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CHM 421 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

CHM 421
Analytical Chemistry
EXPERIMENT 3
TITLE: Neutralization Capacity Of Commercial
Antacid Tablet
NAME:

MUHAMMAD AMIRUL AKMAL BIN MOHD


HASAN

STUDENT ID:

2014217884

GROUP :

ED2605A

PROGRAMME :

EDUCATION

DATE OF
EXPERIMENT :

18/10/2016

DATE REPORT
SUBMITTED :

25/10/2016

CHM 421 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

LECTURER :

MADAM SUHAILA BINTI HANAPI

EXPERIMENT 3: Neutralization Capacity Of Commercial Antacid Tablet

ABSTRACT:
In this experiment, there are three main objectives that need to be achieved. Firstly is to
prepare 250ml of 0.5M hydrochloric acid solution from 6.M HCl. The volume of acid required is
calculated by using formula, MCVC = MDVD where the aftermath of calculation, volume of HCl
required is 20.8ml. Meanwhile, volume of distilled water that needs to be used in this preparation
is also calculated as it should be 80% of calculated volume of distilled water and is said to be
183.4ml of distilled water. In a 250ml of conical flask, these two solutions are mixed up well and
labeled as prepared hydrochloric acid solution that needs to be used throughout this experiment.
The second objective that needs to be achieved is to standardize the acid against sodium
hydroxide. The standard sodium hydroxide solution has been prepared earlier during previous
experiment 2 where the molarity of sodium hydroxide solution is said to be 0.14M. The prepared
hydrochloric acid solution is titrated with the standard sodium hydroxide solution and thus to
standardize the acid solution to get the molarity of HCl which is on average of 0.2933M. The last
objective for this experiment that needs to fulfill is to determine the neutralization capacity of a
commercial antacid tablet. The active ingredients found in the antacid tablet is aluminium
hydroxide, Al (OH)3. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the molarity of a solution
and the percent by mass of acetic acid, CH3COOH, in a commercial vinegar sample by titration
with a standardized sodium hydroxide solution. The percentage of CH3COOH was found to be
3.01%. The exact value was 4.00% from the label on the commercial vinegar sample.

OBJECTIVES:
1. To prepare hydrochloric acid solution.
2. To standardize the acid against sodium hydroxide.
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CHM 421 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

3. To determine neutralization capacity of a commercial antacid tablet.

INTRODUCTION:
The stomachs acidic interior is generated by "stomach acid" (essentially 0.1 M
hydrochloric acid). This acid is necessary for digestion but too much stomach acid can cause
discomfort. One way of relieving excess acidity in the stomach is to neutralize some of the acid
with a weak base or "antacid". Most antacids contain some kind of carbonate (for example,
NaHCO3 or CaCO3) that react with strong acid to make carbonic acid, H2CO3, which then
dissociates to water and carbon dioxide gas:

H2CO3 (aq)

H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

Many commercial preparations are available in tablet form. These tablets generally
contain binders and flavorings agents in addition to the weak base, so we cannot just assume that
a bigger tablet is more effective. Instead, we can determine the exact number of moles of base in
a tablet by reacting it with acid; this will be the tablets acid neutralizing capacity (ANC).
Instead of titrating the antacid directly with an acid, you will employ back-titration:
adding a known excess of acid to the tablets and then titrating the excess acid carefully with a
standard solution of strong base. There are two good reasons for this procedure: 1) most antacid
tablets dissolve very slowly in water but much faster in acids (since they react as they dissolve),
and 2) carbon dioxide from the air and from the breath dissolves in water and acts as an acid

CHM 421 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

(reacting immediately to neutralize any basic solution - thus it is best to avoid leaving basic
solutions standing in the air for long periods of time).

METHODS:
A. Preparation of the hydrochloric acid.
Volume of 6.0M HCl that need to prepare 250ml of 0.5M HCl and
volume of distilled water required were calculated.

About 80% of the required distilled water was poured into a 250ml
conical flask. The calculated volume of 6.0M HCl was measured and
transferred to the conical flask. Then, distilled water was added to make
up to 250ml mark on the conical flask.

The flask was carefully covered with parafilm and the solution was
mixed well. Then solution was labelled.

B. Standardization of the acid against sodium hydroxide.

A 50ml burette was rinsed and filled with standard NaOH solution. The
initial reading was recorded.

10.0 ml of prepared hydrochloric acid solution was accurately pipetted


and transferred into conical flask. 20ml distilled water and 3 drops pf
phenolphthalein was added to the flask and was titrated to the end-point
with standard NaOH solution.

The final reading of titrant was recorded and this titration was repeated
two times more.

CHM 421 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

C. Determination of neutralization capacity of an antacid tablet.


The burette used at procedure (B) was refilled with NaOH solution. The initial
reading was recorded.

One antacid tablet was obtained and the mass was weighed without touching it.
The mass of tablet was recorded.

The antacid tablet was carefully crashed using a mortar and pestle. The crush
tablet was split into two or three samples of about similar weights. Each sample
was reweighed and the mass was recorded. Then each sample was transferred to
a 250ml conical flask.

25ml of distilled water was measured and poured to flask. 25.0ml of standard
acid was dispensed using a volumetric pipette into the flask contained the
crashed tablet.

The content in the flask was heated on a hot plate and was boiled gently for 5
minutes. The solution in the flask was contained the remaining acid solution and
was checked using litmus paper.

The solution was let to cool down to room temperature by placing the flask in a
beaker of tap water. Then 5 drops of phenolphthalein indicator were added to the
solution. The titration was repeated with other two samples and the data was
recorded.

CHM 421 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

RESULTS:
EXPERIMENT 3 : NEUTRALISATION CAPACITY OF COMMERCIAL ANTACID
TABLET
A. PREPARATION OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID SOLUTION
Volume of 6.0 M HCL taken =
B. Standardisation of the acid against Sodium Hydroxide

Volume of the acid used (mL)


Final reading of NaOH
Initial reading of NaOH
Volume of NaOH (mL) used

Rough
10.0
24.2
50.0
25.8

1
10.0
26.0
50.0
24.0

2
10.0
25.0
50.0
25.0

C. Determination of Neutralisation Capacity of an Antacid Tablet.


Weight of one whole antacid tablet =

Weight of crushed antacid tablet


Volume of standard HCL added (mL)
Final reading of standard NaOH
Initial reading of standard NaOH
Volume of standard NaOH (mL) used

1
0.3000
25

2
0.2655
25

50.0
52.6

50.0
52.6

CALCULATION:
A. PREPARATION OF HYDROCHLORIC SOLUTION

McVc = MDVD

CHM 421 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Vc =

M 2V 2
Mc

(0.5 M )(250 mL)


6.0 M

= 20.8 mL

250 mL 20.8 mL = 229.2 mL H2O

80
x 229.2=183.4 mL H 2 O
100

B. STANDARDISATION OF THE ACID AGAINST SODIUM HYDROXIDE

Standard NaOH from experiment 2

10.0 mL HCl + 20.0 mL Distilled


Water + 3 drops of phenolphthalein
The chemical equation:

HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaCl (aq) + H2O (l)

MBVB = MAVA
MB = Molarity of NaOH from experiment 2 = 0.1827 M
VA = 10.0 mL
MA =?
VB = Volume of NaOH used from titration.
I.

ROUGH
Calculating Molarity of HCl, MA
= (0.1827 M x 25.8 mL) / 10.0 mL = 0.4714 M

II.

TITRATION 1
Calculating Molarity of HCl, MA
= (0.1827 M x 24.0 mL) / 10.0 mL = 0.4385 M
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CHM 421 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

III. TITRATION 2
Calculating Molarity of HCl, MA
= (0.1827 M x 25.0 mL) / 10.0 mL = 0.4568 M

Average Molarity = (0.4714 + 0.4385 + 0.4568) / 3 = 0.4556 M

C. DETERMINATION OF NEUTRALISATION CAPACITY OF AN ANTACID TABLET


Chemical Equation:

CaCO3 (s) + H+ (aq) Ca2+ (aq) + HCO3- (aq)


HCO3- (aq) + H+ (aq) H2CO3 (aq) CO2 (g) + H2O (l
MAVA=MBVB
MB = Molarity of standard solution NaOH = 0.1827 M
VB = Volume of NaOH used
VA = Volume of standard HCl added = 25 mL
MA =?
I.

TITRATION 1
Calculating of Molarity antacid HCl
= (0.1827 M x 52.6 mL) / 25.0 mL = 0.3444 M

II.

TITRATION 2
Calculating of Molarity antacid HCl
= (0.1827 M x 53.0 mL) / 25.0 mL = 0.3873 M

Average Molarity = (0.3444 + 0.3873) / 2 = 0.3659 M

Reading 1
No of mole = (0.3444M)(25mL)/1000 - (0.14M)(52.6mL)/1000 = 1.246 10-3 mol
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CHM 421 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O


3HCl + Al(OH)3 AlCl3 + 3H2O

1 mol of Al(OH)3 = 1.246 10-3 mol / 3 = 4.1533 10-4 mol


Mass of Al(OH)3 = 4.1533 10-4 mol

78.0036g/mol = 0.0324 g

Percentage of hydroxide per g of antacid sample


= 0.0324 g / 0.3000

100 = 10.80 %

Neutralization capacity of antacid per gram


= moles HCl neutralize / mass of antacid
= 7.33 10-3 mol/ 0.300 g = 0.0244

Reading 2
No of mole = (0.3873 M)(25mL)/1000 - (0.14M)(52.6mL)/1000 = 2.3185 10-3 mol
NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O
3HCl + Al(OH)3 AlCl3 + 3H2O

1 mol of Al(OH)3 = 2.3185 10-3 mol / 3 = 7.7283 10-4 mol


Mass of Al(OH)3 = 7.7283 10-4 mol
Percentage of hydroxide per g of antacid sample
= 0.06028 g g / 0.2655

100 = 22.70 %

78.0036g/mol = 0.06028 g

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CHM 421 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Neutralization capacity of antacid per gram


= moles HCl neutralize / mass of antacid
= 7.33 10-3 mol/ 0.2655 g = 0.0276

Neutralization capacity of one whole antacid tablet


= 0.0244/0.0276
=0.8841

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CHM 421 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

DISCUSSION:
The first part of this experiment is about a preparation of the hydrochloric acid solution,
where we need to calculate the volume of 6.0M HCl and prepare about 250 mL of 0.5M HCl.
The volume of 6.0 M HCl is taken about 20.8 mL, where the volume is taken from preparation of
250 mL of 0.5 M HCl. Then the volume taken is mixed with distilled water in the conical flask. In
other to determine the volume of H2O, we need to minus the volume of solution which is 250
mL with volume of HCl. Therefore, we can determine the volume of distilled water or H 20 from
the volume of HCl that we get by times it with 80% of volume H2O.
The second part of this experiment is about to standardize the acid against sodium hydroxide.
Where we will use standard NaOH solution from experiment 2 as a titrant. 10 mL volume of
hydrochloric acid we prepared before is used as an analyte with 20 mL of distilled water and 3
drops of phenolphthalein as an indicator. Then after we make a titration, the final reading of
NaOH for rough result is 24.2 mL, for second titration is 24.0 mL and the last titration is 25.0 mL.
From the result obtained, we can find the molarity of HCl by used a formula M BVB= MAVA; where
MB = Molarity of standard NaOH; V B = Volume of NaOH used in a titration; V A = Volume of Acid
used. Thus, the average molarity of HCl is 0.4566 M.
The last part of this experiment is to determine the neutralization capacity of an antacid tablet.
We know that the active ingredient in antacid tablets is usually carbonate ion (CO 32-) or
hydroxide ion (OH-). Thus, to determine the ability of carbonate ion to neutralize acid, we need
to dissolve the tablet in an excess amount of acid which HCl due to antacid table does not
dissolve in water alone. Some of the HCl will be neutralized by the carbonate, but there will be
some remaining. Then, we need to perform a titration with NaOH to figure out the amount of
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CHM 421 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY


excess acid. Then, from this, we can calculate how much acid reacted with the antacid. This
acid will react with the NaOH we are titrating and give us inaccurate results. Therefore, it is
important to boil the solution when the carbonate reacts with acid, to remove CO 2 as a gas.
Volume of HCl added is 25.0 mL as an analyte. From the titration result, then we obtained the
volume of NaOH used is 52.6 mL for first and second titration. Then from the result obtained we
determine the mass and the percentage of hydroxide ion is 16.44%.

Several precautionary steps need to be taken. Firstly, make sure all the apparatus that
going to be used are clean as possible to avoid any contamination occurs. Secondly, the proper
handling and the correct technique to measure correct volume of reactant and time should give
more attention to reduce results error. Lastly, make sure to dispose any waste chemicals in the
assigned disposable area.
In order to have more accurate, the experiment must be repeated at least three time and
the accuracy must be improved. Besides that, the using of new instruments and pure chemical
substances may avoid systematic error during the experiment. The apparatus must always been
clean with distilled water to avoid.

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CHM 421 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

CONCLUSION:

From the experiment, it is known that the average molarity of HCl during standardization against
sodium hydroxide solution is 0.2933M while the capacity of neutralization of one whole antacid
tablet is said to be 0.8841.

QUESTIONS:
1. Acid is always added to water, and never reverse. Why?.
A large amount of heat is released when strong acids are mixed with water. If water was
added to acid, it form an extremely concentrated solution of acid initially. So much heat
is released that the solution may boil very violently, splashing concentrated acid out of
the container. If acid was added to water, the solution that forms is very dilute and the
small amount of heat released is not enough to vaporize and spatter it.
2. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction of the antacid with HCl if the antacid
contains hydroxide ion.
HCl(aq)remaining + NaOH(aq) = NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
3. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction if the antacid contains carbonate ion.
CO3 2-(aq) + H2O (l ) HCO3 -(aq) + OH-(aq)

REFERENCES:

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CHM 421 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Zuraidah Abdullah Munir, Z. H. (2015). Analytical Chemistry Lab Manual. Kuala Lumpur:
Penerbit Press Universiti Teknologi Mara.

Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration.
(n.d.).

Retrieved

October

22,

2016,

from

webassign.net:

http://www.webassign.net/labsgraceperiod/ucscgencheml1/lab_4/manual.pdf

Chang, R. (2007). "Chemistry," 9th edition/Ed. McGraw-Hill. 150 - 709

David N. Blauch. (2012). Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid


Tablet Using Back Titration. Retrieved on 18 October 2016 from
http://www.chm.davidson.edu/vce/Kinetics/ReactionRates.html

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