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Original Title: Basic Electrical

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BASIC ELECTRICAL

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IN

Presently 3- AC system is very popular and being used worldwide for power

generation, power transmission, distribution and for electric motors.

Three phase system has the following advantages as compare to single phase

system:

1. Power to weight ratio of 3- alternator is high as compare to 1-

alternator. Means for generation for same amount of Electric Power, the

size of 3- alternator is small as compare to 1- Alternator. Hence, the

overall cost of alternator is reduced for generation of same amount of

power. Moreover, of due to reduction in weight, transportation and

BASIC ELECTRICAL

accommodate the alternator in power house.

2. For electric power transmission and distribution of same amount of

power, the requirement of conductor material is less in 3- system as

compare to 1- system. Hence, the 3- transmission and distribution

system is economical as compare 1- system.

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3. Let us consider the power produced by single phase supply and 3-phase

supply at unity power factor. Wave form of power produce due 1-phase

supply at unity power factor is shown in figure (C) and Wave form of

power produced due to 3-phase supply is shown in figure (D) below.

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICAL

&

From power wave forms shown in figure (C) and (D) above it is clear that in 3phase system, the instantaneous power is always constant over the cycle results

in smooth and vibration free operation of machine. Whereas in 1- system the

instantaneous power is pulsating hence change over the cycle, which leads to

vibrations in machines.

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to single phase induction motor. Means for same amount of Mechanical

Power, the size of three phase induction motor is small as compare to single

phase induction motor. Hence, the overall cost of induction motor is reduced.

Moreover, due to reduction in weight, transportation and installation of

induction motor become convenient and less space is required to accommodate

the Induction motor.

3-phase induction motor is self-started as the magnetic flux produced by 3phase supply is rotating in nature with constant magnitude. Whereas 1-

induction motor is not self-started as the magnetic flux produced by 1- supply

is pulsating in nature. Hence, we have to make some arrangement to make the

1- induction motor self-started. Which further increase the cost of 1-

induction motor.

3-phase motor is having better power factor and efficiency as compare to 1-

motor.

BASIC ELECTRICAL

transformer. Means for same amount of Electric Power, the size of 3-phase

transformer is small as compare to 1- transformer. Hence, the overall cost of

transformer is reduced. Moreover, due to reduction in weight, transportation and

installation of transformer become convenient and less space is required to

accommodate the transformer.

If fault occurs in any winding of 3-phase transformer, the rest of two winding

can be used in open delta to serve the 3-phase load which is not possible in 1-

transformer. This ability of 3-phase transformer further increase the reliability

of 3-phase transformer.

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possible.

&

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rectified from 1- supply is having the ripple factor 48.2 %. Mean DC rectified

from 3- supply contains less ripples as compare to DC rectified from 1-

supply. Hence the requirement of filter is reduced for DC rectified from 3-phase

supply. Which reduce the overall cost of convector.

From above it clear the 3-phase system is more economical, efficient, reliable

and convenient as compare to 1- system.

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There are two types of system available in electric circuit, single phase and

three phase system. In single phase circuit, there will be only one phase, i.e the

current will flow through only one wire and there will be one return path called

neutral line to complete the circuit. So in single phase minimum amount of

power can be transported. Here the generating station and load station will also

be single phase. This is an old system using from previous time. In 1882, new

invention has been done on polyphase system, that more than one phase can be

used for generating, transmitting and for load system. Three phase circuit is

the polyphase system where three phases are send together from the generator to

the load. Each phase are having a phase difference of 120, i.e 120 angle

electrically. So from the total of 360, three phases are equally divided into 120

each. The power in three phase system is continuous as all the three phases are

involved in generating the total power. The sinusoidal waves for 3 phase system

is shown below4

BASIC ELECTRICAL

GA

IN

The three phases can be used as single phase each. So if the load is single phase,

then one phase can be taken from the three phase circuit and the neutral can be

used as ground to complete the circuit.

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There are various reasons for this question because there are numbers of

advantages over single phase circuit. The three phase system can be used as

three single phase line so it can act as three single phase system. The three

phase generation and single phase generation is same in the generator except the

arrangement of coil in the generator to get 120 phase difference. The conductor

needed in three phase circuit is 75% that of conductor needed in single phase

circuit. And also the instantaneous power in single phase system falls down to

zero as in single phase we can see from the sinusoidal curve but in three phase

system the net power from all the phases gives a continuous power to the load.

Till now we can say that there are three voltage source connected together to

form a three phase circuit. And actually it is inside the generator. The generator

is having three voltage source s which are acting together in 120 phase

difference. If we can arrange three single phase circuit with 120 phase

difference, then it will become a three phase circuit. So 120 phase difference is

must otherwise the circuit will not work, the three phase load will not be able to

get active and it may also cause damage to the system. The size or metal

quantity of three phase devices is not having much difference. Now if we

consider the transformer, it will be almost same size for both single phase and

three phase because transformer will make only the linkage of flux. So the three

phase system will have higher efficiency compared to single phase because for

the same or little difference in mass of transformer, three phase line will be out

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BASIC ELECTRICAL

whereas in single phase it will be only one. And losses will be minimum in

three phase circuit. So overall in conclusion the three phase system will have

better and higher efficiency compared to the single phase system. In three phase

circuit, connections can be given in two types:

1. Star connection

2. Delta connection

Star Connection

GA

IN

In star connection, there is four wire, three wires are phase wire and fourth is

neutral which is taken from the star point. Star connection is preferred for long

distance power transmission because it is having the neutral point. In this we

need to come to the concept of balanced and unbalanced current in power

system.

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&

When equal current will flow through all the three phases, then it is called as

balanced current. And when the current will not be equal in any of the phase,

then it is unbalanced current. In this case, during balanced condition there will

be no current flowing through the neutral line and hence there is no use of the

neutral terminal. But when there will be unbalanced current flowing in the three

phase circuit, neutral is having a vital role. It will take the unbalanced current

through to the ground and protect the transformer. Unbalanced current affects

transformer and it may also cause damage to the transformer and for this star

connection is preferred for long distance transmission. The star connection is

shown below-

IN

BASIC ELECTRICAL

&

GA

In star connection, the line voltage is 3 times of phase voltage. Line voltage is

the voltage between two phases in three phase circuit and phase voltage is the

voltage between one phase to the neutral line. And the current is same for both

line and phase. It is shown as expression below

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parallel, then the three currents will flow in neutral wire which quantities would

be same, but they would be differ by 120 (out of phase), hence the vector sum

of these three currents = 0. i.e.

IR + IY + IB = 0 . Victorially

The voltage between any two terminals or Voltage between Line and Neutral

(Star Point) is called Phase voltage or Star voltage. And the voltage between

two Lines is called Line to Line Voltage or Line Voltage

BASIC ELECTRICAL

1. Line Voltages and Phase Voltages in Star Connection

We know that the Line Voltage between Line 1 and Line 2 (from fig 3a) is

VRY = VR VY . (Vector Difference)

&

= 2 x VPH x Cos 30

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shown in the dotted form in the below fig 2. Similarly, on the both ends of

vector VR and Vector VY, make perpendicular dotted lines which look like a

parallelogram as shown in fig (2). The Diagonal line which divides the

parallelogram into two parts, showing the value of VRY. The angle between

VY and VR vectors is 60.

Similarly,

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VYB = VY VB

= 3 VPH

= 3 VPH

And

VBR = VB VR

= 3 VPH

Hence, it is proved that VRY = VYB = VBR is line voltages VL in Star Connection,

Therefore, in Star Connection;

VL = 3 VPH or VL = 3 EPH

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICAL

The angle between line currents and respective line voltages are

(30+), i.e. each line current is lagging (30+) from the corresponding

line voltage.

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&

It is seen from the fig (3a) that each line is in series with individual phase

winding, therefore, the value of line current is same as in Phase windings to

which the line is connected. i.e.;

Current in Line 1 = IR

Current in Line 2 = IY

Current in Line 3 = IB

Since, the flowing currents in all three lines are same, and the individual current

in each line is equal to the corresponding phase current, therefore;

IR = IY = IB = IPH . The phase current

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BASIC ELECTRICAL

IL = IPH

GA

IN

In simple words, the value of Line Current and Phase Current is same in Star

Connection.

&

In a three phase AC circuit, the total True or Active power is the sum of the

three phase power. Or the sum of the all three phase powers is the Total Active

or True Power.

BE

A

Or

.. Eq (1)

Good to Know: Where Cos = Power factor = the phase angle between Phase

Voltage and Phase Current and not between Line current and line voltage.

We know that the values of Phase Current and Phase Voltage in Star

Connection;

IL = IPH

VPH = VL /3 .. (From VL = 3 VPH)

Putting these values in power eq. (1)

P = 3 x (VL/3) x IL x Cos ..

(VPH = VL /3)

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BASIC ELECTRICAL

P = 3 x VL x IL x Cos

Hence proved;

Power in Star Connection,

P = 3 x VPH x IPH x Cos or

P = 3 x VL x IL x Cos

Similarly,

IN

GA

Good to know: Reactive Power of Inductive coil is taken as Positive (+) and

that of a Capacitor as Negative (-).

Also, the total apparent power of the three phases

Total Apparent Power = S = 3 x VL x IL

&

Delta Connection

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A

In delta connection, there is three wires alone and no neutral terminal is taken.

Normally delta connection is preferred for short distance due to the problem of

unbalanced current in the circuit. The figure is shown below for delta

connection. In the load station, ground can be used as neutral path if required.

In this system of interconnection, the starting ends of the three phases or coils

are connected to the finishing ends of the coil. Or the starting end of the first

coil is connected to the finishing end of the second coil and so on (for all three

coils) and it looks like a closed mesh or circuit as shown in fig

In more clear words, all three coils are connected in series to form a close mesh

or circuit. Three wires are taken out from three junctions and the all outgoing

currents from junction assumed to be positive.

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BASIC ELECTRICAL

circuit, but this is not true, if the system is balanced, then the value of the

algebraic sum of all voltages around the mesh is zero.

When a terminal is open, then there is no chance of flowing currents with basic

frequency around the closed mesh.

Good to Remember: at any instant, the EMF value of one phase is equal to the

resultant of the other two phases EMF values but in the opposite direction.

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IN

Delta or Mesh Connection System is also called Three Phase Three Wire

System (3-Phase 3 Wire) and it is the best and suitable system for AC Power

Transmission.

In delta connection, the line voltage is same with that of phase voltage. And the

line current is 3 times of phase current. It is shown as expression below,

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BASIC ELECTRICAL

IN

&

GA

It is seen from fig 2 that there is only one phase winding between two terminals

(i.e. there is one phase winding between two wires). Therefore, in Delta

Connection, the voltage between (any pair of) two lines is equal to the phase

voltage of the phase winding which is connected between two lines. Since the

phase sequence is R Y B, therefore, the direction of voltage from R phase

towards Y phase is positive (+), and the voltage of R phase is leading by

120from Y phase voltage. Likewise, the voltage of Y phase is leading by 120

from the phase voltage of B and its direction is positive from Y towards B.

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Line 2 and Line 3 = VYB

Line 3 and Line 1 = VBR

Then, we see that VRY leads VYB by 120 and VYB leads VBR by 120.

Lets suppose,

Then

VL = VPH

I.e. in Delta connection, the Line Voltage is equal to the Phase Voltage.

2. Line Currents and Phase Currents in Delta Connection

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BASIC ELECTRICAL

It will be noted from the below (fig-2) that the total current of each Line is equal

to the vector difference between two phase currents flowing through that line.

i.e.;

Current in Line 1= I1 = IR IB

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{Vector Difference}

between IR and IB and we can do that by increasing the IB Vector in reverse, so

that, IR and IB makes a parallelogram. The diagonal of that parallelogram shows

the vector difference of IR and IB which is equal to Current in Line 1= I1.

Moreover, by reversing the vector of IB, it may indicate as (-IB), therefore, the

angle between IR and -IB (IB, when reversed = -IB) is 60. If,

IR = IY = IB = IPH . The phase currents

Then;

The current flowing in Line 1 would be;

IL or I1 = 2 x IPH x Cos (60/2)

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BASIC ELECTRICAL

= 2 x IPH x Cos 30

= 2 x IPH x (3/2) Since Cos 30 = 3/2

= 3 IPH

i.e. In Delta Connection, The Line current is 3 times of Phase Current

Similarly, we can find the reaming two Line currents as same as above. i.e.,

I2 = IY IR Vector Difference = 3 IPH

I3 = IB IY Vector difference = 3 IPH

IN

Hence

IL = 3 IPH

&

GA

I1 = I2 = I3 = IL

(30+), i.e. each line current is lagging by (30+) from the

corresponding line voltage.

BE

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We know that the power of each phase

Power / Phase = VPH x IPH x Cos

And the total power of three phases;

Total Power = P = 3 x VPH x IPH x Cos .. (1)

We know that the values of Phase Current and Phase Voltage in Delta

Connection;

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BASIC ELECTRICAL

VPH = VL

Putting these values in power eq. (1)

P = 3 x VL x ( IL/3) x Cos (IPH = IL / /3)

P = 3 x3 x VL x ( IL/3) x Cos { 3 = 3x3 }

P = 3 x VLx IL x Cos

Hence proved;

Power in Delta Connection,

IN

P = 3 x VL x IL x Cos

GA

Good to Know: Where Cos = Power factor = the phase angle between Phase

Voltage and Phase Current and not between Line current and line voltage.

Good to Remember:

&

In both Star and Delta Connections, The total power on balanced load is same.

Good to know:

BE

A

All phase voltages are in phase by each other i.e. 360/3 = 120

All phase Currents are in phase by each other i.e. 360/3 = 120

across three phases are identical.

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BASIC ELECTRICAL

In three phase circuit, star and delta connection can be arranged in four different

ways1. Star-Star connection

2. Star-Delta connection

3. Delta-Star connection

4. Delta-Delta connection

GA

IN

But the power is independent of the circuit arrangement of the three phase

system. The net power in the circuit will be same in both star and delta

connection. The power in three phase circuit can be calculated from the

equation below,

Since, there is three phases,

so the multiple of 3 is made in the normal power equation and the PF is power

factor. Power factor is a very important factor in three phase system and some

times due to certain error, it is corrected by using capacitors.

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&

Delta () Connection

finishing ends (Similar ends) of three

coils are connected together to form the

neutral point. A common wire is taken out

from the neutral point which is called

Neutral.

of three coils are connected together. In

other words, the end of each coil is

connected with the start of another coil,

and three wires are taken out from the

coil joints

Three phase three wire system is derived

from Star Connections (3-Phase, 4

from Delta Connections (3-Phase, 3

Wires System) We may Also derived 3

Wires System)

Phase 3 Wire System from Star

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BASIC ELECTRICAL

Connection

Line Current is Equal to Phase Current. Line Voltage is Equal to Phase Voltage.

i.e.

i.e.

Line Current = Phase Current

Line Voltage = Phase Voltage

IL = IPH

VL = VPH

Line Voltage is 3 times of Phase Line Current is 3 times of Phase

Voltage. i.e.

Current. i.e.

VL = 3 VPH

IL = 3 IPH

GA

IN

The Total Power of three phases could The Total Power of three phases could

be found by

be found by

P = 3 x VL x IL x Cos . Or

P = 3 x VL x IL x Cos or

P = 3 x VPH x IPH x Cos

P = 3 x VPH x IPH x Cos

The speeds of Delta connected motors

The speeds of Star connected motors are

are high because each phase gets the

slow as they receive 1/3 voltage.

total of line voltage

&

In Delta connection, The phase voltage

low as 1/3 of the line voltage, so, it

is equal to the line voltage, hence, it

needs low number of turns, hence,

needs more number of turns.

saving in copper.

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A

is low

voltage = Line Voltage.

In Power Distribution and industries,

In Power Transmission, Star Connection

Delta Connection is general and typical

system is general and typical to be used.

to be used.

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BASIC ELECTRICAL

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