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Homer Reid

June 17, 2002

Chapter 8

Problem 8.4

The Lagrangian for a system can be written as

L = ax 2 + b

p

y

+ cx y + f y 2 x z + g y k x2 + y 2 ,

x

are conserved?

Problem 8.5

A dynamical system has the Lagrangian

L = q12 +

q22

+ k1 q12 + k2 q1 q2 ,

a + bq12

where a, b, k1 and k2 are constants. Find the equations of motion in the Hamiltonian

formulation.

Rewriting the Lagrangian in the form of Goldsteins (8-16), we have

L = k1 q12 +

1

2

q1 q2

1

2

k2

k2

2

a+bq12

q1

q2

From this we can immediately identify the T matrix and its inverse:

2

2

k2

k2

a + bq12

2

1

a+bq

1

T=

T =

2

k2 a+bq

2

4 k22 (a + bq12 )

k2

2

1

Then the Hamiltonian is

2

k2

1

a + bq12

p1

2

a+bq

1

H=

p1 p2

k1 q12

p2

2 4 k22 (a + bq12 )

k2

2

p21

a + bq12

2

=

k2 p1 p2 + p2 k1 q12 .

4 k22 (a + bq12 )

a + bq12

Then the equations of motion are

H

2p1

a + bq12

q1 =

=

k 2 p2

p1

4 k22 (a + bq12 )

a + bq12

H

a + bq12

{kp1 2p2 }

q2 =

=

p2

4 k22 (a + bq12 )

H

= something ugly

p1 =

q1

H

p2 =

=0

q2

So in the Hamiltonian formulation there is one cylic variable, but I still think

this is much harder than the Lagrangian formulation for this problem.

Problem 8.6

A Hamiltonian of one degree of freedom has the form

H=

ba

kq 2

p2

bqpet + q 2 et ( + bet ) +

,

2a

2

2

where a, b, , and k are constants. Note: I think there must be a misprint in the

book; the coefficient of p2 in the first term is printed there as 1/2, which doesnt

make sense dimensionally in light of the rest of the terms in the Hamiltonian. It

seems reasonable to assume that someone got their Greek and Roman letters mixed

up, as the units do work out correctly if we put 1/2a for the coefficient of that term.

(a) Find a Lagrangian corresponding to this Hamiltonian.

(b) Find an equivalent Lagrangian that is not explicitly dependent on time.

(c) What is the Hamiltonian corresponding to this second Lagrangian, and what

is the relationship between the two Hamiltonians?

(a) From the Hamilton equations of motion,

q =

p

H

= bqet .

p

a

(1)

L = pq H

2

p2

p

ba

kq 2

bqpet

bqpet + q 2 et ( + bet ) +

a

2a

2

2

2

2

ba

kq

p

q 2 et ( + bet )

.

=

2a

2

2

(2)

From (1) we

have

p = aq + bqaet

p2 = a2 q2 + 2bq qa

2 et + b2 q 2 a2 e2t

so (2) becomes

aq2

1

baq 2 t b2 aq 2 2t kq 2

+ bq qae

t + b2 q 2 ae2t

e

2

2

2

2

2

aq2

kq 2

1

t

=

+ bqae

.

(3)

q q

2

2

2

L=

(b) Since we can the total time derivative of any function f (q, q,

t) to the Lagrangian without changing the resulting equations of motion, we consider

d ab 2 t

0

.

q e

L =L

dt 2

The derivative term just cancels the second term in (3), leaving

L0 =

aq2

kq 2

2

2

(4)

(c) From (4), the new canonical momentum is

p=

L0

= aq

q

H = pq L =

=

kq 2

aq2

+

2

2

p2

kq 2

+

.

2a

2

Problem 8.9

The point of suspension of a simple pendulum of length l and mass m is constrained

to move on a parabola z = ax2 in the vertical plane. Derive a Hamiltonian governing

the motion of the pendulum and its point of suspension. Obtain the Hamiltons

equations of motion.

Well denote the coordinates of the suspension point as (x, z) = (x, ax2 ).

Then, if is the angle the pendulum makes with the vertical ( = 0 when the

mass point is precisely at 6:00, and grows in the positive direction as the mass

point moves counter-clockwise) then the coordinates of the mass point are

(xm , zm ) = (x + L sin , z L cos )

= (x + L sin , ax2 L cos ).

The potential energy of the system is

L = mgz = mg(ax2 L cos ).

(5)

m 2

2

(x + zm

)

2 m

m

(x + L cos )2 + (2axx + L sin )2

=

2

o

mn

(1 + 4a2 x2 )x 2 + L2 2 + 2L x [cos + 2ax sin ] .

=

2

T =

(6)

Then the Lagrangian for the system is, from (7) and (6),

L=T L

o

mn

(1 + 4a2 x2 )x 2 + L2 2 + 2Lx [cos + 2ax sin ] mgax2 + mgL cos .

=

2

For convenience in converting to the Hamiltonian, we may write this in the

language of Goldsteins (8-16):

m

x

(1 + 4a2 x2 )

L[cos + 2ax sin ]

L = L0 (x, ) +

x

L[cos + 2ax sin ]

L2

2

(7)

where L0 (x, ) = mgax2 + mgL cos . Then from Goldsteins (??) we can

write

1

1

H=

2m L2 (sin 2ax cos )2

px

L2

L[cos + 2ax sin ]

L0 (x, )

(px p )

p

L[cos + 2ax sin ]

(1 + 4a2 x2 )

1

1

=

2

2m L (sin 2ax cos )2

2 2

2 2 2

L px 2L[cos + 2ax sin ]px p + (1 + 4a x )p L0 (x, )

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