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DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS

Kod M/Pelajaran/

ENGINEERING LABORATORY V

Subject Code

BDA37201

SURFACE TENSION IN
DIFFERENT MEDIUM AND
TEMPERATURE

Kod & Tajuk Ujikaji/


Code & Title of Experiment
Kod Kursus/

BDA37201

Course Code
Kumpulan/Group

GROUP 1C

Nama Pelajar/Name of Student


Lecturer/Instructor/Tutors Name
Nama Ahli Kumpulan/
Group Members

Seksyen /Section
1
No. K.P / I.C No.
No. Matrik

1. DR. NORMAYATI BINTI NORDIN


2.
No. Matrik

Penilaian / Assesment

1.

MUHAMMAD AZHAR BIN


IBRAHIM

AD140168

Teori / Theory

10 %

2.

MUHAMAD AMEER
ASSRAF BIN ZAIDI

AD140174

Keputusan / Results

15 %

3.

MOHD NOOR ZAINI BIN


MOHD ZIN

AD140010

Pemerhatian /Observation

20 %

4.

MOHD HAFIDZUL ASHRAF


BIN NAZERI

AD130109

Pengiraan / Calculation

10 %

5.

MUHAMMAD AFIQ
HUSAINI BIN MOHD IDRIS

CD140065

Perbincangan /
Discussions

25 %

16/10/2016

Kesimpulan / Conclusion

15 %

30/10/2016

Rujukan / References

Tarikh Ujikaji /
Date of Experiment
Tarikh Hantar /
Date of Submission

JUMLAH / TOTAL
ULASAN
PEMERIKSA/COMMENTS

5%
100%

COP
DITERIMA/APPROVED
STAMP
FLUID MECHANICS 1I LABORATORY

TITLE: SURFACE TENSION IN DIFFERENT LIQUID

OBJECTIVE:
1. To determine how to measure surface tension using capillary rise method
2. To determine difference surface tension of difference liquid
3. To determine the effect of different temperature on surface tension

THEORY:
Liquids possess some properties like density, viscosity, surface tension etc. Out of these
properties, surface tension is the only property of liquid because of which the solids having greater
density than that of liquid can float on to the surface of liquid. Also the shapes of drop are governed
by the property of surface tension. The purity of certain liquids decides the value of surface tension.
Surface tension of different liquids according to various parameters like temperature, concentration
was studied.
Liquids are distinguished from gases, they exhibit a free surface. The free surface of liquid
possesses certain mechanical properties; these mechanical properties are due to cohesion between
molecules, which is molecular attraction. The free surface of liquid i.e. surface of a separation
between liquid and liquid or gas acts like a stretched (elastic) thin membrane, this membrane is
under tension and tries to contract. The property of free liquid surface showing contracting tendency
is called surface tension.
Surface tension, also often known as interfacial tension is an important property of a liquid.
In simple terms, it is the force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the surface area
it affects physical properties such as wet ability of a liquid. Often surface tension is observed as the
formation of a meniscus in containers or as the formation of droplets or bubbles on a surface. In the
dairy industry, surface tension of milk is an important property as it has an impact on the formation
of emulsions

Capillary rise method the oldest method used for surface tension determination. A
consequence of the surface tension appearance at the liquid/gas interface is moving up of the liquid
into a thin tube that is capillary, which is usually made of glass. This phenomenon was applied for
determination of the liquid surface tension.
For this purpose, a thin circular capillary is dipped into the tested liquid. If the interaction
forces of the liquid with the capillary walls (adhesion) are stronger than those between the liquid
molecules (cohesion), the liquid wets the walls and rises in the capillary to a defined level and the
meniscus is hemispherical concave.

Capillary rise method is simple, easy and less expensive.

Capillary rise due surface tension

angle of contact for wetting

Let r be the radius of the tube at the point up to which the liquid rises into it. then it will
be practically the same as the radius if the concave meniscus, so that the excess pressure above
the meniscus over that immediately below it is 2/r i.e. the pressure in the liquid, just below the
meniscus is less than the atmospheric pressure, above it by 2/r. Since the pressure on the liquid
surface, outside the tube is atmospheric, the liquid will be forced up into the tube, until the
hydrostatic pressure of the liquid column in the tube equals the pressure 2/r. If the liquid rises
to a height h the hydrostatic pressure due the liquid column in the tube on the surface of
liquid will clearly be hg.
Where is the density of
liquid:

Thus 2/r = hg

or

= rhg/2

--------- (1)

In case, however the angle of contact for the liquid be not zero shown in fig.2 and the tube
not narrow, the surface tension of the liquid acts inward along the tangent to the liquid
meniscus at every point of its contact with the inner surface of the tube , making an angle
with the wall of the tube. If however, volume be not negligible, its valve may be determined by
taking the meniscus to be hemispherical in shape of radius nearly equal to r i.e. the same as
that of tube at that place so that the volume of the liquid in the meniscus is equal to the
difference between the volumes of the cylinder of radius r.

V = r2.r (2/3) r3

= 1/3 r3

------ (2)

In this case

2r cos = [r2 h + (1/3)r3] .g

----- (3)

Where r2 h is the volume of the liquid column with height h and

r Capillary radius,
Density of liquid,

Liquid surface tension,


Wetting contact angle.

Therefore
= r2 [h + (r/3)] .g / 2r cos

for

----- (4)

= 0, cos = 1 we have

= r [h + (r/3)] .g / 2 dynes/cm

----- (5)

If is greater than 900, cos is negative and the liquid column is depressed below, i.e. h
is negative. Hence it is so difficult to introduce mercury for which ( = 1400 nearly) into a fine
capillary tube

MATERIAL AND APPARATUS:

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

Detergent
Cooking oil
Water
Capillary tube
Beaker
Ruler
Lens
High Definition Camera

PROCEDURE:

Figure 1.1
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

The apparatus was set up as a figure above.


1 litre detergent was filled into the beaker.
The capillary tube was dipped vertically into the detergent.
The capillary was hold tube by using retort stand.
The detergent was rise up immediately into capillary tube.
The height of rise of the detergent in capillary tube was
recorded.
7) The different temperature of detergent was used and the height
also recorded.
8) The meniscus occur was snapped getting from capillary tube
9) The capillary tube was washed before repeat the experiment
10) Do the step (2) (7) by using water and cooking oil
11) The data was recorded.

CALCULATION:
Example calculation:
a) Using detergent at 27oc
Height, h=0.030m
meniscus angle, =20o
Radius, r =0.0014m
density, =971kg/m3
Gravity, g=9.81m/s2

Use formula: =

( 0.0014 )2 0.030+
=

[ ( )]

r
g
3
2 rcos

r 2 h+

971 ( 9.81 )
( 0.0014
3 )]

2 ( 0.0014 ) cos 20

= 0.216 N/m
b) Using cooking oil at 27oc
Height, h=0.035m
meniscus angle, =12o
Radius, r =0.0014m
density, =842kg/m3
Gravity, g=9.81m/s2

Use formula: =

( 0.0014 )2 0.035+
=

( 3r )] g

r 2 h+

2 rcos

842 ( 9.81 )
( 0.0014
3 )]

2 ( 0.0014 ) cos 12

= 0.210 N/m

c) Using water at 27oc


Height, h=0.015m
Radius, r =0.0014m
Gravity, g=9.81m/s2

Use formula: =

( 0.0014 )2 0.015+
=

meniscus angle, =11o


density, =1000kg/m3

[ ( )]

r
g
3
2 rcos

r 2 h+

1000 ( 9.81 )
( 0.0014
3 )]

2 ( 0.0014 ) cos 11

= 0.108 N/m

OBSERVATION:
-the apparatus was set up just like the figure
-step by step follow according the procedure
-state the observation sampingan
DISCUSSIONS:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

Complete all data required in the data sheets


Find the value of angle for each liquid related to surface tension
Calculate the surface tension by using given formula for each liquid
Construct a graph
Compare three of liquid in term of surface tension
Discuss other properties of fluid related to this experiment

QUESTIONS:
a) Which liquid has highest surface tension?
b) Does the temperature affect the surface tension?
c) Does the density affect the surface tension?
CONCLUSIONS:
Deduce conclusion from the experiment. Please comment on your experimental work in
term of achievement, problems faced throughout the experiment and suggest recommendation
for improvement.
REFERENCES:
a) Instrustion Manual of H10 Flow Measuring Apparatus, TQ Education And Tranning Ltd.
Robert A. Granger (1988), Experiment in Fluid Mechanics HRW, Inc.
b) Robert L. Mott, Applied Fluid Mechanics (2006), 5th Edition , Prentice Hall.
c) Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala, Fluid Mechanics Fundamental And Application
(2006), Mc Graw Hill.
d) Bruce R. Munson, Donald F. Young, Theodore H. Okiishi (2006), Fundamental of Fluid
Mechanics, 5th Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc

APPENDICES:

15 degree oil

20 degree oil

25 degree detergent

27 degree detergent

15 degree water

20 degree water

25 degree oil

25 degree water