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Understanding approaches to managing diversity in the workplace: An

empirical investigation

1. Introduction
1.1. Background of the study
During the past two decades, research on emotional intelligence (EI) has flourished. Scholars
from different research fields have explored the contribution of EI to explaining a variety of
potential outcomes, such as physical and mental health, overall well-being, social support and
academic achievement. A few studies have explored the relationship between EI and various

work attitudes or behaviors, including job satisfaction, emotional commitment, and turnover
intentions.
1.2. Gap analysis
It should be noted that a recent study of Di Fabio and Palazzeschi (2012) explored the
association between EI and organizational justice using the Bar-On (1997) mixed model of EI
among Italian nurses. Although that study shed light on the relationship between EI and
organizational justice, few gaps still remain. For example, we still do not know enough about
the interplay between EI and organizational justice under other circumstances, or about the
potential mediating role of perceived organizational justice on the relationship between EI
and work outcomes.
1.3. Research questions
1. Does perceived organizational justice mediate the relationship between emotional
intelligence and work outcomes?
1.4. Significance of the study
This study makes three main contributions. First, it expands our knowledge concerning the
role played by EI in the workplace. Second, it enhances our understanding of how EI
contributes to shaping perceptions and consequences of justice in organizations. Last, it
clarifies the process by which EI influences work attitudes and behaviors. It should be noted
that by shedding light on the manner in which EI affects perceptions and attitudes, the study
has important practical implications.
2. Theoretical framework

Perceived
organizational
support

Emotional
intelligence

Turnover
intentions

H1. EI will be positively related to perceived organizational justice.


H2. EI will be negatively related to turnover intentions.
H3. Perceived organizational justice will mediate the relationship between EI and turnover
intentions. EI will affect perceptions of organizational justice, which in turn will affect
turnover intentions.
3. Methodology
Its the quantitative study. 432 questionnaires were distributed among employees of a
financial organization located in the center of Israel. Of these, 368 usable questionnaires were
returned (a return rate of 85.2 percent). Convenience sampling technique were used. To
maximize the return rate and increase employees trust in the study, the researcher personally
distributed and collected the questionnaires. The profile of the employees who took part in

the survey was highly heterogeneous. They represented a variety of departments (e.g.
financial, marketing, service, etc.), jobs (e.g. clerks, accountants, technical assistants, etc.),
and different ranks in the organizational hierarchy (employees and low, mid and upper level
managers).
3.1. Measures
3.1.1. Emotional intelligence. The Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS;
Law et al., 2004; Wong and Law, 2002) was used to measure EI. This parsimonious selfreport scale of 16 items. All the four dimensions of EI (Self emotion appraisal, other emotion
appraisal, regulation of emotions, use of emotions) are covered in these questions. All items
were answered on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly
agree). Reliability of EI in previous research was 0.87
3.1.2. Perceived organizational justice. Perceived organizational justice was measured using
six items based on Niehoff and Moorman (1993), designed to tap the three dimensions of
organizational justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional). All items were answered
on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree).
Reliability of perceived organizational justice in previous research was 0.74.
3.1.3. Turnover intentions. Turnover intentions were measured using a four-item scale based
on Farrell and Rusbult (1992). All items were answered on a five-point Likert scale ranging
from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Reliability of turnover intentions in previous
research was 0.84.
3.2. Statistical tool
He used SPSS (version 19) for correlation and full model was estimated via the structural
equation modeling software AMOS (version 19).

References
Meisler, G. (2013). "Empirical exploration of the relationship between emotional
intelligence, perceived organizational justice and turnover intentions".
Employee Relations, 35(4), 441 - 455.
Trivellasa, P., Gerogiannisb, V., & Svarnab, S. (2013). "Exploring workplace
implications of Emotional Intelligence (WLEIS) in hospitals: Job satisfaction
and turnover Intentions" ,*, Vassilis Gerogiannisb, Sofia Svarnab 73
( 2013 ). Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 73, 701 709.

Exploring workplace implications of Emotional Intelligence

(WLEIS) in hospitals: Job satisfaction and turnover Intentions

Panagiotis Trivellasa,*, Vassilis Gerogiannisb, Sofia Svarnab

1. Introduction
1.1. Background of the study
Emotional intelligence (EI), an emerging field in social and organizational psychology has
been attracted also the interest of OB researchers, due to its crucial role at the workplace. EI
origins can be found at the concept of social intelligence, initially reflecting the ability of an
individual to deal with his or her emotions. Scholars have extended this definition suggesting
alternative conceptions, encompassing motivation, non-ability dispositions and traits, and
global personal and social functioning
1.2. Problem statement
Moreover, nursing shortages are proved to be related with adverse incidents and aspects of
hospital inefficiency. In Greece, except from a plethora of doctors, the health care sector
suffers from too limited number of nursing staff. Therefore, it comes of high importance to
explore turnover intention and its antecedents in the health care sect.
1.3. Gap analysis
High turnover, especially in Health Care, turns out to be a global phenomenon. Many studies
have shown that the intention of quitting a job stems from factors such as leadership support,
organization commitment, and job satisfaction. In addition, many researchers provided
evidence of a negative relation between EI and turnover intention. Despite the fact that job
satisfaction, emotional exhaustion and stress of nursing staff have been investigated
thoroughly, there is limited research upon turnover issues and particularly turnover intention
of nursing staff. This study aims to investigate the direct relationships between the four
dimensions of emotional Intelligence (EI), and both job satisfaction (JS) and turnover
intention (TI).
1.4. Research questions
1. Does emotional intelligence effect on job satisfaction?

2. Does emotional intelligence effect on turnover intentions?


1.5. Significance of the study
This study added the value in the literature of EI, job satisfaction and turnover intentions. It
also helps the management of different hospitals in Greece to understand the EI level of
nurses and its effect on job satisfaction and their turnover intentions.
2. Theoretical framework
Emotional
intelligence

Job
satisfaction

Turnover
intentions

H1: EI is positively related to JS


H2: EI is negatively related to TI.
3. Methodology
The field research was conducted in five private general hospitals in the area of Thessaly,
Greece. Structured questionnaires were distributed to 266 nurses and 145 valid questionnaires
were returned. Response rate was 54.5 percent.
3.1. Measures
3.1.1. Emotional intelligence. The Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS;
Law et al., 2004; Wong and Law, 2002) was used to measure EI. This parsimonious selfreport scale of 16 items. All the four dimensions of EI (Self emotion appraisal, other emotion
appraisal, regulation of emotions, use of emotions) are covered in these questions. All items
were answered on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly
agree).
3.1.2. Job Satisfaction. Job Satisfaction is measured using Melia and Peiros questionnaire. It
assesses various aspects of satisfaction, such as intrinsic job characteristics, personal
development, supervision and physical environment. This scale presents high-level of
validity, high internal consistency and adapts adequately to different organizational contexts
3.1.3. Turnover intentions. Intention to quit was measured by using the three item
questionnaire of Kim et al. [46] that is also considered to provide high validity. To ensure the
validity of the item translation, a (English/Greek) translate/back translate procedure was used.
Responses were assessed on 5-point Likert scales.
3.2. Statistical tool
Data were analyzed through path modeling using the partial least squares (PLS) approach and
the Smart PLS software.

References
Trivellasa, P., Gerogiannisb, V., & Svarnab, S. (2013). "Exploring workplace
implications of Emotional Intelligence (WLEIS) in hospitals: Job satisfaction
and turnover Intentions". Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 73,
701 709.

Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Commitment:


Testing the Mediatory Role of Occupational Stress and Job

Satisfaction

1. Introduction
1.1. Background of the study
Organizational commitment, as shown by two decades of research, is considered an important
predictor for some positive and negative outcome variables. They believe that Employees
with strong affective commitment to the organization perform better than those with lower
levels of affective commitment. It is positively related with employees motivation, job
performance, and job satisfaction, and negatively related with absenteeism and turnover, as
well as stress
1.2. Problem statement
Uncommitted employees not only had the lowest level of acceptance of organizational values,
but they also felt alienated from the organization.
1.3. Gap analysis
Human resources who have the ability to communicate with each other effectively can lead
the organization toward success and effectiveness. Therefore, individuals recruited in the
organizations should be aware of and understand emotions in the self while knowing that who
they are, what they believe in, what they say, what they think, how they make decisions, how
not to get angry, how to control one's emotions in different conditions, and how to act with
others. In such a situation, they will be able to recognize and control emotions in others.
1.4. Research questions
1: Does emotional intelligence, with mediatory role of occupational stress, have an indirect
effect on job satisfaction?
2: Does emotional intelligence, with mediatory role of job satisfaction, have an indirect
effect on organizational commitment?
3: Does occupational stress, with mediatory role of job satisfaction, have an indirect effect on
organizational commitment?
1.5. Significance of the study
This study added the value in the literature of EI, job satisfaction, organizational commitment
and occupational stress. It also helps the management to understand the EI level of employees
and its effect on job satisfaction, organizational stress and organizational commitment.

2. Theoretical framework

Occupational
stress

Emotional
intelligence

Organization
al
commitment

Job
satisfaction

H 1: emotional intelligence has a direct negative effect on occupational stress.


H 2: emotional intelligence has a positive direct effect on job satisfaction.
H 3: emotional intelligence has a positive direct effect on organizational commitment.
H 4: occupational stress has a negative direct effect on job satisfaction.
H 5: Job satisfaction has positive and direct effect on organizational commitment.
H 6: occupational stress has a negative direct effect on organizational commitment.
3. Methodology
Participants of the study included 234 employees who were working full time in the Ministry
of Science, Research, and Technology in Iran for at least one year. In order to increase the
variance and, in turn, to increase factor loadings in Factor Analysis Method, a heterogeneous
sample, that is, employees with different educational degrees, employment conditions, and
experiences was used in the present study. The sample was chosen through random sampling
and proportional stratified sampling. Because the population had eight substructures, the
researchers observed the substructures in sample.
3.1. Measures
3.1.1. Emotional intelligence. To measure EI, Trait Meta Mood Scale (TMMS) used
developed by Salovey and his colleagues. All items were answered on a five-point Likert
scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Trait Meta Mood Scale consist
on 30 items, TMMS measures three interpersonal factors of emotional attention, emotional
clarity, and emotional repair
3.1.2. Job Satisfaction. Job satisfaction was measured by Job- Descriptive Index (JDI)
developed by Smith et al (1969). The Persian version of the JDI was administered by Arshadi
and Shokrkon (1990) (Haghighat Joo, 2005). It measures five factors: Satisfaction with work
itself (18 questions); Satisfaction with supervisor (18 questions); Satisfaction with coworkers
(18 questions); Satisfaction with salary (9 questions); and Satisfaction with opportunities for
promotion (9 questions). The instrument was on a three-point rating scale: 1- yes, 2uncertain, 3- no.
3.1.3. Occupational stress. The participants completed the scale of work stressors for
employees developed by Askari Bigdeli (2003). This scale consists of 30 indicators referring

to different situations that cause or may cause stress in employees. Some of the indicators
were omitted in Askari Bigdeli's (2003) research. Residual indicators with 8 factors were not
standard.
3.1.4. Organizational commitment. Organizational commitment was measured with
Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) developed by Allen and Mayer (1987).
The Persian version of it was administered by Shokrkon and Samiee (Haghighat Joo, 2005).
The instrument included 24 items investigating three dimensions: Affective commitment,
continuance commitment, and normative commitment. A seven-point likert scale was used
with anchors ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree).
3.2. Statistical tool
Reliability and validity of measures and the connected factors were estimated as a
preliminary step by exploratory factor analysis. In the next step, a confirmatory factor
analysis (first-order and second-order) (LISREL 8.53; Joreskog and Sorbom, 2002) was run
to confirm the obtained factor construct.

References
Aghdasi, S., Kiamaneshb, A. R., & Ebrahimb, A. N. (2011). "Emotional Intelligence
and Organizational Commitment: Testing the Mediatory Role of
Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction" . Procedia - Social and
Behavioral Sciences, 29, 1965 1976.