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Sociology is the ______ of social behavior and human groups.

scientific study

Sociology focuses primarily on the influence of ______ upon peoples attitude and
social relationships

Sociology focuses on how ________ are established and changed. societies

A sociologist observing behavior at a college football game would probably focus on

the _________ among fans during the pre-game ritual of tailgate parties. interaction

The awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society, both
today and in the past, is referred to as _________.
sociological imagination

A study that indicates that worker apathy is related to the general features of
assembly- line work would be the example of the sociological ________. imagination

A sociological imagination is an empowering tool because- it allows us to look

beyond a limited understanding of things to see the world and it's people in a new
way & through a broader lens than we might otherwise use.

The body of knowledge obtained by methods based upon systematic observation is

called _____. science

Sociology is considered a science because sociologistsengage in organized,

systematic study of phenomena (human behavior) in order to enhance

Astronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics study various aspects of the
physical features of nature and are therefor considered __________.

Which social science investigates personality and individual behavior? psychology

Which social science would be interested in studying the economic impact of

Hurricane Katrina in the U.S. and throughout the world?

Which social science emphasizes the influence that society has on peoples attitudes
and behavior and the ways in which people shape society?

A construct or model that serves as a measuring rod against which actual cases can
be evaluated are ______. ideal types

A set of statements that seeks to explain problems, action or behavior is known as

_____. sociological theory

Emile Durkheim's study of suicide related suicide rates to ______. group life

According to Emile Durkheims research on suicide Protestants have _______ rates

than Catholics.

The discipline of sociology was given its name by the French theorist _______
Auguste Comte

Which sociologist translated the works of Auguste Comte into English and
emphasized the impact that the economy, law, trade, and population could have on
contemporary social problems? Harriet Matineau

Which early sociologist applied the concept of evolution to societies in order to

explain how they change, or evolve, over time?
Herbert Spencer

The word that Max Weber used to stress the need for sociologists to take into
account the subjective meanings people attach to their actions was:

In Karl Marx's analysis, society was fundamentally divided between:

clash in pursuit of their own class interests.

classes that

Which aspects of the social system did Karl Marx believe enabled the owners of the
means of production to exploit the industrial workers?
believed that an entire
system of economic, social, & political relationships maintained the power and
dominance of the owners over the workers.

Intimate face to face interactions was a central part of ________ sociological theory.

Early female sociologists such as Jane Addams often were active in poor urban areas
as leaders of community centers know as ____________.
settlement houses

Although some of the early sociologists saw themselves as social reformers, by the
middle of the twentieth century, the focus of the discipline of sociology had shifted
totheorizing and gathering information; the aim of transforming society was left
to social workers & others.

Robert K. Merton made an important contribution to the discipline by successfully

combining ___________.
theory and research

The _________ perspective views society as a living organism in which each part of
the organism contributes to its survival and stability.

______ saw "society as a vast network of connected parts, each of which contributes
to the maintenance of the system as a whole".
Talcott Parsons

The _______ perspective suggests that if an aspect of social life does not contribute
to a society's stability, then it will not be passed on from one generation to the next.

The _______ perspective would be most likely to argue that the existence of big-city
political machines suggests that these political organizations satisfy certain basic
social needs.functionalist

Manifest Function an open, stated and conscious function

What is a manifest function of colleges?

The university intends to "offer each
student a broad education in classical and contemporary thought, in the humanities,
sciences and the arts."

The ________ perspective focuses on the relationships of everyday life and would
tend to view inequality in gender as central to behavior and organization.

The _______ perspective generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in

order to understand society as a whole.

Which sociologist is widely regarded as the founder of the interactionist

perspective? George Herbert Mead

The ______ perspective holds the view that people create their social worlds through
interaction and manipulation of symbols.
symbolic interactionist

The _______________ is a systematic, organized series of steps that ensures

maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem. scientific method

If you were interested in studying the relationship between date and acquaintance
rape victims and the characteristics of the rapists, the first step would bedefine
the problem

An operational definition is:

an explanation of an abstract concept that is
specific enough to allow a researcher to assess the concept.

A sociologist who is interested in examining racism in sports might determine what

percentage of team owners, general managers, coaches, and managers are
members of each racial group.This would be an example of developing- operational

What is commonly the second step in the scientific method?


review the

A speculative statement about the relationship between two or more variable is

known as a: hypothesis

The phrase "women who receive welfare are less likely than other women to have
babies," is an example of- casual logic

hypothesis: a speculative statement about the relationship b/w two or more factors
known as variables.

A variable is:a measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under

different conditions.

In sociological research, income, religion, race, gender, and marital status are
examples of- variables

Researchers call the variable that is hypothesized to cause or influence another

variable the _______independent variable

The author of the textbook writes, "Our hypothesis is that the higher one's
educational degree, the more money a person will earn" What is the independent
variable in this hypothesis?
level of ones educational degree

Sociological studies have indicated that people who are married are less likely to
commit suicide than people who are divorced. In this example, marital status is the
_________ variable. independent

The race of a criminal offender is associated with the frequency with which capital
punishment is administered. In this example, capital punishment would be
considered the _________ variable.

The relationship between a condition or a variable and a particular consequence,

with one event leading to the other, is known ascasual logic

An example of casual logic would belead to weight loss"

"eating fewer fats and carbohydrates will

The relationship between two variables whereby a change in one coincides with a
change in the other is known ascorrelation

A selection from a population that is statistically representative of that population is

referred to as asample

In what type of sample does each member of the entire population being studied
have the same chance of being selected?
random sample

If researchers wanted to examine the opinions of people listed in a city directory,

they might call every tenth or fifteenth or hundredth name listed. This would
constitute a: random sample

Define Validity:
degree to which a measure or scale truly reflects the
phenomenon under study.

A research measure that provides consistent results is considered:


A factor held constant to test the relative impact of the independent variable is
known as a: control variable

A research design is a:

detailed plan or method or obtaining data scientifically.

A study, generally in the form of an interview or a questionnaire, that provides

sociologists with information concerning how people think or act, is known as: a

A sociologist interviews 75 women between the age of 20 & 40 in an American city,

and 75 women in the same age grouping in a Canadian city to conduct a crosscultural study of job discrimination against women. This study would be classified
an interview

Observation research is the most common form of _________ research, which relies
on what is seen in field or in naturalistic settings more than on statistical data.

When a researcher collects information about a group through direct involvement

and inspection, this is known as:an observation

A sociologist who attends meetings at all the schools and churches in his
community over several years, and meets as many residents as he can for the
purpose for exploring all facets of the communities social life, and then compiles a
detailed description of the community, is conducting:
participant observation/

Whose study of Italian street corner men used participant observation? William F.

The initial challenge that William F. Whyte & other participant observers encounter
gaining acceptance into an unfamiliar group

An artificially created situation that allows the researcher to manipulate variables is

known as anexperiment

In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the independent variable is

called the: control group

Sociologists performing research often do not rely on the classic form of experiment
becausethe presence of a social scientist or other observers may affect the
behavior of the people being studied

People may behave differently in artificial situations than they would be in the "real
world" this poses a particular problem for researchers using:

A sociologist decides to study the interaction among college students in the

college's computer center. When the students realize they are under observation,
they become shy and reserved in their interactions. This is an example of:
Hawthorne effect

Secondary analysis includes a variety of research techniques that use: previously

collected & publicly accessible information and data.

Sociologists consider secondary analysis to be a ______ form of research


Emile Durkheim conducted an examination of suicide using _______ analysis


A researcher studies adolescent attitudes about senior citizens by analyzing the

lyrics of popular music and the depiction of the elderly in teen magazines. This is an
example of: content analysis

Using sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human
behavior and organizations referred to as:
applied sociology

1.Have and have nots 2.Exploitation 3. Struggle for scarce resources

main parts of the Conflict Theory

The three

1.Parts of society serve Functions 2.Interdependent parts 3.Society is like a living

The three main parts of the Functionalism to day interactions 2.signs, symbols, and patterns meaning arises
through social interaction The three main parts of the Symbolic Interaction

Karl Marx

Sociologist responsible for conflict theory

Emile Durkheim

Sociologist responsible for funtionalism

George Herbert Mead

Sociologist responsible for Symbolic Interaction


Conflict theory- view from window


Functionalism- view from window


symbolic interaction- view from window

second self something/someone we create online


systematic study of human behavior, social groups, and society


society and it's influence on human groups

sociological imagination

understanding our lives in the context of society

views human behavior in societal context which reveals the underlying
basis for many social issues

C. Wright Mills

the man responsible for the theory of sociological imagination

sociological imagination the ability to see societal patterns that influence

individual and group life

agents of socialization


what molds and shapes us

performed the first systematic social study of suicide

social integration

the higher the degree of ________________ the lower the suicide

children involved with media ______ hours a day


sociology developed _______ years ago

August Comte

father of sociology

positivism being able to analyze society using the same systematic process as
scientists who study the natural world

Harriet Martineau

woman sociologist- shows a change in the culture

Herbert Spencer
Gave speeches on sociology as a theory involving the survival of
the fittest, where the weak are defective. His speeches appealed to the wealthy and
sold out.

Karl Marx
Saw the proletariat being exploited by the bourgeoisie, and developed


suicide rates low among _____

mechanical solidarity

organic solidarity

rural, close-knit bonds

looser bonds

Max Weber Came up with "verstehen"- analysis of interaction. Thought sociological

study should be performed among the people

Jane Adams Wanted to better the lives of those whom she studied

WIlliam Dubois

Wanted to help others, co-founded the NAACP

manifest functions intended consequences of social institutions

latent functions

unintended consequences of social institutions

Dysfunctionsaspects that disrupt ability of society

learned set of beliefs, values, norms, and material objects shared by a
society or group

George Gerbner

The man did the video, "Crisis of Cultural Environment"

stories and messages that create images that govern our conception of
life and our behavior


the building and maintenance of images that convey values of society

social imperative

our drive to establish groups of people and mingle with others

critical thinking

objectively assessing ideas, statements, and info

sociological thinking
look at our social world

asking questions and questioning answers, taking a closer

mass media forms of communication that transmit standardized messages to

widespread audiences


the newer and more personalized info technologies

digital dividethe racial divide on the info highway

social solidarity

a lack of the social bonds developed by individuals

ideal type
a conceptual model or typology constructed from direct observation of
a number of specific cases and representing the essential qualities found in those

pure sociology
study of society in an effort to understand and explain the
natural laws that govern its evolution

applied sociology uses sociological principles, social ideals, and ethical

considerations to improve society

paradigms sets of assumption and ideas that guide research questions, methods
of analysis and interpretation, and the development of theory

microlevel analysis focuses on day to day interactions of individuals and groups in

specific social situations

macrolevel analysis

examines broader social structures and society as a whole

people who live in a specific geographic territory, interact with one
another, and share many elements of a common culture

sociocultural evolution
process in which societies grow more complex in terms of
technology, social structure, and cultural knowledge over time


anything to which group members assign meaning


assertions about the nature of reality

valuesshared ideas about what is socially desirable

norms expectations and rules for proper conduct that guide the behavior of group


informal rules and expectations that guide people's everyday behavior

mores salient norms that people consider essential to the proper working of society

laws formal rules enacted and enforced by the power of the state, which apply to
members of society

prohibitions against behaviors that most members of a group consider
to be so repugnant they are unthinkable


penalties or rewards society uses to encourage conformity and punish

culture shock
feelings of confusion and disorientation that occur when a
person encounters a very different culture

the tendency to evaluate the customs of other groups according
to one's own cultural standards

cultural relativism asks that we evaluate other cultures according to their

standards, not ours

subcultures groups that share many elements of mainstream culture but maintain
their own distinctive customs, values, norms, and lifestyles

reject the conventional wisdom and standards of behavior of the
majority and provide alternatives to mainstream culture


encourages respect and appreciation for cultural difference

belief that european cultures have contributed the most to
human knowledge and are superior to all others

real culture what people do in everyday social interaction

cultural lag inconsistencies within a cultural system, especially in relationship

between technology and non-material culture

cultural ecological approach


examines the relationship between culture and its

cultural hegemony domination of cultural industries of elite groups

John Calvin theologist who came up with the theory that everything is predestined,
and our predestiny is revealed through the blessings we recieve

elect those predestined for heaven

protestant work ethic


John Calvin came up with the __________ ___________

George Ritzer

Theorist who wrote "McDonaldization of Society"


Just like at a McDonalds, we expect _____________

Max Weber man responsible for theory of rationalization

theory that says there are a set of social action governed by
reason, calculation + rational pursuit of one's interest

religion, reason

Rationalization= switch from ____________ to ____________

social order, control



the purpose of norms is to maintain _________ and

__________ maintain the norms

social imagination biography + history


is the scientific study of social behavior and human groups.

Refers to the body of knowledge obtained by methods based on
systematic observation.

Natural Science
Is the study of physical features of nature and ways in which
they interact and change.
**Examples: Biology, Astronomy, Chemistry, Geology, and Physics.

Social Science
Is the study of social features of humans and the ways in which
they interact and change.
**Examples: Sociology, psychology, economics, history, and political science.

Sociological imagination the awareness of the relationship between and individual

and the wider society.

Functionalist perspective *Society is a whole unit made of integrated parts that

work together.
*Like an organism, if society is to function smoothly, its various parts must work
together in harmony.
*Macro-sociology-examines large scale patterns of society.
*People are socialized to perform societal functions.
*Social order is maintained through cooperation and consensus.
*Social change is slow and evolutionary.
*To understand society we need to look at both structure and function. --Structure:
how the parts of society fit together to make the whole. --Function: what each part
does, how it contributes to society.

Interactionist perspective *People use symbols-the things to which we attach

meaning-develop their views of the world and to communicate with each other.

*Face to face is what is important; how people work out their relationships and how
they make sense out of life and their place in it.
*Generalize about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as
a whole.
*Micro-sociology- Analyze behavior in small groups.
*People manipulate symbols and create their social worlds through interaction.
*Social order is maintained by shared understanding of everyday behavior.
*Social order is ongoing as individuals get shaped by society and in turn shape it.

C. Write Millssaid "The sociological imagination enables us to grasp the connection

between history and biography."
--History~ each society is located in a broad stream of events.
--Biography~ each individuals specific experiences.

Emile Durkheim

* Considered by many to be the father of sociology.

*He is credited with making sociology a science.

*Research suggested that suicide rates seemed to be higher in times of peace than
in times of war and revolution.


**Private problems of an individual's life.

**Example: Unemployment maybe a personal tragedy for someone thrown out of a

job and unable to find another one.

Issues **Events or happenings that affect large numbers of people.

**Example: Unemployment becomes a public issue when millions of people in a
society are in the same situation.

Some sociological issues today Obesity, mental illness, drug abuse, hate crime,
privacy, consumer debt and bankruptcy.

Sociological imagination key element is the ability to view one's own society as an
outsider would, rather than only from the perspective of personal experiences and
cultural biases.


is a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or

Economist explores the ways in which people produce ans exchange goods and
services, along with money and other resources.
*In Katrina, an economist would conduct research on the economic impact of the
damage, not just in the southeast but throughout the nation and the world.

are concerned with the people and events of the past and their
significance for us today.
*In Katrina, a Historian would compare the damage done by natural disasters in the
20th century to that caused by Katrina.

Psychologist investigates personality and individual behavior.

*In Katrina, a psychologist would study individual cases to assess the emotional
stress of the traumatic event.

Political Scientist studies international relations, the workings of government, the

exercise of power and authority.
*In Katrina, a political scientist would study the stances taken by different elected
officials, along with their implications for the government's response to the disaster.

Sociologist studies the influence that society has on people's attitudes and
behaviors, and the way people interact and shape society.
*In Katrina, they could look at the impact of Katrina to see how it affected
communities and the different social classes.

Conflict Perspective
*Society is composed of groups that are competing with
each other for scarce resources.
*Social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between groups over power
or the allocation of resources, including housing, money, access to services, and
political representation.
*Members of the privileged groups try to maintain their advantages while
subordinate groups struggle to increase theirs.
*People are shaped by power, coercion and authority.
*Social force is maintained through force and coercion.
*Macro-sociology--looks at large scale patterns of society.
*Social change, spurred by conflict and competition should be swift and

What perspective am I?
I believe that elderly people who remain active and have rich interpersonal
relationships are better adjusted. Face to face interaction is what is important.

What perspective am I?
I believe social order is based on coercion and exploitation. I believe that schools
can reinforce the divisive aspects of society, especially those of social class.

What perspective am I?
I believe that people are socialized to perform societal functions. Functionalist

What perspective am I?
I view society as a living organism in which each part of the whole contributes to its

What perspective am I?
I believe that people with power protect their own interest and define deviance to
suit their own needs.

What perspective am I?
I believe symbols are an especially important part of human communication. I am
especially interested in shared understandings of everyday behavior. I look at
society on a microlevel. Interactionist

What perspective am I?
I believe groups function best when they are working together in harmony.

What perspective am I?
I believe social change is ongoing.


What perspective am I?
I believe that conflict exists between the rich and the poor in any society.

What perspective am I?
I believe that sociological research should focus on the study of small groups.