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Writing an MS/ M.

Phil Research Proposal

Superior University Lahore

The objective of this document is to provide the brief guidelines for the MS/ M. Phil
candidates of Superior University to write a good research proposal. This document will
show that

1) You have the competence and work plan to complete the research.
2) You have a research idea which will lead to the creation of new knowledge and
3) It includes sufficient information for us to evaluate the proposed study

Structure of the Proposal

A research proposal submitted to Superior University for acceptance should be written in a
clear, concise, cohesive and meaningful way. The proposal should not exceed 2000 words
and should follow the following structure:

Working Title (Maximum 20 words)

Abstract (150 words Approx.)

Introduction (500 words Approx.)

Review of literature (1000 words Approx.)

Research Methodology (300 words Approx.)

Research Project Timeline

Conclusion (100 words Approx.)

References (APA 6th Manual)

Working Title
Working title is the foremost part of the research proposal. Therefore, it must be selfexplanatory that should give a clear idea to the reader that what you are going to undertake.
Specifically the title should encapsulate the precise identification of the problem, main
variables or concepts, and target population. It should reflect the clarity, conciseness and
effective arrangement of words in the title. The title is designed to stimulate the readers
interest. A good title should attract and inform the readers and be accurate. It needs to stand
out in some way from the other thousands of titles that compete for the readers attention,
but it also needs to tell the reader what the paper is about.
The abstract begins with the statement of the problem which is based on the critical
analysis of the literature. The abstract continues with the research questions and
corresponding hypotheses (if used). Measures operationalizing the variables are identified
and the procedures are briefly described. It should be interesting enough to motivate a

reader to read the full proposal. An abstract maximum of 150 words should be given at the
top of second page. Further it is also important to mention key word at the end of abstract
in a separate head
The introduction of a proposal should begin with a capsule statement of what is being
proposed and then should proceed to introduce the subject to a stranger. It should give
enough background to enable an informed layman to place your particular research
problem in a context of common knowledge and should show how its solution will
advance the field or be important for some other work. The statement

Establish the field: assert briefly how significant, relevant, and important is

your chosen topic

Summarize your predecessors more general research
Focus in on your own research project. In this however move, indicate a gap

in knowledge to be filled,, the question to answer

Introduce your own research by stating the question you wish to answer, what
you hope to discover, what hypothesis you will test. Novel methods can earn a
brief mention, but rarely will an Introduction include any results.

Rationale (Significance) of the study

The significance section describes the importance of seeking a solution to the statement of
the problem identified previously. The statement of significance justifies the student and
faculty time and financial resources that need to be devoted to the research. You are
required to present your justification that how your research will add value to theory,
policy and practice.
Review of Literature
The purpose of the literature review is to situate your research in the context of what is
already known about a topic. It need not be exhaustive, it needs to show how your work
will benefit the whole. It should provide the theoretical basis for your work, show what has
been done in the area by others, and set the stage for your work.
In a literature review you should give the reader enough ties to the literature that they feel
confident that you have found, read, and assimilated the literature in the field. It should
probably move from the more general to the more focused studies, but need not be
exhaustive, only relevant.
Research Methodology
This part of the research proposal should briefly communicate that how you will carry out

your research study. It should cover the following points:

Research Paradigm

Research Approach

Philosophical Assumptions

Induction/ Deduction

Research Method

Qualitative/ Quantitative

Research Design


Sample Size

Sampling Technique

Data Collection Instrument

Data Collection Technique

Data Analysis

Ethical Consideration

Delimitations and Limitations of the study

List all the research studies you have cited in your proposal. The references should be
given in APA 6th manual style. Use of references in your study should be smart enough to
convey that you have read, understood and evaluated the work of previous researchers. You
can add the work of other that might be relevant to your topic but you have not actually
cited in your proposal for whatsoever reason can also be shown as bibliography.

Outline of MS/ M. Phil Research Proposal

1. Title Page
2. Main Body
Research Title:
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
1. Introduction
a. Background of Research
Construction management is the utilization of information, services, and practices to project
enterprises for the accomplishment of stakeholder needs and expectations from a project.
Project risk management comprises of procedures involvement through recognizing,
investigating, and acknowledge to project risks. It contains expanding the consequences of
positive proceedings and reducing the reactions of disadvantageous events. Usually risk is a
choice in any project quite than a destiny. Risk can be defined as It is the uncertainty
inherent in tactics and opportunity of something occurring or happening that can affect the
prospects of attaining, business or development objectives [1]. It may comprises of the option
of loss or gain, or deviation planned outcome. Risk management is an essential fragment of
marvelous management, and fundamental to accomplishing virtuous business and project
outcome. Risk management delivers an organized method of evaluating and dealing with
upcoming uncertainties. Risk is existing almost all the events of a project. This is the only
quantity which varies from one activity to another. Risks are more integral in the construction
The process of preparation, performing and maintaining all project activities is complicated a
nd time-consuming.
In order to avoid the disasters and manage a project appropriately, proper risk management is
necessary. Its very important to identify risk aspects affecting the risk management. In
construction projects, the contractors are the chief responsible in construction execution on
site and are straight involved in physical activities of the project. Contractors have been slow
in applying proper management approaches. Management in construction industry has been
characterized as being weak, insufficient, nebulous, backward and slow to react to the
changing conditions. Pakistan construction industry had face so many times when
construction industry was at or near the top in the annual rate of business failures. The two
major reasons of failure are: (a) Construction projects are unique and contractors cannot
complete the project within budget and time due to the poor and lazy management, (b)
Construction projects required many skills persons They have to control the risks that
transpire during the execution of the construction and management works to confirm the
successful accomplishment of the projects. The complete process needs a countless people
with various skill sets and the management of a massive amount of complex and unified
activities. Sometimes situation is made even more complicated by many external influences.

The previous records of construction industry is not much very satisfying related to risks in
Pakistan, resultant of failure of many projects to meet time schedules, budget targets and
sometimes even the scope of work like Kalabagh Dam, Nandipur Hydropower Plant, Neelum
Jhelum Hydropower Project, Pace Tower etc.
The development of these infrastructure like Nandipur Hydropower Plant, Kalabagh Dam
were the most significant projects that can enhance the business of the countless Industries,
thereby increasing the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Pakistan. Developing countries
always strain on infrastructures and provide assets for the same in their yearly economics.
These projects were in themselves enormous and large and comprise a lot of money. This
vastness of all projects arise lot of scope for several difficulties from clearances to land
procurement, wastage, unscheduled and unpredicted stays and delays by the government,
natural tragedies etc., leading to time and cost overrun in the projects. The cost overrun can
be of huge scale in a project involving bulk amount of money. The loss of facilities specified
by the project during the time period by which the project overruns can be enormous if put
into monetary terms. To reduce that losses well-organized construction project management
was required. Application of many project management methods have to be made from the
beginning to the accomplishment phases which contains handling and managing the several
risks associated with the project in its every phase.
The construction corporation, maybe other than most, is overwhelmed by risk. Too often this
risk is not dealt with adequately and the industry has experience poor performance as a
consequence. Infrastructure projects nature is huge and comprising a bulky amount of
money, any kind of wastage (either it would be related to time or resources etc.) would lead
to big financial sufferers. The reasons of these kinds of loses are due to various
risks directly related to such mega projects are; Asset Management, Risk
Management, Value Management Project Management . These risks are to be acknowledged and
diminished to overcome the losses. This whole procedure of risk identification and
modification is called as risk management. Research on risk assessment and management has
been done by various people, mostly on developed countries.

b. Research Gap
In Pakistan, only few research works have been done in this zone. Mostly people have done
their research on risk assessment or risk management. This research will be based on both
risk assessment as well as risk management. In this research there will be discussed two
major methods to determine risk, one is quantitative and the other is qualitative approach.
The quantitative approach depend on statistical design or calculations to measure risk, its
chances of existence, and its influence on a project. The qualitative approach depend on
conclusions, using standards criteria to determine outcome. By using these two methods
following will be determined; General Risks, Financial Risks, Management Risks, Market
Risks, Technical Risks, Legal Risks, Political Risks and Environmental Risks. This research
will provide different examples as well as suggestions related to risk management and
assessment to avoid these risks in construction industry through surveys of different
architects, consultants, and contractors. Thus this study concentrations is risk assessment and
management in Pakistan in field of construction.

c. Significance of Research

d. Research Questions

e. Definition of key constructs

2. Theoretical Framework
a. Base theories

b. Relationships of constructs

c. Development of Hypothesis or Research Questions

3. Methodology
a. Research Paradigm
Philosophical Assumptions



b. Research Approach

c. Research Method
Qualitative/ Quantitative/ Mixed
Date used in this research will be derived from both primary and secondary resources. The
primary data will be obtained by survey method, by the use of questionnaire survey by the
professionals that included; Architects, Civil Engineers, Quantity Surveyors, construction
managers and project managers who are currently involved in Pakistan construction industry.
Few interviews will also be held with key people of the project. While the secondary data
was derived from the existing literature, archival record, published and unpublished literature.
After so many literature reviews, a lot of delay factors were extracted, that are directly based
on questionnaire.



Research Design (Population, Sample Size, Sampling Technique, Data Collection

Instrument, Data Collection Technique, Data Analysis, Ethical Considerations,
Delimitations and Limitations of the study)

4. Research Project Timeline


5. Conclusion

6. References