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10/9/2016

NEW DELHI

Electrical Engineering Substation Components with Working

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BANGLORE

CHENNAI

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Major Components in Electrical Substations
and their Workings

The power system is a constituent of power generation,
transmission and distribution systems. For all the power
system operations, substations are required for their course
of action. Substations are congregation of electrical
equipment through which consumers get supply of electrical
power from generating stations. By varying the voltage levels
or frequency or any other aspects, the required electrical
Substation

quantity can be altered in substations to provide quality
power to consumers.
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Electrical Substation
Power Substation
Electrical Engineering

Based on the application of substations, they are classified into different types: Generation substation, Indoor
substation, Outdoor substation, Pole mounted substation, Switching substation, Transmission substation,
Converter substation and Distribution substation. In rare cases like wind farm power generation system,
multiple hydroelectric and thermal power plants one can observe the collector substation which is used for
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and so on.10/9/2016 Electrical Engineering Substation Components with Working transferring power from multiple turbines into one transmission unit. The substation is an assembly of the following major electrical equipments: Electrical Power transformers Instrument transformers Conductors& Insulators Isolators Bus bars Lightning arresters Circuit breakers Relays Capacitor banks and miscellaneous equipment Electrical Power Transformer Electrical Power transformer A static electrical machine used for transforming power from one circuit to another circuit without changing frequency is termed as Power transformer.in/electrical-engineering-substation-components-and-their-workings/ 2/12 .edgefx. Instrument Transformers: Instrument transformers The current and voltage transformers are together called as the Instrument transformers. installation methods. https://www. utilization purpose. The transformers are generally used to step down or step up the voltage levels of a system for transmission and generation purpose. These transformers are classified into different types based on their design.

Potential Transformer Potential transformer is quite similar to the current transformer. From this low-voltage measurement. Conductors Conductors The material or object that obeys the electrical property conductance (mostly made of metals such as aluminum and copper) and that allows the flow of electric charge is called conductor. but it is used for taking samples of high voltages of a system for providing low-voltage to the relays of protection system and also to the low-rating meters for voltage measurement. These reduced samples are in accurate proportions with the actual high currents of the system. Conductors permit free movement of the flow of electrons through them. the actual system’s high voltage can be calculated without measuring high voltages directly to avoid the cost of the measurement system. These are used for installation and maintenance of the current relays in substations for protection purpose which are normally have low-current ratings for their operation.in/electrical-engineering-substation-components-and-their-workings/ 3/12 . Conductors are of different types and mostly aluminum conductors are preferred in practical power systems.10/9/2016 Electrical Engineering Substation Components with Working Current Transformer Current transformer is used for the measurement of the alternating current by taking samples of the higher currents of the system. Insulators https://www.edgefx. These are used for the transmission of power or electrical energy from one place (generating station) to another place (consumer point where power is consumed by the loads) through substations.

stray type. etc. line isolator.10/9/2016 Electrical Engineering Substation Components with Working Insulators The metal which does not allow free movement of electrons or electric charge is called as an insulator. A few types of insulators are shown in the above figure. Isolators Isolators Isolator is a manually operated mechanical switch that isolates the faulty section or the section of a conductor or a part of a circuit of substation meant for repair from a healthy section in order to avoid occurrence of more severe faults. Hence. pin type and so on. shackle. strain type. double-break isolator. Bus Bars https://www.edgefx. Hence. insulators resist electricity with their high resisting property. There are different types of isolators used for different applications such as single-break isolator.in/electrical-engineering-substation-components-and-their-workings/ 4/12 . it is also called as a disconnector or disconnecting switch. There are different types of insulators such as suspension type. Insulators are used for insulation purpose while erecting electric poles with conductors to avoid short circuit and for other insulation requirements. bus isolator.

are always erected outdoor. lightening arresters are placed to pass the entire lightening surges to earth. ROHM/ SiC Schottky Diodes Broad lineup as many as 60 products 650V(6A to 40A) / 1200V(5A to 40A) Go to rohm. to avoid this difficulty.com Circuit Breakers https://www. Whenever light surges occur then..in/electrical-engineering-substation-components-and-their-workings/ 5/12 . a high-voltage pass through these electrical components causing damage to them (either temporary or permanent damage based on the amount of voltage surge). Lightening Arresters Lightening Arresters The substation equipments such as conductors. These are classified into different types like single bus. which is commonly used in substations.10/9/2016 Electrical Engineering Substation Components with Working Bus bars The conductor carrying current and having multiple numbers of incoming and outgoing line connections can be called as bus bar. etc. Therefore. There are other arresters which are used to ground the switching surges called as surge arresters.edgefx. double bus and ring bus. transformers.

But in general mostly used circuit breakers are Oil circuit breaker. voltage relays. reclosing relays. Relay consists of the coil which is excited or energized and such that making the contacts of relay closed activates the relay to break or make the circuit connection. microcontroller relays. SF6 circuit breaker.edgefx. definite time over current relays. Air circuit breaker. Different types of circuit breakers are designed based on different criteria and usage.in/electrical-engineering-substation-components-and-their-workings/ 6/12 . auxiliary relays. directional relays.inverse time over current relays. https://www. The above figure shows some basic relays and their operation. and so HOME on. etc. Vacuum Circuit Breaker. If once the fault is rectified. solid state relays.10/9/2016 Electrical Engineering Substation Components with Working Circuit Breakers For the protection of substation and its components from the over currents or over load due to short circuit or any other fault the faulty section is disconnected from the healthy section either manually or automatically. There are different types of relays such as over current relays. then again the original circuit can be rebuilt by manually or automatically. Relays ANDROID ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS EMBEDDED SYSTEMS ROBOTICS OTHERS Relays Relays are used for disconnecting the circuits by manual or automatic operation.

For example. SCADA. the phase difference between voltage and current can be reduced by the capacitor banks. post your queries in the comments section below. It avoids undesirable characteristics in the power system.edgefx.10/9/2016 Electrical Engineering Substation Components with Working Capacitor banks A Capacitor bank is a set of many identical capacitors connected in series or parallel within a enclosure and is used for the power factor correction and basic protection of substation. For more data regarding miscellaneous components and technologies in substations.These capacitor banks are acts as a source of reactive power. It is the most economical method for maintaining power factor and of correction of the power lag problems. They will increase the ripple current capacity of the supply.in/electrical-engineering-substation-components-and-their-workings/ 7/12 . Photo Credits: Instrument transformer by blogspot Insulators by ecideluxe Isolators by kpoly Relays by geofex Capacitor banks by directindustry Bus bar by openstreetmap Substation by relaypowersystems Distribution Substation by blogspot Electrical Power transformer by answcdn Conductors by howequipmentworks Lightening Arresters by osha Circuit Breakers by blogspot https://www. supervisory control and data acquisition technique made it possible to control a substation automatically from a remote location. and thus. Capacitor banks Emerging trends in technological development have created advancement in the substation installation and maintenance.

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