two unstable
roots.
80
11
10
s
s
Since the first element of the s3 row is zero, the elements in the s2 row would
all be infinite. To overcome this difficulty, we replace the zero in the s3 row by
a small positive number and then proceed with the array
s5
11
10
0
s
s
11
s4
10
s3
0
s2
12/
10
10
There are two sign changes (irrespective of the sign of ) indicating two unstable
roots.
Special Case: Zero rows. If all the coefficients in a row are zero, a pair
of roots of equal magnitude and opposite sign is indicated. These could be two
real roots with equal magnitudes and opposite signs or two conjugate imaginary
81
roots. The zero row is replaced by taking the coefficients of dPa (s)/ds, where
Pa (s), called the auxiliary polynomial, is obtained from the values in the row
above the zero row. Why? A zero row implies that a polynomial Pa (s) has only
even or odd powers. It turns out in this case, Pa (s) and Pa (s) + dPa (s)/ds have
exactly the same number of RHP poles (proof beyond the scope of theis course).
As the goal is just to find the number of RHP poles, we can use dPa (s)/ds as a
surrogate to continue the procedure. The pair of roots can be found by solving
dPa (s)/ds = 0. The roots of Pa (s) are also the roots of the the ploynomial P (s).
Example 4.5
The auxiliary polynomial Pa (s) indicates that P (s) = 0 must have two pairs of
roots of equal magnitude and opposite sign, which are also roots of the auxiliary
polynomial equation Pa (s) = 0. Taking the derivative of Pa (s) with respect to
s we obtain
dPa (s)
= 2s
ds
so the s row is as shown below and the Routh array is
s3
The absence of a sign change indicates no unstable roots, so all roots are on the
imaginary axis. We conclude the system is marginally stable.
The following example combines case 1 and case 2 problems: polynomial:
P (s) = s4 + 4
The Routh array is then
s4
4 Pa (s) = s4 + 4
s3
04
0 Coefficients of
s2
0
16/
dPa (s)
= 4s3
ds
In Summary, the three cases that occur in the application of the RouthHurwitx criterion are as follows:
Example 4.6
82
4.4
Consider the following feedback system involving a plant G(s) and a compensator (or controller) K(s)
K(s)
G(s)
G(s)K(s)
1 + G(s)K(s)
The closedloop poles are given by the roots of the charactersistic equation
1 + G(s)K(s) = 0
Suppose we write
G(s) =
Ng (s)
Dg (s)
and
K(s) =
Nk (s)
Dk (s)
where Ng (s), Dg (s), Nk (s), and Dk (s) are all polynomials. Then, the closed
loop transfer function is given
Ng (s)Nk (s)
Dg (s)Dk (s)
H(s) =
Ng (s)Nk (s)
1+
Dg (s)Dk (s)
=
Ng (s)Nk (s)
Ng (s)Nk (s) + Dg (s)Dk (s)
83
The poles of the closedloop system are also given by the roots of the characteristic polynomial
Ng (s)Nk (s) + Dg (s)Dk (s)
The poles of the openloop system G(s) are the roots of its characteristic polynomial
Dg (s) = 0
which are generally different from the closedloop poles.
A fundamental design objective in control is the stabilization of unstable systems. The RouthHurwitz stability criterion can be used as an aid in feedback
design.
Example 4.7
s3
1
+ 2s 8
5s2
Let K(s) = K be a constant controller. Find the range of values of K for which
the closedloop is stable.
Solution Since the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial do not have
the same sign, we conclude G(s) is unstable. The closedloop poles are the roots
of the characteristic equation
1 + KG(s) = 1 +
s3
K
=0
+ 2s 8
5s2
which implies
s3 + 5s2 + 2s + (K 8) = 0
The Routh array is
s3
K 8
0.2(18 K)
K 8
Example 4.8
G(s) =
s3
s2
1
10s 8
s3
s2
K
=0
10s 8
84
which implies
s3 s2 10s + (K 8) = 0
It follows that no choice of K can ensure all coefficients have the same sign. We
conclude that G(s) cannot be stabilized by a constant controller and dynamic
compensation is need.
Chapter
5.1
Rootlocus principles
1
s(s + 2)
86
Characteristic equation
Roots
s2 + 2s = 0
s = 0, 2
s2 + 2s + 1 = 0
s = 1 j0
s2 + 2s + 2 = 0
s = 1 j
K affects the transient response. Table 5.2 show the roots of the characteristic
equation for different values of K. To investigate some of the effects of choosing
different values of K, we plot the roots of the system characteristic equation in
the splane. These roots are plotted in Figure 5.2 for 0 K .
We can see from the plot that for 0 < K < 1, the roots are real with different
time constants. For K = 1, the roots are real and equal, and the system is
critically damped. For K > 1, the roots are complex with a time constant of
1s, with the value of decreasing as K increases. Hence, as K increases with
the roots being complex, the overshoot in the transient response increases.
The plot in Figure 5.2 is called the root locus of the system in Figure 5.1.
The rootlocus of a system is a plot of the roots of the system characteristic equation (closedloop poles) as K varies from 0 to .
For an nth order system, the rootlocus is a family of n curves traced out by the
n closedloop poles as K is varied from zero to infinity. Plotting the root locus
for negative values of K will be considered later.
5.1.1
87
Rootlocus criterion
We generally consider the system of Figure 5.3 in discussing the root locus, with
0 K < .
G(s)
(5.1)
A point s1 lies on the rootlocus if and only if s1 satisifies (5.1) for a real value
of K, with 0 K < . Equation (5.1) can be written as
1
G(s)
1
G(s) =
K
K=
KG(s) = 1
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
1
G(s)
(5.5)
We call (5.5) the magnitude criterion of the root locus and can be used to
find K corresponding to a point on the rootlocus.
Assume the point s1 = 2 lies on the rootlocus find K if
G(s) =
s+4
(s + 1)(s + 3)
 2 + 4
=2
 2 + 1 2 + 3
Hence,
1
= 0.5
G(2)
The value K = 0.5 can be interpreted as the gain needed, in the feedback control
system of Figure 5.3, that places the locus at the point s = 2.
K=
Example 5.1
88
(5.6)
and in general
G(s) = r(180 )
r = 1, 3, 5,
Equation (5.6) called the angle criterion may be interpreted as follows: For
a point s1 to be on the rootlocus, the sum of all angles for vectors between
openloop poles and zeros to point s1 must be equal 180 . The angle criterion is
illustrated in Figure 5.4 for the function
G(s) =
s z1
(s p1 )(s p2 )
In Figure 5.4 the poles of G(s) are marked and the zero is marked
. Suppose
that the point s1 is to be tested to determine if it is is on the rootlocus. For
this point to be on the locus, we must have G(s1 ) = 180 or equivalently
(s1 z1 ) (s1 p1 ) (s1 p2 ) = r(180 )
r = 1, 3, 5,
The angle from the zero term sz1 can be computed by drawing a line from the
location of the zero at z1 to the test point s1 . In this case the line has a phase
angle marked 1 on Figure 5.4. In a similar fashion, the vector from the pole
s = p1 to the test point s1 is shown with angle 2 , and the angle of the vector
from the pole s = p2 to s1 is shown with angle 3 . Thus the angle condition
(5.6) becomes
1 2 3 = r(180 )
for the point s1 to be on the rootlocus.
89
In general the condition for a point in the splane to be on the rootlocus is that
X
X
(angles form zi )
(angles from pi ) = r(180 )
r = 1, 3, 5,
i
Check whether the point s0 = 1 + 2j lies on the rootlocus for some value of
K if
s+1
G(s) =
s[(s + 2)2 + 4](s + 5)
Solution For s0 to be on the locus, we must have G(s0 ) = 180 . Therefore,
G(s0 ) = (s0 + 1) s0 [(s0 + 2)2 + 4] (s0 + 5)
= (s0 + 1) s0 (s0 + 2 2j) (s0 + 2 + 2j) (s0 + 5)
= (2j) (1 + 2j) (1) (1 + 4j) (4 + 2j)
= 90 116.6 0 76 26.6
= 129.2
Alternatively, we could have marked the poles and zeros of G(s) on the splane
as shown in Figure 5.5. The angles from the poles and zeros could be computed
by drawing a line from each pole and zero to the test point s0 as shown in Figure
5.5. The point s0 is on the root locus if
X
X
(angles form zi )
(angles from pi ) = 180
i
Example 5.2
90
5.2
The following transfer function is used for illustrating the steps for plotting
the rootlocus
1
G(s) =
s[(s + 4)2 + 16]
STEP 1. for each pole of G(s) and a for each zero. See Figure 5.6.
RULE 2. The rootlocus includes all points on the real axis to the
left of an odd number of poles and zeros.
This follows from the angle criterion, we consider first that all poles and zeros
of the openloop transfer function are on the real axis, and we test points on
the real axis to determine if these points are on the locus.
Consider an openloop transfer function G(s) of two poles and one zero as
illustrated in Figure 5.7. If we take a test point s on the real axis to the right of
the zero z1 as shown in Figure 5.7(a) we find that G(s) = 0. Hence, the angle
criterion is not satisfied, and we can see that any point to the right of the zero
z1 cannot be on the root locus.
Consider now a point s between the zero z1 and the pole p1 . In this case
91
z1 s p 1 s p 2
(a) G(s)= s {z
}  {z }  {z }
0
z1 s p1 s p2
(b) G(s)= s {z
}  {z }  {z }
180
z1 s p1 s p2
(c) G(s)= s {z
}  {z }  {z }
180
180
z1 s p1 s p2
(d) G(s)= s {z
}  {z }  {z }
180
180
180
G(s) = 180 , as shown in Figure 5.7(b). However the angles from the poles
p1 and p2 are still 0 . Thus the angle requirement is satisfied, and any point
between z1 and p1 is on the locus.
For a point s between p1 and p2 , (see Figure 5.7(c)) the angle from z1 is still
180 , as now is the angle from p1 . The angle from p2 is still 0 ; hence the angle
requirement is not satisfied and no points between p1 and p2 are on the locus.
If the point s is to the left of the pole p2 , the angles from z1 , p1 , and p2 are all
180 , and the angle criterion is satisfied as shown in Figure 5.7(d).
For the case that we have complex poles or zeros, the preceding discussion
still applies. For example, two complex conjugate poles are shown in Figure 5.8.
Since complex poles (and zeros) must occur in conjugate pairs, the sum of the
angles from a pair of poles (or zeros) to a point on the real axis will always be
0 (or 360 ). Hence complex poles and zeros do not affect the part of the root
locus that lies on the real axis.
Summary:
The angle contribution from a pole or zero to the left of s is 0 .
The angle contribution from a pole or zero to the right of s is 180 .
The angle contribution from a pair of complex conjugate poles or zeros
cancels out.
92
Figure 5.9: The real axis parts of the locus are to the left of an odd number of poles
and zeros.
n(s)
(s z1 )(s z2 ) (s zm )
=
d(s)
(s p1 )(s p2 ) (s pn )
=
where
n>m
sm + b1 sm1 + + bm
sn + aa sn1 + + an
We assume that n(s) and d(s) are monic polynomials (monic means the coefficient of the highest power of s is 1). The closedloop characteristic equation
93
can be written as
1+K
1
n(s)
n(s)
= 0 d(s) + Kn(s) = 0
+
=0
d(s)
K
d(s)
(5.7)
If K = 0, then from (5.7) implies d(s) = 0 (i.e., the poles of G(s)). Therefore,
for K = 0 the roots of the closedloop characteristic equation 1 + KG(s) = 0 are
the openloop poles. The points of the rootlocus where K = 0 are sometimes
called the starting or departure points of the rootlocus.
As k approaches infinity but s remains finite (the case s will be discussed in Rule 4), (5.7) implies n(s)/d(s) = 0 which in turn implies n(s) = 0.
Therefore, as K approaches infinity the roots of 1 + KG(s) are the openloop
zeros. The points of the rootlocus where K = are sometimes called the ending or arrival points of the rootlocus.
Note from the above discussion that we have n poles and m zeros. If m of
the n poles will terminate at m zeros, where will the n m poles terminate. As
Rule 3 states they will terminate at infinity, the question remains which infinity,
Rule 4 next clarifies the matter.
l = 0, 1, 2,
Recall from the discussion of Rule 3 for K , G(s) = 0 if n(s) is zero for
a finite s. The root locus will approach the openloop zeros. To see a second
manner in which G(s) may go to zero, we express the characteristic equation
1 + KG(s) = 0 as
1+K
sm + b1 sm1 + + bm
=0
sn + aa sn1 + + an
(5.8)
Since n > m, it is clear that G(s) goes to zero as s . In fact, for very large
values of s (5.8) can be approximated by
1+K
1
=0
(s A )nm
(5.9)
To see why (5.9) is a good approximation to (5.8), try to imagine what would
we see if we could observe the locations of poles and zeros from a distance point
near infinity: They would appear to cluster near the splane origin as shown in
Figure 5.10(a). Thus m zeros would cancel the effects of m poles, and the other
n m poles would appear to be in the same place, namely at s = A as shown
in Figure 5.10(b). If = n m we may write (5.9) as
1+K
1
=0
(s A )
94
n m Poles
(a)
A
(b)
We say that the locus of (5.8) is asymptotic to the locus of (5.9) for large values
of K and s.
To find the locus, no matter how far away the point s is on the splane it
must satisfy the angle criterion. Since all poles appear to be in the same
place the angle condition gives
A = r(180 )
= A = r
r = 1, 3, 5,
(180 )
The angles A are the angles of asymptotes of the rootlocus. Table 5.2 gives
these angles for small values of .
Table 5.2: Angles of asymptotes.
Angles
No asymptotes
180
90
60 , 180
45 , 135
36 , 108 , 180
95
Finding A
To determine A we make use of polynomial properties discussed in Section
4.3.1. Write G(s) as
G(s) =
(s z1 )(s z2 ) (s zm )
(s p1 )(s p2 ) (s pn )
m
X
!
sm1 +
zi
i=1
=
sn
n
X
!
sn1 +
pi
i=1
Dividing both the numerator and the denominator by the numerator gives
G(s) =
snm
n
X
1
!
m
X
pi
zi snm1 +
i=1
(5.10)
i=1
(5.11)
nm
X
pi = (n m)A
i=1
(5.12)
n
X
pi
i=1
m
X
zi
i=1
Hence,
X
pi
zi
A =
nm
P
P
Notice that in the sum
pi and
zi the imaginary parts always add to zero
since complex poles and zeros always occur in complex conjugate pairs.
In summary the loci proceed to the zeros at infinity along asymptotes centered
at A and with angles A . when the number of m finite zeros is less than the n
number of poles, then n m sections of loci must end at zeros at infinity. these
sections of loci proceed to the zeros at infinity along asymptotes as k approaches
infinity. These linear asymptotes are centered at the point A on the real axis.
96
4 4 + 0
8
= = 2.67
30
3
zi
pi r(180 )
r = 1, 3, 5,
i6=j
X
i
pi
zi r(180 )
r = 1, 3, 5,
i6=j
The most important use of this rule is to compute the angle of departure from a
complex pole. This angle of departure can sometimes be an aid in determining
the final shape of the root locus. To illustrate this rule consider the poles and
the zero shown in Figure 5.12. The vector angles at one complex pole p1 is also
shown in Figure 5.12. The radius of the circle around the pole p1 is actually very
small in relation to the distance to the zero and the other pole. The angles at a
test point s0 , an infinitesimal distance from p1 , must meet the angle criterion.
Therefore,
1 2 = 180
97
s0
p1
point close enough to pole 2 that the angles 1 and 3 to the test point can be
98
STEP 5. Estimate (or compute) the points where the locus crosses
the imaginary axis.
The points where the rootlocus intersect the imaginary axis of the splane, and
the corresponding values of K, may be determined by means of the RouthHurwitz criterion. For the thirdorder example we are using, the characteristic
equation is
1+
K
=0
s[(s + 4)2 + 16]
which is equivalent to
s3 + 8s2 + 32s + K = 0
The Routh array for this polynomial is
32
s1
256 K
8
99
In this case we see that the s1 row coefficients are all zeros when K = 256
indicating a root on the imaginary axis. Thus K = 256 must correspond to
a solution at s = j0 for some 0 . Substituting this data into the auxiliary
equation gives us
802 + 256 = 0
d
d
[d(s)] d(s) [n(s)] = 0
ds
ds
where n(s) and d(s) are the numerator and denominator polynomials, respectively, of G(s). The breakaway points are points at which two (or more) branches
of the root locus leave the real axis. The example in Figure 5.2 provides an illustration of a breakaway point. In this case, there is a breakaway point at s = 1.
Figure 5.16 shows both the rootlocus and a plot of K as a function of real
values of s between 0 and 2. The maximum occurs at s = 1 for K = 1. At
the point where K = 1 the characteristic equation has a double root at s = 1.
This is the maximum gain for which the poles are real; higher gains result in
100
Breakaway at s = 1
Maximum gain
at s = 1
complex roots. Notice in Figure 5.16 that the gain K, as a function of the real
roots s, must have a local maximum at the breakaway points, so that, with
K=
1
G(s)
(5.13)
If we express G(s) as a ratio of two polynomials n(s) and d(s) the above equation
can be written as
dK
d
1
d
d(s)
=
=0
ds
ds
G(s)
ds
n(s)
The differentiation with respect to s, yields
d
d(s)
1 d
1 d
= d(s)(1) 2
[n(s)] +
[d(s)]
ds
n(s)
n (s) ds
n(s) ds
Equating the right hand side of the equation above to zero implies
n(s)
d
d
[d(s)] d(s) [n(s)] = 0
ds
ds
It is important to point out that the condition for a breakaway point given in
(5.13) is necessary but not sufficient. In other words, all breakaway points on
101
the rootlocus must satisfy (5.13), but not all solutions of (5.13) are breakaway
points.
1
s[(s + 4)2 + 16]
and we have
n(s) = 1
d n(s)
=0
ds
d d(s)
= 3s2 + 16s + 32
ds
102
5.3
Examples
s+1
s2 (s + 9)
Solution
STEPS 1 and 2. Mark the poles and zeros on the spalne and draw the real axis
portion of the locus:
(180 )
2
= 90
9 0 (1)
31
= 4
STEP 4. We compute the departure angles from the poles. We draw a small
circle around the two poles at s = 0. The angles from the zero at 1 and from
the pole at 10 are both zero, and the angles from the two poles at the origin
are the same. Therefore, the root locus condition is
2d = r180 = 90
5.3. EXAMPLES
103
STEP 5. We compute the points where the locus crosses the imaginary axis:
1+K
s+1
=0
s2 (s + 9)
s3 + 9s2 + Ks + K = 0
The Routh array for this polynomial is
s3
s1
9K K
9
The entries in the first column are all positive if K > 0, so the equation has no
roots in the RHP for positive values of K.
STEP 6. We locate the points of multiple roots, which will include breakaway
and breakin points:
n(s) = s + 1
d n(s)
=1
ds
d(s) = s3 + 9s2
d d(s)
= 3s2 + 18s
ds
104
(s + 1)
.
s2 (s + 9)
1
s(s + 2)[(s + 1)2 + 4]
Solution
STEPS 1 and 2. Mark the poles and zeros on the spalne and draw the real axis
portion of the locus:
(180 )
40
= 45 , 135
A =
2 1 1 0 + 0
40
= 1
5.3. EXAMPLES
105
10
s2
6.5
65 4K
6.5
s1
1
In this case we see that the s1 row coefficients are all zeros when K = 16.25
indicating a root on the imaginary axis. Thus K = 16.25 must correspond to
a solution at s = j0 for some 0 . Substituting this data into the auxiliary
equation gives us
6.502 + 16.25 = 0
106
d n(s)
=0
ds
d d(s)
= 4s3 + 12s2 + 18s + 10
ds
1
.
s(s + 2)[(s + 1)2 + 4]
5.3. EXAMPLES
107
108
5.4
2l
l = 0, 1, 2,
i6=j
i6=j
Example 5.5
Consider
G(s) =
s
(s 0.5 2j)(s 0.5 + 2j)
Solution The root locus and the complementary root locus are shown in Figure 5.21. In the complementary rootlocus, the locus on the real axis occurs to
the left of an even count of poles and zeros. Since zero is considered even, root
locus on the real axis will occur only to the right of the zero at the origin. The
breakin points are s = 2.06. Thus the breakin point for the complementary
root locus is at s = 2.06. After the breakin, one closedloop pole migrates to
the zero at the origin and the other to the right toward infinity.
Consider
G(s) =
109
s
, < K < .
(s 0.5 2j)(s 0.5 + 2j)
s+1
s(s + 4)(s + 10)
Solution The complementary root locus on the real axis occurs to the right
of the pole at the origin, between the zero at s = 1 and the pole at s = 4,
and to the left of the pole at s = 10. The number of zeros at infinity, = 2, so
there are two asymptotes at 0 and 180 . The root locus and the complementary
root locus are shown in Figure 5.22.
s+1
, < K < .
s(s + 4)(s + 10)
Example 5.6
110
5.5
The rootlocus is a plot of all possible locations for roots to the equation
1 + KG(s) = 0 for some real positive value of K. The purpose of design is to
select a particular value of K that will meet the design specifications. Consider
for example the locus of
G(s) =
1
s[(s + 4)2 + 16]
For this transfer function, the locus was plotted in Figure 5.17 and is repeated
here in Figure 5.23. On Figure 5.23 the lines corresponding to a damping ratio
of = 0.5 are sketched, and the points where the locus crosses these lines are
marked with (). Suppose we wish to set the gain so that the poles are located
at the dots. This corresponds to selecting the gain so that two of the closedloop
poles have a damping ratio of = 0.5. What is the value of K when a root is
1
showing calculations of gain K.
s[(s + 4)2 + 16]
111
1
G(s0 )
where s0 is the coordinate of the dot. On the figure we have plotted three vectors
marked s0 s1 , s0 s1 , and s0 s3 , which are the vectors from the poles of
G(s) to the point s0 . (Since s1 = 0, the first vector equals s0 .) Therefore,
K=
1
= s0 s0 s2 s0 s3 
G(s0 )
By measuring the lengths of these vectors and multiplying the lengths together,
provided that the scale of the imaginary and real axes is identical, we can
compute the gain to place the roots at the dot (s = s0 ). Using the scale of the
figure we estimate that
s0  4
s0 s2  2.1
s0 s3  7.7
Thus the gain is estimated to be
K = 4(2.1)(7.7) 65
We conclude that if K is set to the value 65, then a root of 1 + KG(s) will be
at s0 , which has a damping ratio of 0.5. Another root is at the conjugate of s0 .
Where is the third root? The third root lies on the branch of the locus along the
negative real axis. Usually we take a test point, compute a trial gain, and repeat
this process until we found the point where K = 65. However, in this case we
can make use of polynomial properties that the openloop and closedloop sum
is the same if m < n 1. If G(s) has at least two more poles than zeros, we
have
X
X
openloop poles =
closedloop poles
(5.14)
From Figure 5.23 we estimate that s0 = 2 + 3.5j. Since the starting point
was at s = 4 + 4j, the root has moved approximately two units to the right.
The conjugate has moved an equal distance. The third root must be moved far
enough to the left to keep the sum in (5.14) fixed, so the third root must have
moved 2 + 2 units to the left of where it began at s = 0. We have marked the
new location at 4 with the third dot. Considering this point as a test point
one can check if the gain at this point is K = 65.
If the closedloop dynamic response as determined by the root locations is satisfactory, then the design can be completed by gain selection alone. However if no
value of K satisfies all the constraints, as is typically the case, then additional
modifications are necessary to meet the system specifications.
5.6
Dynamic compensation
If the plant dynamics are of such a nature that a satisfactory design cannot
be obtained by a gain adjustment alone, then some modification or compensation of the plant dynamics are needed. A variety of compensation techniques are
112
available, only two such techniques that have been found simple and effective
will be discussed here. These are lead and lag compensation. Lead compensation acts mainly to speed up a response by lowering rise time and decreasing
the transient overshoot. Lag compensation is usually used to improve steadystate accuracy of the system.
Compensation with a transfer function of the form
D(s) = K
s+z
s+p
is called lead compensation if z < p and lag compensation if z > p. Compensation is typically placed in series with the plant in the feedforward path, as
shown in Figure 5.24.
5.6.1
Lead compensation
To see the basic effect of lead compensation on a system, we first consider a simplified proportional control for which D(s) = K. If we apply this compensation
to a second order system with transfer function
G(s) =
1
s(s + 1)
The root locus with respect to K is shown as the solidline portion of the locus
in Figure 5.25. Also shown in Figure 5.25 is the locus produced by proportional
plus derivative control, where D(s) = K(s + 2). The modified locus is the circle
sketched with dashed lines. Notice that the effect of the zero is to move the
locus to the left, toward the more stable part of the splane.
The trouble with choosing D(s) based on only a zero is that the physical realization would contain a differentiator that would greatly amplify the high
frequency noise present from the sensor signal. To remedy this we simply add
a high frequency pole, perhaps at s = 20 to give
D(s) = K
s+2
s + 20
113
1
without compensation (solid line), and
s(s + 1)
with compensation D(s) = s + 2 (dashed lines).
The resulting transfer function is thus lead compensation. The root locus with
such compensator is shown in Figure 5.26.
1
s+2
with lead compensation D(s) =
.
s(s + 1)
s + 20
To see the effect of the pole on the compensation consider moving the pole further to the right at s = 10, i.e, nearer to the zero. The root locus is shown
in Figure 5.27. Notice the effect of moving the pole nearer to the zero, we are
reducing the effect of the zero we placed earlier. In fact, we are moving back
114
s+2
1
with lead compensation D(s) =
.
s(s + 1)
s + 10
to the uncompensated shape. If we move the pole too far to the left, the magnification of noise at the output of D(s) is too great, since the differentiator
will dominate the compensator. Therefore, the choice of pole location is a compromise between the conflicting effects of noise suppression and compensation
effectivness.
Example 5.7
s+z
s+p
Selecting values of z and p is done by trial and error. In general the compensator zero is placed in the neighborhood of the real part of closedloop pole and
the compensator pole is placed at a distance 3 to 20 times the value of the zero
location.
The compensator pole position can now be determined by the angle criterion as
shown in Figure 5.28
(1 + 2 + ) = 180
90 (135 + 116 ) 180 =
115
s0 = 2 + j2
2
p 2
which implies p = 7.8. Finally, the value of the gain K can be determined
using the magnitude criterion
K=
1
G(s0 )
s+2
s + 7.8
Although the design is complete and two of the closedloop poles are already
known, namely, the poles at s = 2 j2. However the lead compensator introduces a third closedloop pole. In this case the easiest way to locate this third
pole is to make use of (5.14) since m < n 1. Thus, the third closedloop pole
is at s = 4.8.
Design a lead compensator for the system given by the transfer function
G(s) =
1
s(s + 1)
that will provide a closedloop damping ratio = 0.5 and natural frequency
n > 7 rad/sec.
Example 5.8
116
3.5
2
x
5.6.2
Lag compensation
117
at s = 0 to raise an error constant and that is nearly unity (no effect) at the
higher frequencies.
We now illustrate lag design with an example.
Consider a system whose open loop transfer function is given by
G(s) =
K
s(s + 2)
Design a lag compensator so that the dominant poles of the closed loop system
are located at s = 1 j and the steady state error to a unit ramp input is less
than 0.2.
Solution For the specification that the steady state error of the system
must not exceed 0.2, we have
Kv = lim sKD(s)G(s)
s0
= lim sK
s0
1
(s + z)
(s + p) s(s + 2)
Kz
2p
2p
We require the steady state error to be less than 0.2, i.e.,
< 0.2. Let us
Kz
choose p = 0.01, therefore we have Kz = 0.1. We know that the closed loop
poles s = 1 j lie on the root locus, hence
s(s + 2)(s + 0.01)
K=
(s + z)
s=1+j
Solving for K and z, we get K = 1.88 and z = 0.0532. Therefore, the lag
compensator is given by
D(s) = 1.88
(s + 0.532)
(s + 0.01)
Example 5.9
118
Chapter
6.1
Frequency response
In Chapter 3, the time responses of first and second order systems were
considered. In this section we give meaning to steadystate response of systems
to sinusoidal inputs, which is called the frequency response. Suppose that the
input to a system with transfer function G(s) is the sinusoid
r(t) = A cos t
Then
R(s) =
As
s2 + 2
and
Y (s) = G(s)R(s) = G(s)
As
(s j)(s + j)
k1
k2
+
+ F (s)
s j s + j
119
(6.1)
120
where F (s) is the collection of all terms in the partial fraction that originate
in the denominator of G(s). It is assumed the system poles are real, distinct
and are in the LHP implying that the terms in F (s) will decay to zero with
increasing time. Therefore, only the first two terms in (6.1) contribute to the
steadystate response. Using the coverup method to find k1 and k2 we have
1
k1 = (s j)Y (s)s=j = AG(j)
2
1
k2 = (s + j)Y (s)s=j = AG(j)
2
and k2 is seen to be the complex conjugate of k1 . For any given value of ,
k1 and k2 are complex numbers and will find it convenient to express them in
polar form as
A
k1 = G(j)ej
2
where G(j) is the magnitude and = G(j). Then y(t) = L1 {Y (s)} and
its sinusoidal steadystate value (i.e. lim y(t)) is
t
5
s+2
5
= 1.387 56.3
2 + j3
We see then that, from the complex function G(j), we can obtain the steadystate response for any sinusoidal input, provided that the system is stable. We
call G(j), 0 , the frequency response function. We usually plot G(j)
versus in some form to characterize the frequency response. We illustrate two
forms by a simple example. Suppose we have a system with transfer function
G(s) =
1
s+1
121
1
1
=
tan1 ()
1 + j
1 + 2
(6.2)
G(j)
1.000 0
0.5
0.894 26.6
1.0
0.707 45
1.5
0.555 56.3
2.0
0.447 63.4
3.0
0.316 71.6
5.0
0.196 78.7
10
0.100 84.3
0.000 90
these values are plotted in the complex plane, as shown in Figure 6.1.
122
Note that mathematically, the frequency response is a mapping from the splane
to the G(j)plane. The upper half of the jaxis which is a straight line, is
mapped into the complex plane via the mapping G(j). A second form for
displaying the frequency response is to plot the magnitude and phase of G(j)
versus . These plots for the example above are shown in Figure 6.2.
6.2
Bode diagrams
123
symbol for frequency will become evident later. Also, we call the value i a
break frequency, for a reason to be explained later.
First we form the magnitude of G(j)
G(j) =
K1 + j/3 
1 + j/1 1 + j/2 
(6.4)
1
a
1 The unit was first defined as bel, however, this unit proved to be too large, and hence a
decibel (1/10 of a bel) was selected as a more useful unit.
124
20
log
(6.5)
1
2
The effect of plotting in decibels is then to cause the individual factors in the
numerator to add to the total magnitude and the individual factors in the denominator to subtract from the total magnitude.
Consider now the general frequency dependent term in (6.5)
v"
u
2 #
u
j
= 20 log t 1 +
20 log 1 +
i
i
(6.6)
This term is plotted versus log in Figure 6.4. Note that the value
of the term at
the frequency i (called the break frequency) is equal to 20 log 2 = 3.0103. We
usually approximate this value as 3dB and say that, for a general firstoder numerator term, the value of the magnitude is equal to 3dB at the break frequency.
For a firstorder denominator term, the value is equal to 3dB
at its break frequency. Note that the firstorder term has a value of 20 log 101 = 20.04, or
approximately 20dB, at the frequency 10i .
Accurate Bode diagrams are usually done using digital computers. However,
there are situations in which approximate sketches of a Bode diagram are adequate. We now develop the approximations for the firstorder terms. Consider
the first order term of (6.6)
v"
u
2 #
u
20 log t 1 +
i
For frequencies very small compared to the break frequency i , we have
20 log(1) = 0
i
125
= 20 log 20 log i
20 log
i
i
For low frequencies the term is approximated by a straight line (the axis). For
high frequencies and if = 10i the difference between the logarithmic gains is
20dB. This represents a line that has a slope of 20dB per decade of frequency.
Equating the above highfrequency and lowfrequency expressions shows that
the two straight lines intersect at = i . The two terms are plotted in Figure
6.5(a). Comparing this figure with the exact curve of Figure 6.4, we see that the
exact curve approaches the straight lines asymptotically, as is shown in Figure
6.5(b). As an approximation in sketching, we quite often extend the straight
lines to the intersection at = i and use this straight line approximation instead of the exact curve. The frequency i is called the break frequency because
of the break in the slope at that frequency, as shown in Figure 6.5(b).
In constructing frequency responses, we consider the following types of transfer
function factors:
1. Constant gain
2. Poles and zeros at the origin
3. Real poles and zeros not at the origin
4. Complex poles and zeros
We now consider each of these factors in order. First we develop the magnitude
plots, and then we develop the phase plots.
6.2.1
Constant gain
126
6.2.2
For the case that the transfer function has a zero at the origin, the magnitude
of this term is given by
20 log j = 20 log
Hence a plot of this term is a straight line, with a slope of 20dB per decade of
frequency, that intersects the axis at = 1. The plot of this term is shown
in Figure 6.7(a).
For the case that the transfer function has a pole at the origin, the magnitude
of the term is given by
1
20 log = 20 log
j
and the curve is the negative of that for a zero at the origin. Thus the curve is
a straight line with a slope of 20dB/decade that intersects the log axis at
= 1. This curve is shown in Figure 6.7(b). For the case of N thorder zeros at
the origin, the magnitude is
20 log (j)N  = 20 log N = 20N log
Thus the curve is still a straight line that intersects the axis at = 1, but
the slope is now 20N dB per decade. For example if we have two zeros at the
origin the slope is 40dB/decade and 40dB/decade if two poles are at s = 0.
6.2.3
127
The case of real poles and zeros was considered previously. For a term of this
type
v"
u
2 #
u
j
= 20 log t 1 +
20 log 1 +
i
i
(
0
i
2 #N/2
(
0
20N log /i
i
i
(6.7)
128
The straight line approximation for this term is shown in Figure 6.9 for the case
of a numerator term. It is seen that for > i , the line has a slope of 20N .
For a given denominator term, the slope is 20N .
Example 6.2
Plot the Bode diagram for the system with the transfer function
G(s) =
10(s + 1)
(s + 10)
(1 + s)
(1 + s/10)
The break frequency of the numerator is = 1, and the freak frequency of the
denominator is = 10. The numerator term, the denominator term, and the
total magnitude (which, from (6.5), is the sum of the two terms) are shown in
Figure 6.10.
Example 6.3
200(s + 1)
(s + 10)2
2(1 + s)
(1 + s/10)2
129
The bode diagram has three terms. The first term is the constant gain, which
adds a term of value 20 log 2 = 6dB at all frequencies. The second term is the
zero term with break frequency at = 1, and the third term is the secondorder
pole at = 10. The three terms are plotted in Figure 6.11.
Example 6.4
6.2.4
Phase diagrams
Before we consider the final type of terms that can appear in a Bode diagram,
we construct the phase diagrams for the three types of terms already considered.
First, for the constant gain term, the phase angle is either 0 or 180 . If the
gain term is positive, the phase angle is 0 ; if the gain term is negative, the
phase angle can be plotted as either 180 or 180 . For a zero of the transfer
function at the origin, the phase angle is 90 , since
ss=j = j = 90
In a like manner, a pole at the origin gives a phase angle of 90 , since
1
1
1
=
=
90
s s=j
j
130
For a real zero of the transfer function, with the zero not at the origin, the term
is given by
s
2
s
j
1+
=
1
+
=
1
+
()
i s=j
i
i
where
() = tan
Figure 6.13 shows the phase plotted for various values of the ratio /i . The
exact curve is approximatted with the straight line shown in Figure 6.13. The
straight line approximation for the phase characteristic breaks from 0 at the
frequency 0.1i and breaks back to the constant value of 90 at 10i . Note that
the phase characteristic for a pole is the negative of that for a zero, since, for a
pole,
1
1
1
=
=p
()
1 + s/i s=j
1 + j/i
1 + (/i )2
where
() = tan
(1 + s)
(1 + s/10)
Example 6.5
131
5(1 + s/3)
s(1 + s/12)(1 + s/50)
The phase characteristics of the various terms, along with the total phase characteristic of the system, are given in Figure 6.15.
Example 6.6
132
Example 6.7
As a final example, the complete Bode diagram will be constructed for the
transfer function
(1 s)
G(s) =
(1 + s/10)
For the zero at s = 1,
1 j =
p
(1 + 2 ) ()
() = tan1 ()
lim G(j) =
6.2.5
j
= 10 = 10 180
j/10
In this section we consider an additional term that can be encountered in constructing a Bode diagram. We consider poles or zeros of the form
s2 + 2n s + n2
0<1
(6.8)
133
by straight lines.
Consider first the case that = 1. For this case, (6.9) has two real equal
zeros
2
2
s
s
s
= 1+
1 + 2
+
(6.10)
n
n
n
=1
Since the zeros are real, this case is covered by the methods given in the preceding sections. The straightline approximations for this case are given in Figure
6.17, along with the exact curves. For cases in which 0 < < 1, the asymptotic
approximations to the frequency response curves are not accurate and the errors
can be large for low values of . This is because the magnitude and phase of
(6.9) depend on both the break frequency and the damping ratio . Noting that
the exact magnitude of (6.9) in dB is
s
2
2
2
j
j
2
= 20 log
+
2
20 log 1 + 2
+
1
n
n
n2
n
134
20 log 2 = 40 log
n
n
the equation for the high frequency asymptote is a straight line having the slope
40 dB/decade. The highfrequency asymptote intersects the lowfrequency one
at = n . The two asymptotes just derived are independent of the value of .
The phase for second order zeros is
(
2
0
n
n
1
tan
2
180 n
1 2
n
135
Figure 6.18 illustrates some exact curves for several values of between zero and
unity for complex zeros. Once again, the curves for complex poles are obtained
by inverting these curves.
For the case that < 0.3, the straight line approximations are very inaccurate
and are seldom used. Instead exact curves such as in Figure 6.18 are used. An
example is now given to illustrate complex terms ina Bode diagram.
Consider the transfer function
200(s + 1)
2(s + 1)
G(s) = 2
=
2
s + 4s + 100
(s/10) + 2(0.2)(s/10) + 1
Example 6.8
For the complex poles, = 0.2 and n = 10. We do not expect the straightline
approximation to be very accurate. Both the straight line approximation and
136
the exact Bode diagram are given in Figure 6.19. The maximum error in the
magnitude diagram for the straight line approximation is seen to be approximately 8 dB. Note also the very large errors in the straight line approximation
for the phase.
6.3
Nyquist plots
137
the entire frequency range in a single plot. Table 6.2 shows examples of Nyquist
plots of simple transfer functions.
6.3.1
Nyquist criterion
G(s)
1 + G(s)
138
H(s) =
139
n(s)
=0
d(s)
d(s) + n(s)
=0
d(s)
That is
1 The poles of F (s) are the open loop poles (i.e., poles of G(s)).
2 The zeros of F (s) are the closed loop poles (i.e., poles of H(s)).
Therefore, to determine closed loop stability, we need to know the number of
righthalf plane zeros of F (s).
In order to introduce the Nyquist criterion, we consider some mappings from
the complex splane to the F (s)plane. For example consider the function
F (s) =
s 0.5
s(s 1)(s + 4)
(a)
(b)
Figure 6.22: (a) Curve in the splane and (b) resulting curve in the F plane.
140
F (2 )
0.125 0
20
0.13 20
40
0.16 48
60
0.17 81
80
0.18 180
100
0.2 138
120
0.19 162
140
0.19 175
160
0.2 179.7
180
0.21 180
Based on the above observations, one can ask is there a relationship between
the number of poles and zeros encircled by in the splane and the number
and direction of encirclements of the origin in the F plane. In the above mapping, the counterclockwise encirclement of two poles and one zero resulted in
one clockwise encirclement of the origin.
The relationship between the contours in the two complex planes is given by
Cauchys theorem (known as Cauchys principle of argument) twhich states
(given here without proof) for a given contour in the splane that encircles
P poles and Z zeros of the function F (s) in a clockwise direction, the resulting
contour in the Fplane encircles the origin a total of N times in a clockwise
direction, where N = Z P . This theorem explains the mapping in Figure
6.22, since Z = 1 and P = 2, hence, N = 1. Therefore, the contour encircles
the origin once and the negative sign implies opposite direction to the contour .
We now develop the Nyquist criterion. Suppose that we let the mapping of
F (s) be the characteristic polynomial of the closedloop system of Figure 6.21;
that is;
F (s) = 1 + G(s)
Furthermore, let the curve be as shown in Figure 6.23(a). This curve, which
is composed of the imaginary axis and an arc of in finite radius, completely
encircles the right half of the splane. Then, in Cauchys principle of argument,
Z is the number of zeros of the system characteristic polynomial in the right
half of the splane. Also recall that Z is the number of poles of the closedloop
141
system in the RHP. Therefore, Z must be zero for the system to be stable. P
is the number of poles of the characteristic polynomial in the right half of the
splane and thus is the number of poles of the open loop function G(s) in the
right half plane, since the poles of 1 + G(s) are also those of G(s).
The curve in Figure 6.23(a) is called the Nyquist path, and a typical mapping
is shown in Figure 6.23(b). The mapping encircles the origin two times in the
clockwise direction, and from Cauchys principle
N =2=Z P
or
Z =2+P
Since P is the number of poles of a function inside the Nyquist path, it cannot
be a negative number. This in this example, Z is greater than or equal to 2,
and the closed loop system is unstable.
142
5
(s + 1)3
5
(1 + j)3
An evaluation of this function is given in Table 6.4 for certain values of , and a
plot of theses values is shown in Figure 6.24 The dc gain, G(0), is equal to 5 and
is shown as part I. The solid curve, part II, is obtained directly by plotting the
values of Table 6.4. However, note as is increased the magnitude of each factor
in the denominator has an increasing magnitude. Therefore G(j) decreases
from 5 to 0.
G(j)
5.00 0
0.5
3.58 79.8
1.0
1.77 135
1.5
0.85 169
2.0
0.45 190.3
5.0
0.038 236.1
20
0.0006 261.3
143