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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

utter1 /t $ -r/

adjective [only before noun]

Word origin
complete used especially to emphasize that something is very bad, or that a feeling
is very strong:
Thats utter nonsense!
This company treats its employees with utter contempt.
I watched in complete and utter horror as he pulled out a gun.
fifteen years of utter confusion

PEARSON EDUCATION LIMITED 2009

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

managerial /mndril, mndril $ -dr-/


Word family
relating to the job of a manager:
managerial skills

PEARSON EDUCATION LIMITED 2009

adjective

Oxford Collocations Dictionary for Students of English, 2nd edition

ignorance noun
ADJECTIVE

complete, total, utter


profound, sheer
This showed a profound ~ of local customs.
appalling, gross
our appalling ~ of international events
general, widespread
blissful
wilful/willful
a policy based on wilful ~ of history
VERB

+ IGNORANCE

betray, demonstrate, display, expose, reveal, show


I tried not to betray my ~.
He showed a remarkable ~ of the facts.
feign
Where? he asked, feigning ~.
admit, confess, plead, profess
I had to confess my ~.
He pleaded ~ of any wrongdoing.
live in, remain in
The sisters lived in total ~ of each other.
keep sb in
He was kept in ~ of his true identity.
be based on
These attitudes are based on ~ and fear.
PREPOSITION

due to ~
mistakes due to ~
in ~ (of)
She remained in blissful ~ of these events.
in your ~
Outsiders, in their ~, fail to understand this.
through ~
Many lives are lost through ~.
~ about
There is still widespread ~ about this disease.
~ as to, ~ of
widespread ~ of the causes of the Civil War

Oxford University Press, 2009

Oxford Collocations Dictionary for Students of English, 2nd edition

initiative noun
1 new plan
ADJECTIVE

fresh, new
fresh ~s to find a peaceful end to the conflict
innovative, pioneering
pioneering ~s in bioengineering
current, latest, recent
proposed
ongoing
important, major
welcome
successful
practical
bold, exciting
private
collaborative, cooperative, joint
grass-roots
global, international, local, national, regional, statewide (AmE)
federal (AmE), government, presidential (AmE)
strategic
business, e-business, e-commerce, marketing
diplomatic, economic, legislative, peace, policy, political
safety, training
development, research
education, educational, health
conservation, environmental
faith-based (esp. AmE)
community-based (esp. AmE)
outreach
reform
ballot (AmE)
OF INITIATIVES

range, series
VERB

+ INITIATIVE

undertake
The research ~ is being undertaken by a group of environmentalists.
plan
develop
announce, unveil
create, implement, introduce, launch, set up, start
The government has launched a new policy ~.
be involved in
Ten schools have been involved in the ~.
become involved in, get involved in
pursue
expand
lead, spearhead

Oxford University Press, 2009

Oxford Collocations Dictionary for Students of English, 2nd edition

approve, pass
oppose
defeat, reject
The peace ~ was rejected out of hand.
fund, sponsor
a peace ~ sponsored by the Organization of African Unity
back, endorse, support
The committee endorsed an ~ by the chairman to enter discussion about a possible merger.
promote, push
welcome
We welcome the government's ~ to help the homeless.
encourage
INITIATIVE + VERB

be aimed at sth, be designed to


a local ~ aimed at economic regeneration
an ~ designed to promote collaborative research
seek to do sth
focus on sth
include sth, involve sth, relate to sth
fail, founder
The ~ foundered because there was no market interest in redevelopment.
PREPOSITION

~ against
a new ~ against car theft
~ by
the latest ~ by the UN Secretary General
~ for
an ~ for peace and human rights
~ on
the government's major new ~ on crime

2 ability to decide/act independently


ADJECTIVE

great, real
individual, personal, private
It is a very hierarchical company and there's little place for individual ~.
VERB

+ INITIATIVE

have
He had the ~ to ask what time the last train left.
display, show
act on your own, use, work on your own
He acted on his own ~ and wasn't following orders.
Don't ask me what you should do all the time. Use your ~!
encourage, promote
stifle
Raising taxes on small businesses will stifle ~.
PREPOSITION

on sb's ~
The project was set up on the ~ of a local landowner.
~ in
Some scientists show little ~ in applying their knowledge.

Oxford University Press, 2009

Oxford Collocations Dictionary for Students of English, 2nd edition

PHRASES

a lack of ~, on your own ~


In an unprecedented action, the army, on its own ~, arrested seven civilians.

3 the initiative opportunity to gain an advantage


VERB

+ THE INITIATIVE

have, hold
After their latest setback, the rebel forces no longer hold the ~.
gain, seize, take
maintain, retain
regain
She then regained the ~ in winning the third game.
lose
THE INITIATIVE

+ VERB

come from sb/sth, lie with sb


The ~ to reopen negotiations came from Moscow.
PREPOSITION

~ in
She took the ~ in asking the board to conduct an enquiry.

Oxford University Press, 2009

Oxford Collocations Dictionary for Students of English, 2nd edition

autonomy noun
ADJECTIVE

considerable, substantial
greater, increased, increasing, more
absolute, complete, full
relative
limited
The Act granted limited ~ to the republics.
individual, personal
local, national, regional
administrative, cultural, economic, financial, managerial, political, professional, etc.
patient, teacher, worker, etc.
OF AUTONOMY

degree, level, measure


a high degree of ~
VERB

+ AUTONOMY

enjoy, have
The subsidiary companies will now have more ~.
assert, exercise
an individual's right to exercise ~
maintain, preserve, retain
The cantons and communes of Switzerland have preserved their ~.
gain
seek, struggle for, want
give sb, grant (sb)
Head office is giving the regional offices more ~.
reduce
PREPOSITION

~ from
Schools have gained greater ~ from government control.
PHRASES

a demand for ~
demands for cultural ~

Oxford University Press, 2009

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

blissful /blsfl/

adjective

1 extremely happy or enjoyable:


blissful sunny days
2 blissful ignorance a situation in which you do not yet know about something
unpleasant
blissfully adverb:
Jean seems blissfully happy.
blissfully unaware of the impending danger

THESAURUS
VERY HAPPY

delighted [not before noun] very happy because something good has happened:
The doctors say they are delighted with her progress.
thrilled [not before noun] very happy and excited about something: Hes thrilled at
the idea of going to Disneyworld.
overjoyed [not before noun] very happy because you have heard some good
news: She was overjoyed when she found out that her son was safe.
be on top of the world (also be over the moon British English) [not before noun]
informal to be very happy: I was over the moon when I won the championship.
ecstatic extremely happy: The crowd were ecstatic, and cheered wildly. | ecstatic
fans
blissful a blissful time is one in which you feel extremely happy: We stayed on the
islands for two blissful weeks. | It sounded blissful sea, sun, and good food.

PEARSON EDUCATION LIMITED 2009