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CCI Severe Service

Applications in Fossil
Power Plants
Secondary
Superheater

Primary
Superheater
200
204
Capillary
system

2
203
202-1

201

Turbine

205
207

202-2
220
231
Boiler

221

240

Flash
Tank
230

Dea
storage

Main FW
pump

241
L.P.
Heaters

HTR drain pump


HP Heaters

cond
pump
Polishing
equip.

This handbook was published thanks to the creation and direction of Curtis Sterud, CCI Valve Doctor.
With over 40 years of experience in the valve industry, Curtis is one of the industrys most respected
engineers and severe service valve experts.

Table of Contents

I. SEVERE SERVICE APPLICATIONS OVERVIEWSCHEMATICS AND


DIAGRAMS

a) Fossil Once Thru Units

II. DRUM BOILER


III. CONDENSATE SYSTEM

a) Condensate Pump Recirculation Valve

b) Deaereator Level Control Valve

IV. FEEDWATER SYSTEM


a) Boiler Feedwater Pump Recirculation Valve

b) Boiler Feedwater Regulator Valve (B&W 100)

V. MAIN STEAM SYSTEM


a) Start-Up System Valves (B&W)

i.

ii. 502

iii. 518

iv. 519

b) Superheater Attemperator Spray Valve

c) Reheater Attemperator Spray Valve

d) Turbine Bypass Valve (B&W 510This is a small bypass)

e) Deaereator Steam Pegging Valve

f)

501

Soot Blower Valve

VI. HEATER DRAIN SYSTEM


a) High Pressure Heater Drain Valves, Emergency Heater Drain

b) Low Pressure Drain Valves

A. Fossil Once Through Units

ALVE
V
No.
205
205C
207
210
218
219
220
221
230
231
240
241
401

PURPOSE
LP Superheater Stop
LP Throttle Control
Secondary Bypass
Turbine Bypass
SSH Outler Steam Attemporator
Reheat SH Steam Attemperator
HP HTR Steam Level
Flash Tank to HTR
DEA Steam Pegging
Flash Tank Level
Flash Tank Pressure
Flash Tank Level
HP Throttle Control
Ahead of the SSHTR

These diagrams show the processes and


components of typical power plants,
in which CCI severe service valves
are commonly employed. The rest of
the paper logically breaks down and
expands the processes and applications,
explaining in further detail.

II. Drum Boiler

Drum boilers vary in size, from small boilers used to generate


steam industrial heating up to the large public utility boilers
which produce enough steam to generate up to 900 MW of
power.
n Combined-cycle plants often require turbine bypass valves
of 50100% capacity.
n Large utility drum boilers have more severe service
applications which require DRAG valve technology.
These boilers also require turbine bypass valves.
Shown here is a typical schematic and diagram of areas which
require a DRAG valve. These applications see either the
potential for cavitation, flashing, or a combination of highpressure drop and low flow rate.
A

Feed Water Regulator

Feed Pump Recirculation

D.A. Level Control

Booster Pump Recirculation

Main Steam Attemperation

Reheat Steam Attemperation

Heater Drains

Auxiliary Steam

SamplingVarious Locations

501 VALVE
500
VALVE

RY
NDA
SECO HEATER
R
SUPE

STEAM
DRUM
T
A
E
REH ATER
RHE
SUPE

ARY
ER
PRIM RHEAT
E
SUP

STACK

10 TEHEAT

E
SUR
HEATER
PRES
LVE
HIGH RS
DRUM VA
E
HEAT

MAIN STREAM

GEN
ERAT
OR
R
EEDE
S
ER F
BOIL C VALVE
IR
C
E
R

ER
MIS
NO
ECO
542
AIR
R
HEATE

ER
E
WAT
FEED ROL VALV
T
CON
0
BN10
EMP
P ATT
PUM
Y
SPRA

5788

CO
ND
EN
SE
R

ALVE
502 V
SATE
DEN
N
O
C

VEL
R LE
RATO
E
DEAE ROL VALV
T
CON
EAM
STR
ION
RAT
E
EXT
SUR
PRES
LOW ATERS
HE

AM
STRE
MAIN P SPRAY
M
ATTE

578

ROL
ONT
ER C
FEED VALVE

MP
N PU
RIVE )
P
OR D
MOT (STARTU TER
A
W
P
FEED
PUM
MAIN DRIVEN
INE
TURB

Severe Service Applications in a Typical Drum Boiler

FWN

III. Condensate System

This particular application in the plant is where the condensate is taken from
the condenser hotwell, circulated through the low pressure heaters, and to the
deaereator.
The condenser acts as a heat exchanger that serves the purpose of creating
a vacuum which increases the efficiency of the turbine and for recovery of
quality feedwater (condensate).
Shown below is a schematic of a typical condensate system:
a) Condensate Pump Recirculation Valve:
The condensate pump must have a minimum amount of flow through it at

% Cv V5 % STROKE

all times to prevent it from overheating and to protect it from cavitation.

100

Therefore, a recirculation valve and line runs from the pump outlet line back

80

to the condenser. When the boiler load is low the flow of condensate required

70

is less than the pump minimum flow requirement. The recirculation valve

60

is used to allow the additional flow required through the pump. The pump

% Cv

90

50

outlet pressure varies from 300 psi to 600 psi with fluid temperature from

40

100 to 150F.

30
20

The recirculation line dumps into the condenser which is at vacuum. Usage of

10

a conventional valve in this circumstance can lead to high levels of cavitation

10

20 30

40

50

60

70 80

90 100

% STROKE

(the outlet pressure at the valve is higher than condenser vacuum because of
pipe friction, elevation and sparger back pressure).
This valve must have positive shutoff. To assure proper shutoff, the valve must

Example of Characterized Trim

have a soft seat.

800

TURBINE

PUMP PRES

600
CONDENSATE PUMP
RECIRC VALVE
400
200

RE A P R
0

25

SURE

DEAERATOR

E
ESSUR

50

75

100

DEA LOAD LEVEL CONTROL


VALVE OPERATING RANGE

CONDENSER
HOT WELL

CONDENSATE
PUMP

LOW PRESSURE
HEATER

DEAERATOR LEVEL
CONTROL VALVE

Condensate System

b) Deaereator Level Control Valve:


The purpose of this valve is to maintain a level in the deaereator, an open
style of feedwater heater. It controls the amount of condensate flow into the
deaereating vessel. The service conditions of this valve vary directly with the
plant load. During start-up, the pumping load is small, the valve inlet pressure
is high and the outlet pressure is low, because the deaereator pressure is not
built up yet. In this case, there is a need for cavitation prevention and the flow
capacity required is very low.
As the plant load increases, the need for high flows and the condensate
pump cant maintain the same pressure head at these higher flows. The result
is lower inlet pressure to the valve. Concurrently, the line pressure to the
deaereator is building, putting backpressure on the valve. These higher flows
with lower pressure drops create a need for higher capacity of the valve but
less resistance in the trim.
The requirements of this valve are:

Angle

Globe

High rangeability

Cavitation protection at low flows

Low resistance at increasing flows

Tight shut-off is not essential because this valve is open at all times the
plant is up and running.

The feedwater system is where feedwater is taken from the deaereator by the
boiler feedpumps and sent through the high pressure heaters, the economizer,
and finally into the boiler. The fluid is brought to full outlet pressure of the
boiler and its temperature raised by heat recovery for efficiency of the system.
a) Boiler Feedpump Recirculation Valve:
b) Boiler Feedwater Regulator:

IV. Feedwater System

Depending on the A/E, utility and boiler manufacturer, the feedwater flow
will be controlled either by a variable speed feedpump or a high capacity
control valve.
The boiler pumps may be motor driven, which are generally constant
speed and therefore constant outlet pressure, or steam driven with variable
output. (A fluid coupling on a constant speed motor driven pump can be
utilized to get variable output.)
In any case, a control valve for feedwater regulation to the boiler takes the
fluid from the pump outlet and regulates the outlet flow rate to the boiler
demand.
The service of this valve is similar to the DEA level control valve, except at
a significantly higher pressure.
The fluid is taken from the DEA into the boiler feedpump and the pressure
is raised to boiler operating pressure (most cases are over 3,000 psi).
This is the inlet pressure to the feedwater regulator. At start-up and low
loads, the pumping load is small and the pump outlet pressure is high
and the drum pressure is not built up yet. In this case, there is a need for
cavitation prevention and the flow capacity is very low. As the plant load
increases, drum pressure increases and flow rate increases. The pump
cannot maintain the same pressure head at these higher flows. The result is
lower inlet pressure to the valve and high back pressure on the valve. These
higher flows with lower pressure drops create a need for high capacity of
the valve with less resistance in the trim. Many plants utilize a start-up
valve and a main valve for this service. The start-up valve would have trim
to cope with the low flow and cavitation condition, and the main valve
take over the flow increased and differential pressure decreased. CCI can
provide a customized valve featuring DRAG technology that can be built
with characterized trim to cover the full range of operation conditions in
one valve.
Requirements of this valve:

In a characterized stack all discs are not


the same, but rather are chosen to provide
precise variable flow versus pressure drop
over the full range of the valve.

High rangeability

Cavitation protection at low flows

Low resistance at maximum flow

This valve should have at least Class IV shut off

Typical Feedwater Systems

10

DRUM
DEAERATOR

BOILER FEEDPUMP
RECIRC VALVE

MAIN FEEDWATER
REGULATOR

BOILER FEEDPUMP

HIGH PRESS
HEATER
STARTUP
FEEDWATER
REGULATOR

START UP
FWR
3500
3000
2000

MAIN FWR

PUMP PRESSURE
DRUM PRESSURE

Typical 2 Valve Feedwater System

1000

Typical Feedwater System with DRAG

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

V. Main Steam System

11

The main steam system covers the portion of the plant that takes the steam from the boiler, sends it through the superheaters,
and into the high-pressure turbine. The steam exiting the high-pressure turbine is sent through a reheater, then fed into the
low-pressure turbine. Finally, after all potential energy is extracted from the steam, it is dumped into the condenser to start
the whole process over again.
Large generating units were designed generally for base-loaded operation. However, with increased emphasis on planned cycling
operation of fossil-fired boilers, there are new demands on the control of boilers during start-up and low load operation.
Conventional drum boilers can be operated with wide variation in load, including complete shutdown and re-start, without
sacrificing heat rate or cyclic life. Modes of operation include variable drum pressure, constant throttle pressure and dual pressure.
With variable drum pressure, the turbine throttle valves are nearly wide open and the throttle pressure varies with drum
pressure. This operation is relatively slow in response to load demand.
With constant drum pressure, the turbine throttle valves are nearly wide open and the throttle pressure varies with drum
pressure. This operation is relatively slow in response to load demand.

Applications of Valves in a Typical Fossil Field Drum Boiler Power Plant

Severe Service valves:


BW100Feedwater Regulator

BW501Secondary Superheater

BW502Primary Superheater

BW518Main Steam

BW519Reheat Outlet Steam

BW510Turbine Bypass

Stop & Bypass Valve


Bypass Valve
Attemperator
Attemperator

12

Typical Start-up After Overnight


Shut-down

With constant drum pressure, the turbine load is changed by modulating the turbine throttle valves. The low load efficiency
is achieved by sequenced turbine control valves and partial ARC throttling at the expense of a large change in impulse
chamber temperature.
Dual pressure operation involves wide variable throttle pressure, with the pressure controlled by wide range superheater
division valves. The drum pressure is controlled at a high pressure above 2000 psi. For this type of control, there is little
change in turbine metal temperatures, or in drum saturation temperature over the load range. Load response will be at least
comparable to that for constant throttle pressure operation.
The dual pressure mode of operation is a system incorporated in some B& W drum boilers. B&W incorporated CCI DRAG
valves in five locations of this system.
The superheater division valves (BW500 and BW501) are used below about 70% load to maintain drum pressure, yet provide
reduced throttle pressure to the turbine. The BW502 valve permits firing proportional to steam flow during an unloaded
transient, and limited over-firing at low load. The 502 from the drum with the steam exiting the superheater and reheater to
hold temperature at the turbine without the concern for water into the turbine, which might result from water attemperation.
The BW100 feedwater regulator is a high rangeability valve for this service.
The 500 and 501 valves have been closed to bottle up the boiler overnight. The boiler pressure will have decayed
somewhat, so initial firing will be to bring drum pressure and temperature up. The 502 valve is used to bypass the steam to
the condenser. When steam temperature is established, the 501 valve is opened to admit steam through the superheater and
initially through the 510 valve to the condenser. This if for warming flow. The 510 valve is closed, and turbine throttle valves
are opened to 70%. The turbine is rolled (turbine throttle pressurized at about 200 to 300 psi. The 501 valve opens to increase
the turbine throttle pressure which is turbine load. With the low flows involved, the steam attemperation at superheater outlet
(518 valve) and reheater outlet (519 valve) controls the turbine temperature without the danger of water into the turbine at
less than 15% load. As load goes above 70%, the BW500 valve is opened to 100% open and the turbine throttle valves control
load of the turbine from there to full load.
The 502 valve starts with low temperature water at drum pressure ( ~ 2000 psi and 300F). The flow rapidly changes in
temperature as the leg of water is displaced by 2000 psi saturated steam which is approximately 650F; this is a significant
thermal transient. The valve should be over the plug, gasket seal, with linear disk stack for this service.

Typical Start-up After Overnight

13

Shut-down (continued)

The 501 valves starts with high inlet pressure (approximately 2400 psi) and very low outlet pressure (0 to 100 psi). The valve
must control flow to load the turbine and then control flow as turbine load (pressure) is raised. This requires a characterized
disk stack similar to the BW100 feedwater regulator valve. This allows for the system to have an inherent linear characteristics,
i.e. valve stroke linear with load increase.
The 518 and 519 valve flow conditions are about the same, i.e. ~ 2000 psi saturated steam ~ 650F inlet and 0 to 300 psi outlet
pressure. The trim can be linear, and under plug flow.
There are other severe service applications which are common to both drum and once-through units. These are attemperator
spray valves, soot blower control valves (for plants which use steam for soot blowing), and auxiliary steam valves for steam
from main steam to boiler feedpump turbine.

14

Sootblower Header Control Valve

A regulating (modulating) valve is required to control the pressure in the


sootblower header. The valve must have high rangeability due to the high
level of flow variation during the sootblower cycle. As the sootblowers
open and close, the header control valve must respond quickly to avoid
pressure surges which would pop the safeties on the line.
A Class V shutoff is required because any leakage through the header
control valve would increase header pressure and pop the safeties when the
sootblowers are closed.
Another consideration is thermal transients. A valve closed for a period
of time will cool somewhat. When opened, the trim heats up much faster
than the body.
It is critical to control the nozzle velocity to maximize sootblowing effect
% Valve Stroke
(Cv = 18.6 Sootblower Full Valve Capacity)

and simultaneously controlling temperature to minimize the erosive effects


of wet steam.
This CCI valve for sootblower header control has been designed to meet
the above requirements. The disk stack is characterized with 14-turn and
eight-turn expanding disks with Pressure Equalizing Ring (PER) grooves
for minimum fluid velocities and high rangeability. The flow is over the
plug to protect the seat from trash damage. The plug is unbalanced with
high actuator load for good shutoff.

Multi-Stage Disk
(Showing Right Angle Fluid Trim)
SOOTBLOWER
HEADER
CONTROL VALVES

RELIEF
RELIEF
VALVE
VENT VALVE
SOOTBLOWER
VENT
HEADER
PRESSURE
CONTROLLER
CONTROL VALVES
PRESSURE CONTROLLER
AIR SUPPLY
AIR SUPPLY
AIR
AIR
FILTER REGULATOR
PRESSURE
FILTER REGULATOR
PRESSURE
SENSING
SENSING
ELEMENT
ELEMENT

MAIN STEAM LINE

MAIN STEAM LINE

SOOTBLOWER
SHUTOFF
VALVES
SOOTBLOWER
HEADER

SOOTBLOWER
HEADER

SOOTBLOWER
SHUTOFF
VALVES

Sootblower Header Control Valve

15

? Box

Bonnet

Body
Stem/Plug
Seat Ring

Disk Stack

Sootblower Control Valve Sectional

Staggering of
Alternate Disks
Plug/Seat Interface

Flow Streamlines

16

Attemperator Spray Control Valve

Attemperator spray control valves control the amount of water required to


control the steam temperature exiting the superheaters. (Primary, secondary
and reheat).
The water source for the attemperation after the primary or secondary
superheater is from the main feedpump generally after the economizer
section of the boiler. The pressure drop across the valve is low and
conventional valves have usually been used. However, there is a very wide
rangeability requirement. Single drop-type valves throttling at the seat tend to
wire open and leak.
The water source for the reheat attemperation may be the same as for the
superheat or it may be from some intermediate stage of the pump. In either
case, the pressure drop across the valve is significantly high and velocity
control trim is required.
Spray valves in globe and angle
configuration

The same valve for both areas. The disk stack is characterized with 14 turn and
8 turn expanding disks with (PER) for minimum fluid velocity with reheat
spray and wide rangeability in both applications. The flow is over the plug to
protect the seat surfaces from trash damage. The plug is unbalanced with a high
actuator load for shutoff.

Heater Drain System

17

There are two sets of heater systems in a normal power plant. The lowpressure heaters heat the condensate coming from the condensate pump so
it is near saturation when it gets to the deaereator. The other set, called highpressure heater, heats the feedwater coming from the boiler feedwater pump
so that it is near saturation when it enters the boiler. Both systems work in
similar manners, with the exception of the heating fluid. In the low-pressure
heaters, exhaust steam from the LP turbine is used, while the high-pressure
heaters use extraction team from the reheat section. See typical schematic,
below.
The level of condensate in the heaters must be controlled for the highest
level of system efficiency, so the drain system is fairly elaborate. There are
emergency heater drain valves which bypass the fluid to the condenser. Each
heater is at a lower pressure than the preceding heater. The fluid in the first
heater is saturated water as the fluid flows through the drain valve to the next
heater, the fluid flashes, the flashed steam passes over the tubes containing
the condensate, and the heat of the steam is absorbed by the tubes warming
the condensate. At the same time the steam temp is reduced to saturated
water. This saturated water is let down to the next heater and the same process
occurs.
Globe DRAG Heater Drain Valve with
Flow Distributer Integral with the Seat
Ring

18

Heater Drain System (continued)

The problem is that the condensate in the bottom of the heater is at saturation. When the condensate is drained and loses
just a small amount of pressure, it flashes, and erosion damage to the control valve and associated piping is common. The
important thing in choosing control valves in this application is to use a characterized disk stack to range low flow away from
the seat, with sufficient turns to keep velocity as low as possible. Angle valves, or globe valves with oversized ends and a flow
distributor integral with the seat ring to limit velocity will also combat erosion. In addition, the body material should be
A217C5, or A182F5.

B&W Once-through Start-up System


Using Bailey 201 & 207 Valves

19

All boilers require a minimum fluid flow through the furnace wall tubes at
even a minimum firing rate to protect the furnace tubes from overheating.
Protection is provided by circulation of a minimum amount of feedwater and
the use of a start-up bypass system.

Start-up Bypass System in


Once-through Critical Pressure Units

20

Many variations exist when comparing the start-up systems provided by each of the boiler manufacturers. Functionally, they
all have a common purpose as elaborated below. Notice in Figures 3, 4 and 5, the physical differences illustrated for each of
the once-through boiler manufacturers. Combustion Engineering, Inc., (Figure 5 on Page 44) provides circulation pumps
to recirculate fluid through the furnace pumps and convection walls and, in this way, protect the tubes from overheating.
(Figure 7 on Page 44) Babcock & Wilcox Company and Foster Wheeler Corporation (Figure 3 on Page 42) require a minimum
pumping rate be established to provide this same protection.
Because of these individual differences, control systems vary on each of these units insofar as the actual coordination of the
valves in each start-up system. However, again analyzing the job that has to be performed, the functional objectives of all
systems are the same, namely:
1) As noted above, provide protection to keep furnace tubes from overheating by maintaining a minimum flow of fluid
through the furnace. Care must be taken to keep the pressure of the fluid in the furnace circuit at a pressure well above
saturation, thus preventing any flashing from occurring in the furnace circuit.
2) All systems provide some means of circulating water through the system for both a cold and hot water cleanup through
the use of a polishing system.
3) All systems provide for an orderly sequence to start-up and initially load the unit as follows:
a) By rejecting flow to the flash tank or separator during start-up, provisions are made for hot cleanup operation and
initial build up of enthalpy.
b) To assist in building up the heat in the boiler, in a minimum time, both the water and steam in the flash tank are put
back into heat recovery in the deaereator and/or feedwater heaters during start-up and low-load operation.
c) When the enthalpy level in the flash tank or separator reaches some minimum desired level, steam can be admitted
to the superheater and main steam lines for warming purposes.
d) By bypassing steam to the condenser through a turbine bypass valve and/or the turbine above seat drains while
regulating the heat input, better matching of steam temperature to turbine metal temperature is achieved prior to
rolling the turbine. This improvement is relative to that obtained with a drum type boiler where temperature is
obtained as a function of the firing requirements for the pressure required.

The turbine bypass valves function to provide initial steam to heat steam lines and roll the turbine. Through these
valves, it is possible to establish steam flow through the superheater to turbine roll and synchronize the turbine
with minimum upsets. (B&W = 210, FW = U, CE = SD)

e) Following turbine synchronization, turbine load is increased using flash tank or separator steam available. When the
available flash tank or separator steam is depleted, additional load is obtained by opening the in-line stop valves,
thus, admitting furnace outlet fluid directly into the superheater. In the case of a Combustion Engineering or Riley
boiler, pumping rate must be increased at the same time. Once the stop valves are fully opened, the flash tank or
separator are taken out of service.

B&W Units for Base


Loaded Operations

21

Control systems must be properly programmed to recognize the following facets during this period:
1) Furnace circuit pressure must always be maintained.
2) Throttle pressure is increasing during this period; thus, the amount of stored fluid and heat must be increased. Load and
steam temperatures are likewise increasing, which also demands additional heat and fluid storage.
3) Saturated steam from the flash tank or separator to the super heater is being replaced with steam directly from the
evaporating section of the boiler. This means the enthalpy leaving the furnace section must be maintained at an enthalpy
level approximately that of steam leaving the flash tank. By properly programming the opening of the inline stop valves
(B&W = 200, FW = Y, CE = BT)and changes in pumping and firing rate, outlet steam temperatures can be maintained
during this transfer to straight through operation.

Thus during start-up and low load operation prior to the turbine load exceeding the minimum feedwater flow, the control
system must utilize the bypass system valves as an extension of pressure control and feedwater flow control. During this
period, the heat input must be properly controlled to provide the required steam conditions at the turbine, recognizing
that some heat is being lost through the bypass system until it is taken out of service.

B&W Units for Base Loaded Operation


B&W once-through units were originally designed with Bailey valves in the start-up system. (Figure 7 on Page 44)
Bailey valves was owned by B&W. B&W acquired CCI in 1971 to utilize the advantages of the DRAG valve in the severe
service applications in the steam generation units. At the same time, the manufacturing of the Bailey valve was moved to CCI
in California.
So, CCI supports the start-up system valves of old or new B&W units, whether Bailey or CCI DRAG valves are used.

22

B&W Once-Through Unit


(Older Style Unit)

The Previous diagrams show typical B&W units with Bailey valves in an older plant, and CCI DRAG valves in a plant after 1974.
This design requires a start-up flow of 25% to 30% of rated capacity.
For start-up, these units circulate the fluid thru the boiler, 202 & 207 valves, the flash tank and to the condenser, until the fluid
temperature is proper for steam at about 600 psi in the flash tank. Then steam flow is allowed through the 205 valve to the
secondary superheater and 210 valve for warming. Then, when the temperature is OK, the 210 is closed and the turbine is loaded
to minimum load. This could be 800 psi throttle pressure and about a 25% load. Pressure upstream of the primary superheater
would be about 3500 psi for supercritical units and about 2800 psi for sub-critical units. The turbine throttle valves are set at
this minimum load setting. Then the 201 valve is opened as the 202 and 207 are closed to pressurize the downstream secondary
superheater.
During the start-up, primary superheater pressure control is maintained by the 202 valve. When the pressure drop across the 200
(201) valve is about 300 psi, the 200 valve is opened 100%. Note that when secondary superheater pressure is higher than the
flash tank, the 205 valve closes (its a check valve). Load is now increased to 100% by opening the turbine throttle valves. At this
time, the controls are set to open the 202 valve if the primary superheater pressure exceeds a certain limit.
The load can be varied by turbine throttle valves. However, the load must be changed very slowly because when the throttle
changes to change load, there is a change in steam temperature across the turbine. Turbines are not to be thermally cycled.
Therefore this type of unit is base loaded, that is, operated at constant load.
B&W introduced cycling of their once through units by incorporating a 401 valve. This valve replaces the 200 & 201 valves.

Note: Flow rate in lbs/hr is estimated by multiple of 7000 x MWE of the unit. Example: 500 MWE unit would have 3500000#/hr flow at 100% load
The 202 valve generally was 2 or more valves is the total flow: if there are two valves then each valve is sized for the flow

History of B&W Configurations Schematics

Original Schematic of the Startup of a Base-Loaded B&W Once-Through Unit


Older unit with Bailey E40 & D10 valves in the start-up system

After 1974, CCI DRAG valves


replaced the Bailey Valves in the
Startup System

Schematic of a base loaded B&W once-through unit using DRAG valves in the start-up system

23

24

Detailed Description of a Typical Start-up


Sequence of a Base-Loaded B&W Unit

Cold water cleanup mode, no firing in this mode.


1. Approximately 25% of full load flow is established.
2. The 200, 201, and 202 valves are closed.
3. The 207 is set to maintain 600 PSI at the inlet to the primary superheater.
4. The 241 (flash tank level control valve) is open, dumping all flow to the condenser and to the condensate polishing
system. The flash tank will be flooded during this mode to allow the 241 to pass total start-up flow.
5. The 242 valve is kept closed until the flash tank level starts to fall below the flash tank centerline, it will then open until
the flash tank level hits a predetermined high level set point.
6. Circulation is maintained in this manner until the cation conductivity entering the economizer and at the 207 valve inlet
is below 1 .

Detailed Description of a Typical Start-up


Sequence of a Base-Loaded B&W Unit (continued)

25

Initial Firing Mode


1. Firing is initiated in the boiler.
2. All flash tank drain flow will be transferred from the condenser to the deaereator. The 241 valve is held closed and 230
(deaereator water pegging control valve) is held open until the deaereator is pegged at its full-load operating pressure (approx.
140 PSI). After the deaereator is pegged the 230 valve will limit flow to the deaereator to maintain its pressure at set point.
3. The 241 will control flash-tank level about its normal level after the deaereator is pegged.
4. When the fluid temperature at the primary superheater inlet exceeds 300 F, the primary superheater outlet pressure setpoint
will be ramped automatically from 600 to 3650 PSI at the primary superheater outlet.
5. As a temperature leaving the primary superheater increases the 207 operates to maintain a programmed primary
superheater outlet temperature.
6. At the temperature of 300 F, the 207 valve opens to a minimum position. As the temperature leaving the primary
superheater increases, the 207 operates to maintain a programmed primary superheater outlet temperature.
7.

The 220 (H.P. heater steam control valve) and the 240 (flash tank overpressure control valve) will open to limit the flash
tank pressure at its set point of 500 PSI.

8. During this period, the secondary superheater will be boiling out to remove all water.
9.

The flash-tank pressure increases as firing is continued.

26

Detailed Description of a Typical Start-up


Sequence of a Base-Loaded B&W Unit (continued)

Initial Turbine Roll Mode


1. At a flash tank pressure of 300 PSI, 205 (low pressure superheater nonreturn valve), will open.
2. The 210 (turbine bypass valve), is opened to pass approximately 2% of full load through the superheater to warm the
main steam lines. The flash tank pressure will continue to increase as firing is continued to its set point of 500 PSI.
3. At the flash tank pressure of 500 psi, the turbine can be rolled, approximately 2% of full load flow is required to roll the
turbine. The 210 valve should be kept open to pass an additional 2% flow to the condenser.
4. The firing rate should be adjusted until the gas temperature is approx. 50F above the desired temperature to the turbine.
5. After the turbine steam requirements have been met, the 220 (flash tank steam to H.P. heater) valve will be opened to
limit flash tank pressure to 500 psi.
6. The 241 valve is still maintaining flash tank level, the 230 valve is maintaining deareater pressure
(approximately 140 PSI).
7.

When the capacity of the 220 valve is exhausted, the steam entering the turbine should be increased to 1000 PSI. This
will increase the flash tank set point to 1000 PSI.

8. The 220 and 240 valves are automatically set to hold the flash tank at its set point of 1000 PSI
9. At a flash tank pressure of 1000 PSI, the turbine can be synchronized and loaded. The unit load is ramped to
approximately 7% load.
10. The 210 valve is closed after the turbine is synchronized.

Detailed Description of a Typical Start-up


Sequence of a Base-Loaded B&W Unit (continued)

27

Transfer to Once-Through Operation


1. When the load on the turbine reaches approx. 7%, the 201 (pressure reducing valve) will begin to open. This will allow
steam to flow directly to the secondary superheater, rather than to the flash tank.
2. Pressurization of the secondary superheater occurs as the 201 is opened. (The turbine throttle valves are set to maintain
approximately 7% to 25% load as the secondary superheater is pressurized. When the secondary superheater pressure
exceeds the flash tank pressure, the 205 valve will close.
3. The 201 valve will continue to be opened at a predetermined rate to allow the turbine load to increase to approx. 25% of full load.
4. As the 201 opens, the 207 will close to control the primary superheater outlet pressure at its set point.
5. The flash tank drain flow to the deaereator will decrease as the 201 valve is opened. The deaereator pressure will decay as
the flash tank drains increase. When the deaereator pressure decreases below 25 PSI, the 231 valve will open to hold the
deaereator pressure at 25 PSI with flash tank steam.
6. The flow to the secondary superheater is through the 201 valve until its capacity is exhausted, which is typically around 25%
of full load. The 200 (high-pressure stop valve) will then be opened to achieve full pressurization of the secondary superheater
7. As the 200 and 201 valves are opened, the 202 valve will close to hold primary superheater outlet pressure at 3650 PSI.
8. As the flow to the flash tank decreases, the heaters and deaereator will be pressurized by steam from turbine extraction points.
9. As the load on the turbine reaches 25% the 202 and 207 valves will close and their opening set point will be 4250 PSI.
These valves will now act as relief valves during a unit trip.
10. The 260 valve (flash tank warming line non-return valve; not shown, bypasses the 231 valve) will be opened to pass a small
amount of steam from the deaereator back to the flash tank. This is required in order to keep the flash tank warm in case
the 202 or 207 valves open for overpressure relief.
11. During this time the 241 valve operates to maintain flash tank level.

28

B&W Units for Sliding Pressure


Operation

In a turbine generator, the electrical power output is dependant on the pressure


entering the turbine. First, the boiler is fired and brought up to a constant
discharge pressure. The turbine is equipped with several valves, known as
turbine throttle valves, which regulate the turbine inlet pressure. As load
decreases, the valves may move closed to reduce turbine inlet pressure. All
valves may move closed equal amounts in unison (full arc admission) or they
may close sequentially (partially arc admission). This is known a constant
Figure 1 - Constant Pressure System

pressure operation.
Constant pressure has two adverse effects when large load changes occur. First,
the turbine will experience temperature fluctuations, which will create fatigue
and reduce its life. Second, the net thermal efficiency or heat rate of the turbine
drops at lower loads.
Sliding pressure operation is designed to eliminate these problems.
Figure 1 shows the constant pressure system. With this system the turbine
throttle valves control the inlet pressure to the turbine proportional to plant
load.
Figure 2 shows a sliding pressure system. Here, a control valve (401) is installed
upstream of the secondary superheater. Although the turbine throttle valves are
still in the system, they are held wide open and plant load (turbine pressure)
is varied by the sliding pressure control valves. The temperature change

Figure 2 - Sliding Pressure System

due to throttling at the 401 valves is adjusted at the secondary superheater.


Temperature at the turbine is constant at all loads.
After start-up and transfer to the once-through operation, the load will be raised
to 100%.

B&W Units for Sliding Pressure


Operation (continued)

29

With constant pressure systems, the transfer is at approximately 25% load. Pressure at the turbine throttle valves is brought up to
approximately 3500 psi and load on turbine raised via the turbine throttle valves.
With sliding pressure control there are options of 70% or 100% sliding pressure control.
With 70% sliding pressure control, a larger 201 valve is installed. The turbine throttle valves are set at 70% load and the
turbine throttle pressure is controlled by the 201 valve up to that load. The 200 valve is opened and then the load is raised on
constant pressure control by the turbine throttle valves to 100%.
With 100% sliding pressure control, the 201 and 200 valves are replaced by valves which combine the functions of the 201 and
200 valves. These valves are called 401 valves. Systems with this design operate by setting the turbine throttle valves wide open
and controlling the turbine throttle pressure with these 401 valves throughout the load range.

30

Sliding Pressure Control

The sliding pressure unit has a few modifications designed to satisfy three basic requirements of operation. These requirements are:
1. Capability to be reliably started up and shut down to make them available for two-shift operations.
2. Extended unit load turndown while operating in the once-through mode. To maximize the capability to reduct unit load during
off-peak demand periods without placing the boiler bypass system in service; thus maintaining reasonable heat rates at reduced
loads.
3. Capability of variable pressure operations the once-through mode to optimize operation of the unit for load cycling. To extend
the range of operation of the unit in the once through mode it is necessary to reduce the boiler minimum feedwater flow
requirements for furnace protection.
Modifications
1. In constant pressure units, the first pass of the furnace consists of four parallel riser circuits (sidewalls and front and rear walls).
In sliding pressure units this consists of two passes in series; pass 1 is through sidewall risers and pass 2 is through front and
rear wall risers. In addition a bypass valve around pass 1 is installed (263 valve), to limit the flow through the sidewalls to
125% of original design. This bypass is to limit the additional pressure drop created by the dual pass arrangement of the lower
furnace. A second bypass valve (264 valve) around pass 2 is added to further reduce this pressure drop; this allows a minimum
feedwater flow rate of approximately 10% of full load flow.
2. For capability of the boiler/turbine temperature matching during start-up and for accurate mainstream and hot reheat
control while operating on the bypass system, steam attemperators are added for the secondary superheater and reheater. The
second superheater steam attemperator requires the addition of valves 218 and 205C. The latter is used to maintain enough
differential pressure between the flashtank and the throttle to support the attemperation function. The flash tank steam is
used for superheat steam attemperation, since
this function is required only while on the
bypass system. The reheat steam attemperation
requires a 219 valve which takes steam from
downstream of the 401 valve, since this reheat
steam attemperation is needed while on
the bypass system and also during oncethrough operation at low load generator.
3.

The 202 valve is eliminated from the


cycle and the 207 valve is used for all
functions formerly done by the 202
and 207 valves.

4. The key valve(s) for sliding pressure


is the 401 valve. This valve is the
turbine pressure control valve.
The valve must control load
from as low as 10% at 2500 PSI
pressure drop to 100% at approx.
50 PSI pressure drop with a
linear installed stroke vs. load
characteristic.

401 Valve

31

n By replacing the 201 and 200 valves


with equivilant capacity 401 valves,
the startup sequence will be simplified
and the unit can be operated on sliding
pressure from the existing minimum
load (25%) up to 100% load
n So the startup sequence changes as
follows.
n The flash tank steam is admitted
through the 205 valve to the secondary
superheater. The secondary superheater
brings the steam to the turbine to
approximatley 1000 deg. F. The turbine
is loaded to about 7% and slowly
increased to about 25% load on the flash
tank steam. The pressure at the turbine
at this load will be approximatly 900psi
(flash tank pressure about 1000psi). The
flow is still through the 205 valve.

n As the 401s open, 207 will close to


control PSH outlet press at its set point

The 207 and 401 are coordinated to


transfer the load of steam to the SSH
such that there is a minimal effect of the
primary superheater pressure.

n The 401 valves continue to open until


all the steam flow at the transfer load
(approx. 25%) is thru the 401 valves.
What happens is that the 401 valves
take the pressure drop to the pressure
PRIMARY SUPERHEATER
Pat1 the turbine at any given load. The
temperature drop across the 401s
will be corrected by the secondary
superheater to maintain a constant
P2
1000 degrees at the turbine at all
loads (turbine inlet pressure). This is
207
SLIDING
VALVEPRESSURE WITH CONSTANT
(CLOSED)
TEMPERATURE.

P2

SECONDARY SUPERHEATER

n At higher loads (>80%), throttling


the207
401 valves for load changes is
VALVE
somewhat
soft. The 401 valves
(CLOSED)
therefore could go 100% open and the
205 VALVE
turbine throttle valves control
load from
(CLOSED)
80% to 100%
load.
FLASH
TANK

P1

n The unit can operate with the turbine


valves wide open and the turbine
pressureTURBINE
(load) is controlled by the 401
valves.
n The 401 valves can vary the load as
required from 25% to 100% load with
constant temperature
CONDENSERat the turbine.

4000

PRIMARY SUPERHEATER

P1

3500
3000

PESSURE
P2
PSI SECONDARY SUPERHEATER

P2

SECONDARY SUPERHEATER

2000

1000

207
VALVE

(CLOSED) TURBINE

TURBINE

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
% LOAD

205 VALVE
(CLOSED)

205 VALVE

FLASH
TANK
CONDENSER

(CLOSED)

FLASH
TANK

4000
3500

100

P1

90
80

3000
PESSURE
PSI

2000

CONDENSER

P2

PESSURE
70
PSI
60

P2

2000
1000

30

1000
0

3000

50
40

Disk Stack
Characterization

4000% Cv V5 % STROKE
P1
3500

n When SSH press exceeds Flash Tank


press, 205 will close

n Load is raised by opening the 401


valves.

EX
I ST
IN

n The turbine throttle valves are set at


approximatly 80% open.

n AtPRIMARY
25% full
load, the SSH pressure will
SUPERHEATER
P1 be approx. 1000psi.

n Startup is significantly smoother


because the transfer from Flash tank
operation to once-thru operation is
done by opening the 401 valves and
closing the 202/207 valves. The 201 and
200 valves are eliminated

UP
DA
TE

The 401 valves will open and the 207


valve will start closing allowing steam
from the primary superheater do go
directly to the secondary superheater.

% Cv

20

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
% LOAD

10

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
% LOAD

10

20 30

40

50

60

70 80

90 100

% STROKE

% Cv V5 % STROKE

% Cv V5 % STROKE

100
90

Once-Through Systems by Foster Wheeler

32

Once-through steam generators by Foster Wheeler incorporate start up bypass systems to maintain a minimum cooling flow
through the furnace circuits when starting up. Other provisions are also built into the system to satisfy turbine throttle steam
requirements and to give maximum heat recovery during starting. There are two designs; one using an external flash tank,
and one using integral separators.
1.

EXTERNAL FLASH TANK SYSTEM

A bypass system utilizing an external flash tank system for rolling, synchronizing and initial loading of the turbine is shown
first. At some load, usually that which matches 1000 psi throttle pressure, the steam flow to the turbine is switched from the
external flash tank circuit to the main line flow path. In this system, shown in the schematic (Figure 2 on Page 45), throttle
steam to the turbine is initially furnished through valve N with division valve V closed. When throttle pressure is to be
ramped from the 1000 psi level to full pressure for loading to 25% of full load, division valve V is slowly opened and valve N
is closed. Valve P closes to generate the pressure ramp.
System Drawbacks
When the external flashtank system is used with a cycling unit, it is difficult to provide optimum steam conditions to the
turbine (temperature and pressure) during loading and ramping to obtain minimum starting time without degradation of
turbine cycling life. This characteristic is especially true when the pressure ramp achieves full pressure at 25% load.
In general, the flash tank system, to achieve proper fluid enthalpy at the boiler division valve, starts the ramp at a higher than
optimum load and, as a result, turbine control valves close slightly during ramping to properly follow the ramp program
(pressure versus load). In addition to this effect, throttle steam temperature to the turbine may decrease (dip) or exhibit reversing
trends during ramping as a result of changing from the external flash tank loop to the main flow path. The cumulative effect
of the foregoing for a hot start is to cause a decrease in turbine first stage shell temperature. The first stage outlet inner shell
temperature is measured and used as an indication of adjacent shaft surface temperature. For repeated hot starting, fatigue
damage causing surface cracks on the shaft must be avoided. To keep cycling life expenditure for the turbine at a chosen level
when starting in this manner, either the time for hot starting must be greatly increased or the number of hot starts at minimum
time must be limited. For cycling service, this restriction on operation is unacceptable.

Application Schematic of Foster Wheeler in


in Flash Tank Systems

Valves
W

Pressure reduction. This valve is usually sized for


approximately 25% boiler flow at 300 psi differential
pressure with an equal percentage characterized disk
stack.
Superheater bypass valve. This valve discharges to
the flash tank. During start up the valve is used in
series with W valve to control boiler pressure as
temperature is raised. When the unit is on line the P
valve is closed and functions as a pressure relief valve
for the boiler. The valve must have good shutoff. The
pressurized seat valve, like the 207 valve in the B&W
once through system (Figure 4A), should be used here.
The disk stack can be MS 2000 16 turn type with linear
characteristics.

This is Foster Wheelers version of a start-up system


utilizing a flash tank. The main difference is that flow to
the flash tank in start-up is through two valves in series;
this is the W valve and the P valve.

33

Recirculation Valves for Condensate, Boosters and Main


Feedwater Pumps
These valves are the same as on the B&W system.
D

Flash tank level. This valve is the same as the B&W 241
valve.

Flash tank level (along with D valve). This valve is the


same as the B&W 221 valve.

Flash tank to H.P. heater. This valve is the same as the


B&W 220 valve.

Flash tank to deaereator. This valve is the same as the


B&W 231 valve.

Flash tank to overpressure control valve. This valve is the


same as the B&W 240 valve.

34

Schematic of Foster Wheeler Cycling Super Critical


Unit with Integral Separator
Applications for CCI valves in integral separator system

Valves
W

Pressure reduction. This valve is usually sized for


approximately 25% boiler flow at 300 psi differential
pressure with an equal percentage characterized disk
stack.
Superheater bypass valve. This valve discharges to the
flash tank. During start up the valve is used in series
with W valve to control boiler pressure as temperature
is raised. When the unit is on line the P valve is closed
and functions as a pressure relief valve for the boiler.
The valve must have good shutoff. The pressurized seat
valve, like the 207 valve in the B&W once through system
(Figure 4A), should be used here. The disk stack can be
MS 2000 16 turn type with linear characteristics.

Recirculation Valves for Condensate, Boosters and Main Feedwater


Pumps
These valves are the same as on the B&W system.
D

Flash tank level. This valve is the same as the B&W 241 valve.

Flash tank level (along with D valve). This valve is the same
as the B&W 221 valve.

Flash tank to H.P. heater. This valve is the same as the B&W
220 valve.

Flash tank to deaereator. This valve is the same as the B&W


231 valve.

Flash tank to overpressure control valve. This valve is the


same as the B&W 240 valve.

Once-Through Systems by Foster Wheeler

35

2. FOSTER WHEELER INTEGRAL SEPARATOR SYSTEM


To overcome the disadvantages of the external flash tank system, the Integral Separator Start Up System was developed, which
incorporated main line separators in the high-pressure circuitry. The schematic on page 37 (see also Figure 5 on Page 44)
shows this system.
To avoid thick-walled pressure vessels that would limit starting and loading rates, multiple separators are employed at the
primary superheater inlet. For the case where the furnace circuits operate at full pressure, a pressure reducing station (W
valves) is installed upstream of the separators to provide variable pressure operation of the superheaters.
Steam and water at lower pressure downstream of the pressure-reducing station enters the separators. Separated steam flows to
the primary and finishing superheater and then to the turbine. A spray station between the primary and finishing superheater
controls final steam temperature during start-up. Drain flow leaving the separators is collected in a drain manifold and routed
through breakdown valves P to heat-recovery sub loops and/or the condenser.
By adding controls to adjust the firing rate to hold separator pressure to set point, this start-up operation becomes similar to
that used for drum-type boilers. The minimum start-up flow required is recycled through the heat recovery sub loops back to
the steam generator and can be considered similar to the recirculated downcomer flow of the drum unit.
By maintaining circulating flow always in the main line flow path for both start up and on-line operation, a simplicity of
operation results. There is no matching of bypass flow enthalpy to saturated steam enthalpy before starting the pressure ramp,
and as a result, the system inherently avoids a throttle temperature decrease or erratic temperature swings during pressure
ramping. In addition, the pressure ramp can match the turbine characteristic without the need to adjust turbine control valves
to a more closed position.
By virtue of these inherent characteristics of the Integral Separator System, the turbine first-stage shell temperature during
ramping is maintained at steady or increasing values. For hot starting, this mode of operation permits more rapid starts
while maintaining full turbine cyclic life. For application to cycling (two shift) units, the system permits rapid warm and hot
starting for the 7500 cumulative cycles required.
The simplicity and repeatability of operation of the Integral Separator System makes it a more acceptable system for the
operators. Repeatability of conditions for starting the ramp is easily achieved.
The Integral Separator System achieves full throttle pressure at 25% to 70% load depending on the capacity of the pressure
reducing valves (W valves).
For the turbine, sliding pressure operation to the 70% load plateau gives a more uniform thermal gradient for the turbine
while changing load.
At a 70% turbine valve opening, turbine and steam generator hot start times match at approximately 90 to 100 minutes from
light off to full load. The basis for the calculations is that turbine life expenditure is not to exceed .01% per cycle, or permissible
cycles are 10,000. The comparable time for 25% turbine valve opening is 140 to 150 minutes. Further increases in capacity
beyond 70% yield only marginal reductions in hot start times.

36

Schematic of Combustion Engineering Super-Critical Unit,


Base-Loaded Design

The combustion engineering combined-circulation supercritical boiler incorporates a start-up system which has many of
the same features and benefits as the B&W design. The main unique feature which differentiates the CE unit from the B&W
unit is the integral recirculation system in the boiler, which separates waterwall protection from flow requirements. Integral
recirculation allows for lower minimum flow of approximately 10% of full boiler load flow which not only minimizes heat
rejection during start-up but allows the transfer from the bypass system to once-through operation to take place without a
sudden drop in steam temperature. For the CE unit, the transfer from recirculation to once-through operation occurs without
operator intervention. Increasing waterwall pressure drop, which is due to increased flow, causes a reversal of pressure across
the check valve in the recirculation line. Once the check valve is closed, the operator has the option of leaving the recirculation
pumps in service or shutting them down. The concept of separating waterwall protection from plant cycle requirements is also
used in CEs sliding pressure units. (Figure 3 on Page 42, Figure 6 on Page 44)

37

BT Valve

BT VALVE

WATER WALL

13 PR

13

TURBIN
BE

PSH
SA

3500

WATER WALL

3000
RECIRC
SYSTEM

SSH

LE

TT

PESSURE
PSI

RO

2000

E
IN

TH

COND

B
UR

1000

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
BT VALVE OPERATING RANGE

100
90
80
70

% Cv

60

50

BT

30

40

BT

20
10
0

10

20 30

40

50

60

% STROKE
Disk Stack Characterization

70 80

90 100

38

Description of CE Once-through Unit and a Modification for


Sliding Pressure to 70% Load

SUBJECT: Startup valve modification to allow

The CE unit incorporates a Combined Circulation system.

frequent turbine load changes without affecting the


turbine life.

In a drum unit, circulation of water within the unit provides a cooling flow in

BACKGROUND: The unit shown is a


Combustion Engineeringdesigned once-through
critical pressure 565 MW system. The start-up
system incorporates Sulzer valves. The schematic is
shown below:

the furnace tubes to prevent overheating. In a once-through steam generator,


a turbine bypass system is used during start-up and low load operation to
handle the minimum flow required for furnace wall cooling. This flow is
usually 30% of max flow.
For large supercritical units, 30% turbine bypass is a technical and economic

BE

Boiler extraction valve. Startup flow


and waterwall pressure control valve.

BTB

Boiler throttle bypass. Control waterwall


pressure at transfer from start-up system
to once through operation. Also pressure
control when opening BT valves.

BT

Boiler throttle valves.

SA

Steam admission. Passes steam from


the separator tank to the turbine while
on the start-up system. It is a check
valve when on once through operation.

handicap. Therefore the Combined Circulation design utilizes furnace wall


recirculation rather than a turbine bypass system; a recirculation line takes
the fluid from the furnace wall outlet and discharges it into the inlet of the
furnace wall system. A circulating pump at the inlet of the furnace wall system
maintains the required minimum furnace wall velocities, at lower loads
automatically, by recirculation superimposed on the once-through flow.
The unit through-load (flow to the turbine), as maintained by the boiler
feedpump, increases in direct proportion to unit load. The recirculated flow,
as maintained by the circulating pump, supplements the through-flow over

SP

Spillover valve. Controls separator


pressure when on the start-up system.

WD

Water drain valve. Controls level in the


separator.

the total flow through the walls to a safe level, regardless of feedwater flow.

IS

Superheater spray control valve.

system equals the head produced by the circulation pump and the stop-check

IR

Reheater spray control valve

in the recirculation line automatically closes. The recirculation then ceases

SD

Steam drain valve. Bypass turbine


when warming lines and depress at
shutdown.

to produce recirculation of furnace wall flow but continues to contribute its

FWB Feedwater control valve. Controls feedwater flow from 5% to 25% unit flow.

the lower load range in a manner which protects the furnace walls by raising
At approximately 10% load, the pressure drop through the furnace wall

positive head to the total unit through-flow, in this manner acting as a booster
to the boiler feedpump.

The Start-up for the CE Unit, and the Start-up


Valves Interface is Shown for a Base-Loaded Plant

39

The start-up shown is for a base loaded unit. The Sulzer valves and actuators are designed to be operated within the conditions
shown.
For instance, the first BT valve is shown to start to open at 18% load. The pressure drop across this valve at 18% load is 1700 psi.
The BT actuators are sized for that pressure drop. The valve should not (and probably cannot) be opened at less than 18% load
because of the greater pressure drop. The valve, plus packing friction, is the actuator load. Thus, actuator load is proportional to
system pressure drop.
For lowload operation at less than 30%, the unit may operate with the turbine throttle valves at 30% and the BT and BTB valves in
control between 10% and 30% load. The unit could also operate at less than 10% by transfer from once- through to the BE valve
and separator start-up system.

40

The Start-up for the CE Unit, and the Start-up


Valves Interface is Shown for a Base-Loaded Plant (continued)

To reduce load down to the low load is a reverse of the start-up. The turbine
throttle valves are used to change the load down to 30%, the BT valves are
brought down to control, and then the BTB valves are as well. The load reduction
via the turbine throttle valves must be done slow enough so as to minimize
thermal stresses on the turbine. There is a fluid temperature reduction with
throttling. Once on the BT valves, the pressure throttling is across the BT valves
and the temperature to the turbine remains constant because of the superheaters
after the BTs. Changing load while on the BT valves is sliding pressure. This
means that varying the load in the 30% to 100% load range on the turbine
throttle valves is slow, but once on the BTs, the load can vary relatively fast as far
as the turbine is concerned.
The Sulzer BE, BTB, and BT valve are extremely heavy-duty valves. They were
designed for the start-up and shutdown of the unit as discussed so far. However,
extended time at low load using these valves and actuators was not in the
original scope.
So the question is, What should be done to address extended low load or sliding
pressure operation of the unit?
If sliding pressure (extended service time) is done, the BT valve trim should be
changed from linear to equal-percentage flow characteristic. Also the actuator
size should be increased to enable full pressure range operation on the BT valves.
The equal-percentage characteristic is required so there is a smooth change
in flow as each successive BT valve is opened or closed. Especially important
is when the first BT is opened. At that time the BTB is controlling waterwall
pressure. The BTB trim has about 10 times less plug area than the BT plug area.
When the BT opens, the BTB valve must close to maintain waterwall pressure as
the flow is increased through the BT valve. With the significant difference in plug
size, the equal percentage trim in the BT would allow smooth increase of flow
while minimizing waterwall pressure swing. The equal-percentage trim requires
a larger seat ring bore in the BT valve in order to maintain the same maximum
capacity (Cv). The BT valves combined maximum capacity must be at least the
same as before. The resistances between the pump and turbine (called parasitic
power) must not increase. The forgoing is addressing extended operation on the
BT and BTB valves down to about 10% load on once-through operation.
The unit could transfer to the start-up system for low load down to
approximately 7%. However, transfer from once-through to the start-up system
introduces problems of feedwater control and feedwater chemistry. The frequent
cycling of the unit for sliding pressure or for low load operation is best done on
once-through operation.

The Start-up for the CE Unit, and the Start-up


Valves Interface is Shown for a Base-Loaded Plant (continued)

41

With BT valves modified with equal-percentage trim, increased seat ring size for capacity, and larger actuators, the unit can be
operated on sliding pressure to a higher load than 30%. Shown below is a 70% system showing the start-up and once-through
ranges of the Sulzer valves:
This system could be configured with only the BT valves. However the BTB capacity addition at 100% load is of benefit for
minimizing parasitic power.

42

B&W, FW and CE, Nomenclature of Start-up Valves Listed


According to Function

The operation of the bypass system can be broken down into two basic areas of control: the low load and pressure portion of
the pumping and firing controls, and the flash tank sub-loop controls.
The pumping and firing rate controls include the control of the boiler feedpump, the firing rate and control of critical control
valves.

Control Valve

Primary

Secondary

Manufacture
Control Valve
Base Lord
Function
B&W
Manufacture
Cycling

bypass

bypass

H1 Press

Pressure
Turbine
Function
These critical valves
for the three
major once-through
boiler
manufacturers
are shown
below:
Superheater
Superheater
Superheater
201
Pressure
Reducing

Base Lord 202


Base Lord N/A

207
P

201
W

200
Y

210
U

N/A
N/A

207
P

401
W (large)

N/A
Y

210
U

N/A
BE

P
N/A

W
BTB

Y
BT

U
SD (U)

N/A
BE

P
N/A

W (large)
Y
BT by CCI N/A

U
SD/U

Base Lord BE

N/A

BTB

BT

SD (U)

Cycling

N/A

BT by CCI

N/A

SD/U

Base Lord
Foster
Base Lord
Comb.
Wheeler
Cycling
Eng.
Cycling
Comb.
Eng.

bypass

stopvalve

Secondary
207
Superheater
bypass
207

BFoster
&W
Wheeler Cycling
Cycling

Primary
202
Superheater
bypass
N/A

Reducing

BE

401

H1 Press
200
210
Turbine
Superheater
bypass
stopvalve
N/A
210

The flash tank subloop controls include the following valves in the three boiler designs.

Control Valve
Function
Manufacture
Control Valve
B & WFunction
Manufacture
Foster Wheeler

Superheater
stopvalve
205
Superheater
stopvalve
N

High
Deaerater
pressure
Pegging
heater steam

Flash
tank over
pressure

Flash
tank level
control

High
220
231
Deaerater
pressure
Pegging
heater steam
C
B

Flash
240
tank over
pressure
A/F

Flash
241
tank level
control
D

B&W
Comb. Eng.

205
SA

220
?

231
dea peg

240
SP

241
WD

Foster Wheeler

A/F

Comb. Eng.

SA

dea peg

SP

WD

Figures 1 Through 3
Base-Loaded Configurations

Figure 1
Babcox & Wilcox
Once Thru Unit

Figure 2
Foster Wheeler
Once Thru Unit

Figure 3
Combustion Engineering
Once Thru Unit

43

44

Figure 4
Riley Stroker
Once Thru Unit

Figures 4
Base-Loaded Configuration

Figures 5 Through 7
Sliding Pressure Configurations

Figure 5
Babcox & Wilcox
Once-Through Unit

Figure 6
Foster Wheeler
Once-Through Unit

Figure 7
Combustion Engineering
Once-Through Unit

45

46

Power Plants Which Utilize Turbine Bypass Systems

Typical Layout for HP


and LP Bypass Valves

CCI DRAG Control Valves with Downstream


Water Injection for Turbine Bypass Applications

47

48

Heat Recovery Steam Generator

B&W Benson Boiler

49

50

Stein Boiler (Benson Boiler)

51

52

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online at: www.ccivalve.com
Throughout the world, customers rely on CCI companies to solve their
severe service control valve problems. CCI has provided custom solutions
for these and other industry applications for more than 80 years.

DRAG is a registered trademark of CCI.


2010 CCI 959 06/10 #K