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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For Sir Frank Whittle's similarly named firm of the 1930s and 40s, see Power Jets.



Joint venture






Paris, France


Aircraft engines


Snecma (Safran)
NPO Saturn



PowerJet is a 50-50 joint venture held by Snecma (Safran) and NPO Saturn, created in July 2004.
The company is an engine manufacturer in charge of the management of the SaM146 program
including studies, production, marketing and after-sales support. It delivers a complete propulsion
system, comprising the engine, nacelle and equipment.

The SaM146 is the sole powerplant for the Sukhoi Superjet 100 (SSJ100), entered into service in
Building on the experience and resources of its two founding companies, PowerJet has developed a
dedicated SaM146 support organization called PowerLife, ensuring fast and reliable access to
information and assistance under any circumstances. PowerJetaims to set a new standard in
customer support for regional jet engines by delivering local service to customers anywhere in the
world. Through Powerlife label, the company provides a Customer Support Center, technical
assistance from both parent companies, and a strong network of field representatives, based on
resources already deployed by Snecma and NPO Saturn.
PowerJet has two operational units dedicated to production: one in Villaroche (France) and the other
in Rybinsk (Russia).

Snecma (Safran) and NPO Saturn began to work together in 1998, when Snecma subcontracted the
production of CFM56 engine parts to NPO Saturn.
In 2004, the creation of the PowerJet joint venture for the SaM146 engine took the collaboration a
step further. The SaM146 development program proceeded very smoothly, reflecting the successful
collaboration a first between Western and Russian engine manufacturers. It is the result of both
confidence in the market and the longstanding mutual trust between the two partners.
In 2005, the state-of-the-art production plant VolgAero was founded in Rybinsk in order to make
parts for the SaM146, as well as parts and assemblies for other engines produced by the two parent
In 2007, Snecma and NPO Saturn built an open-air test cell in Poluevo, Russia (near Rybinsk) to
handle certification tests for the SaM146. It is the only open-air test facility for this type of engine in
Europe and it also provides test services for other engines.
On 23 June 2010, it was announced that EASA certified PowerJet for its SaM146 engine. [2] It gained
Russian certification in August 2010 and the SSJ100 entered into service in 2011.
In 2013, the Mexican airline Interjet has received its first Sukhoi Superjet 100 aircraft. With an order
for 20 aircraft, Interjet is the first western customer to take delivery of the SSJ100 powered by the

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Life timeline
view discuss edit











Land life

Earliest Earth (-4540)

Earliest water

Earliest life

LHB meteorites

Earliest oxygen

Atmospheric oxygen

Oxygen Crisis

Earliest sexual reproduction

Cambrian explosion

Earliest humans



Axis scale: millions of years.

also see {{Human timeline}} and {{Nature timeline}}

Biodiversity, a contraction of "biological diversity," generally refers to the variety and variability
of life on Earth. One of the most widely used definitions defines it in terms of the variability within
species, between species and between ecosystems. [1] It is a measure of the variety
of organisms present in different ecosystems. This can refer to genetic variation, ecosystem
variation, or species variation (number of species)[1] within an area, biome, or planet. Terrestrial
biodiversity tends to be greater near the equator,[2] which seems to be the result of the
warm climate and high primary productivity.[3] Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth. It is
richest in the tropics. Marine biodiversity tends to be highest along coasts in the Western Pacific,
where sea surface temperature is highest and in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There
are latitudinal gradients in species diversity.[4] Biodiversity generally tends to cluster in hotspots,[5] and
has been increasing through time,[6][7] but will be likely to slow in the future.[8]
The number and variety of plants, animals and other organisms that exist is known as biodiversity. It
is an essential component of nature and it ensures the survival of human species by providing food,
fuel, shelter, medicines and other resources to mankind. The richness of biodiversity depends on the
climatic conditions and area of the region. All species of plants taken together are known as flora
and about 70,000 species of plants are known to date. All species of animals taken together are
known as fauna which includes birds, mammals, fish, reptiles, insects, crustaceans, molluscs, etc.
Rapid environmental changes typically cause mass extinctions.[9][10][11] More than 99 percent of all
species, amounting to over five billion species,[12] that ever lived on Earth are estimated to be extinct.
Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million,[15] of
which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described.
More recently, in May 2016, scientists reported that 1 trillion species are estimated to be on Earth
currently with only one-thousandth of one percent described. [17] The total amount of
related DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5.0 x 1037 and weighs 50 billion tonnes.[18] In
comparison, the total mass of the biosphere has been estimated to be as much as 4 TtC (trillion tons
of carbon).[19] In July 2016, scientists reported identifying a set of 355 genes from the Last Universal
Common Ancestor (LUCA) of all organisms living on Earth.[20]
The age of the Earth is about 4.54 billion years old.[21][22][23] The earliest undisputed evidence of life on
Earth dates at least from 3.5 billion years ago,[24][25][26] during the Eoarchean Era after a
geological crust started to solidify following the earlier molten Hadean Eon. There are microbial
mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone discovered in Western Australia.[27][28][29] Other early
physical evidence of a biogenic substance is graphite in 3.7 billion-year-old meta-sedimentary
rocks discovered in Western Greenland.[30] More recently, in 2015, "remains of biotic life" were found
in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia.[31][32] According to one of the researchers, "If life
arose relatively quickly on Earth .. then it could be common in the universe."[31]

Since life began on Earth, five major mass extinctions and several minor events have led to large
and sudden drops in biodiversity. The Phanerozoic eon (the last 540 million years) marked a rapid
growth in biodiversity via the Cambrian explosiona period during which the majority
of multicellular phyla first appeared.[33] The next 400 million years included repeated, massive
biodiversity losses classified as mass extinction events. In the Carboniferous, rainforest collapse led
to a great loss of plant and animal life.[34] The PermianTriassic extinction event, 251 million years
ago, was the worst; vertebrate recovery took 30 million years.[35] The most recent, the Cretaceous
Paleogene extinction event, occurred 65 million years ago and has often attracted more attention
than others because it resulted in the extinction of the dinosaurs.[36]
The period since the emergence of humans has displayed an ongoing biodiversity reduction and an
accompanying loss of genetic diversity. Named the Holocene extinction, the reduction is caused
primarily by human impacts, particularly habitat destruction. Conversely, biodiversity impacts human
health in a number of ways, both positively and negatively.[37]
The United Nations designated 20112020 as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity.




3.1Latitudinal gradients


4Evolution and history

4.1Evolutionary diversification

5Biodiversity and ecosystem services

5.1The balance of evidence

5.1.1Services enhanced by biodiversity services services
5.1.2Services with mixed evidence services services
5.1.3Services for which biodiversity is a hindrance services services services services

5.2Biodiversity and agriculture

5.3Biodiversity and human health

5.4Biodiversity, business and industry

5.5Biodiversity, leisure, cultural and aesthetic value

5.6Biodiversity and ecological services

6Number of species

7Species loss rates


8.1Habitat destruction

8.2Introduced and invasive species

8.2.1Genetic pollution


8.4Hybridization, genetic pollution/erosion and food security

8.5Climate change

8.6Human overpopulation

9The Holocene extinction


10.1Protection and restoration techniques

11Protected areas

11.1National parks

11.2Wildlife sanctuary

11.3Forest reserves
11.3.1Steps to conserve the forest cover

11.4Zoological parks

11.5Botanical gardens

12Resource allocation

13Legal status


13.2National level laws

14Analytical limits

14.1Taxonomic and size relationships

15See also


17Further reading

18External links




The term biological diversity was used first by wildlife scientist and conservationist Raymond F.
Dasmann in the year 1968 lay book A Different Kind of Country[38] advocating conservation. The term
was widely adopted only after more than a decade, when in the 1980s it came into common usage in
science and environmental policy. Thomas Lovejoy, in the foreword to the book Conservation
Biology,[39] introduced the term to the scientific community. Until then the term "natural diversity" was
common, introduced by The Science Division of The Nature Conservancy in an important 1975
study, "The Preservation of Natural Diversity." By the early 1980s TNC's Science program and its
head, Robert E. Jenkins,[40] Lovejoy and other leading conservation scientists at the time in America
advocated the use of the term "biological diversity".
The term's contracted form biodiversity may have been coined by W.G. Rosen in 1985 while
planning the 1986 National Forum on Biological Diversity organized by the National Research

Council (NRC). It first appeared in a publication in 1988 when sociobiologist E. O. Wilson used it as
the title of the proceedings[41] of that forum.[42]
Since this period the term has achieved widespread use among biologists, environmentalists,
political leaders and concerned citizens.
A similar term in the United States is "natural heritage." It pre-dates the others and is more accepted
by the wider audience interested in conservation. Broader than biodiversity, it includes geology and
landforms.[citation needed][43]


A sampling of fungi collected during summer 2008 in Northern Saskatchewan mixed woods, near LaRonge is
an example regarding the species diversity of fungi. In this photo, there are also leaf lichens and mosses.

"Biodiversity" is most commonly used to replace the more clearly defined and long established
terms, species diversity and species richness. Biologists most often define biodiversity as the
"totality of genes, species and ecosystems of a region". [44][45] An advantage of this definition is that it
seems to describe most circumstances and presents a unified view of the traditional types of
biological variety previously identified:

taxonomic diversity (usually measured at the species diversity level)

ecological diversity often viewed from the perspective of ecosystem diversity

morphological diversity which stems from genetic diversity

functional diversity which is a measure of the number of functionally disparate species within
a population (e.g. different feeding mechanism, different motility, predator vs prey, etc.) [46]

In 2003 Professor Anthony Campbell at Cardiff University, UK and the Darwin

Centre, Pembrokeshire, defined a fourth level: Molecular Diversity.[47]
This multilevel construct is consistent with Datman and Lovejoy. An explicit definition consistent with
this interpretation was first given in a paper by Bruce A. Wilcox commissioned by the International

Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) for the 1982 World National
Parks Conference. Wilcox's definition was "Biological diversity is the variety of life all levels
of biological systems (i.e., molecular, organismic, population, species and ecosystem)...". [48] The
1992 United Nations Earth Summit defined "biological diversity" as "the variability among living
organisms from all sources, including, 'inter alia', terrestrial, marine and other aquatic
ecosystemsand the ecological complexes of which they are part: this includes diversity within
species, between species and of ecosystems".[49] This definition is used in the United
Nations Convention on Biological Diversity.[49]
One textbook's definition is "variation of life at all levels of biological organization". [50]
Genetically biodiversity can be defined as the diversity of alleles, genes and organisms. They study
processes such as mutation and gene transfer that drive evolution.[48]
Measuring diversity at one level in a group of organisms may not precisely correspond to diversity at
other levels. However, tetrapod (terrestrial vertebrates) taxonomic and ecological diversity shows a
very close correlation.[51]


A conifer forest in the Swiss Alps(National Park)

Biodiversity is not evenly distributed, rather it varies greatly across the globe as well as within
regions. Among other factors, the diversity of all living things (biota) depends on temperature,
precipitation, altitude, soils, geography and the presence of other species. The study of the spatial
distribution of organisms, species and ecosystems, is the science of biogeography.
Diversity consistently measures higher in the tropics and in other localized regions such as the Cape
Floristic Region and lower in polar regions generally. Rain forests that have had wet climates for a
long time, such as Yasun National Park in Ecuador, have particularly high biodiversity.[52][53]
Terrestrial biodiversity is thought to be up to 25 times greater than ocean biodiversity.[54] A recently
discovered method put the total number of species on Earth at 8.7 million, of which 2.1 million were
estimated to live in the ocean.[55] However, this estimate seems to under-represent the diversity of

Latitudinal gradients[edit]
Main article: Latitudinal gradients in species diversity
Generally, there is an increase in biodiversity from the poles to the tropics. Thus localities at
lower latitudes have more species than localities at higher latitudes. This is often referred to as the
latitudinal gradient in species diversity. Several ecological mechanisms may contribute to the
gradient, but the ultimate factor behind many of them is the greater mean temperature at the equator
compared to that of the poles.[56][57][58]

Even though terrestrial biodiversity declines from the equator to the poles, [59] some studies claim that
this characteristic is unverified in aquatic ecosystems, especially in marine ecosystems.[60] The
latitudinal distribution of parasites does not appear to follow this rule. [61]

A biodiversity hotspot is a region with a high level of endemic species that has experienced
great habitat loss.[62] The term hotspot was introduced in 1988 by Norman Myers.[63][64][65][66] While
hotspots are spread all over the world, the majority are forest areas and most are located in
the tropics.
Brazil's Atlantic Forest is considered one such hotspot, containing roughly 20,000 plant species,
1,350 vertebrates and millions of insects, about half of which occur nowhere else. [citation needed] The island
of Madagascar and India are also particularly notable. Colombia is characterized by high biodiversity,
with the highest rate of species by area unit worldwide and it has the largest number of endemics
(species that are not found naturally anywhere else) of any country. About 10% of the species of the
Earth can be found in Colombia, including over 1,900 species of bird, more than in Europe and North
America combined, Colombia has 10% of the world's mammals species, 14% of the amphibian
species and 18% of the bird species of the world.[67] Madagascar dry deciduous forests and lowland
rainforests possess a high ratio of endemism.[citation needed] Since the island separated from
mainland Africa 66 million years ago, many species and ecosystems have evolved independently.
[citation needed]
Indonesia's 17,000 islands cover 735,355 square miles (1,904,560 km2) and contain 10% of
the world's flowering plants, 12% of mammals and 17% of reptiles, amphibians and birdsalong
with nearly 240 million people.[68]Many regions of high biodiversity and/or endemism arise from
specialized habitats which require unusual adaptations, for example, alpine environments in
high mountains, or Northern European peat bogs.[citation needed]
Accurately measuring differences in biodiversity can be difficult. Selection bias amongst researchers
may contribute to biased empirical research for modern estimates of biodiversity. In 1768,
Rev. Gilbert White succinctly observed of his Selborne, Hampshire "all nature is so full, that that
district produces the most variety which is the most examined."[69]

Evolution and history[edit]

Main article: Evolution

Apparent marine fossil diversity during the Phanerozoic [70]

Part of a series on

Evolutionary biology

Diagrammatic representation of the divergence of modern taxonomic

groups from their common ancestor

Key topics[show]

Processes and outcomes[show]

Natural history[show]

History of evolutionary theory[show]

Fields and applications[show]

Social implications[show]

Evolutionary biology portal


Related topics

Biodiversity is the result of 3.5 billion years of evolution. The origin of life has not been definitely
established by science, however some evidence suggests that life may already have been wellestablished only a few hundred million years after the formation of the Earth. Until approximately 600
million years ago, all life consisted of archaea, bacteria, protozoans and similar single-celled
The history of biodiversity during the Phanerozoic (the last 540 million years), starts with rapid
growth during the Cambrian explosiona period during which nearly every phylum of multicellular
organisms first appeared. Over the next 400 million years or so, invertebrate diversity showed little
overall trend and vertebrate diversity shows an overall exponential trend. [51]This dramatic rise in
diversity was marked by periodic, massive losses of diversity classified as mass extinction events.

A significant loss occurred when rainforests collapsed in the carboniferous. [34] The worst was
the Permian-Triassic extinction event, 251 million years ago. Vertebrates took 30 million years to
recover from this event.[35]

The fossil record suggests that the last few million years featured the greatest biodiversity in history.
However, not all scientists support this view, since there is uncertainty as to how strongly the fossil
record is biased by the greater availability and preservation of recent geologic sections. Some
scientists believe that corrected for sampling artifacts, modern biodiversity may not be much different
from biodiversity 300 million years ago.,[71] whereas others consider the fossil record reasonably
reflective of the diversification of life.[51] Estimates of the present global macroscopic species diversity
vary from 2 million to 100 million, with a best estimate of somewhere near 9 million, [55] the vast
majority arthropods.[72] Diversity appears to increase continually in the absence of natural selection. [73]

Evolutionary diversification[edit]
The existence of a "global carrying capacity", limiting the amount of life that can live at once, is
debated, as is the question of whether such a limit would also cap the number of species. While
records of life in the sea shows a logistic pattern of growth, life on land (insects, plants and
tetrapods)shows an exponential rise in diversity. As one author states, "Tetrapods have not yet
invaded 64 per cent of potentially habitable modes and it could be that without human influence the
ecological and taxonomic diversity of tetrapods would continue to increase in an exponential fashion
until most or all of the available ecospace is filled." [51]
On the other hand, changes through the Phanerozoic correlate much better with
the hyperbolic model (widely used in population biology, demography and macrosociology, as well
as fossil biodiversity) than with exponential and logistic models. The latter models imply that changes
in diversity are guided by a first-order positive feedback (more ancestors, more descendants) and/or
a negative feedback arising from resource limitation. Hyperbolic model implies a second-order
positive feedback. The hyperbolic pattern of the world population growth arises from a second-order
positive feedback between the population size and the rate of technological growth. [74] The hyperbolic
character of biodiversity growth can be similarly accounted for by a feedback between diversity and
community structure complexity. The similarity between the curves of biodiversity and human
population probably comes from the fact that both are derived from the interference of the hyperbolic
trend with cyclical and stochastic dynamics.[74][75]
Most biologists agree however that the period since human emergence is part of a new mass
extinction, named the Holocene extinction event, caused primarily by the impact humans are having
on the environment.[76] It has been argued that the present rate of extinction is sufficient to eliminate
most species on the planet Earth within 100 years.[77]
New species are regularly discovered (on average between 510,000 new species each year, most
of them insects) and many, though discovered, are not yet classified (estimates are that nearly 90%
of all arthropods are not yet classified).[72] Most of the terrestrial diversity is found in tropical
forests and in general, land has more species than the ocean; some 8.7 million species may exists
on Earth, of which some 2.1 million live in the ocean[55]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Ecology (disambiguation).


Ecology addresses the full scale of life, from tiny bacteria to processes
that span the entire planet. Ecologists study many diverse and complex
relations among species, such as predation and pollination. The
diversity of life is organized into different habitats,
from terrestrial(middle) to aquatic ecosystems.

Ecology (from Greek: , "house", or "environment"; -, "study of"[A]) is the scientific analysis
and study of interactions among organisms and their environment. It is an interdisciplinary field that
includes biology, geography, and Earth science. Ecology includes the study of
interactions organisms have with each other, other organisms, and with abiotic components of
their environment. Topics of interest to ecologists include the diversity, distribution, amount
(biomass), and number (population) of particular organisms, as well as cooperation and competition
between organisms, both within and among ecosystems. Ecosystems are composed of dynamically
interacting parts including organisms, the communities they make up, and the non-living components
of their environment. Ecosystem processes, such as primary production, pedogenesis, nutrient
cycling, and various niche construction activities, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an

environment. These processes are sustained by organisms with specific life history traits, and the
variety of organisms is called biodiversity. Biodiversity, which refers to the varieties
of species, genes, and ecosystems, enhances certain ecosystem services.
Ecology is not synonymous with environment, environmentalism, natural history, or environmental
science. It is closely related to evolutionary biology, genetics, and ethology. An important focus for
ecologists is to improve the understanding of how biodiversity affects ecological function. Ecologists
seek to explain:

Life processes, interactions, and adaptations

The movement of materials and energy through living communities

The successional development of ecosystems

The abundance and distribution of organisms and biodiversity in the context of

the environment.

Ecology is a human science as well. There are many practical applications of ecology
in conservation biology, wetland management, natural resource
management (agroecology, agriculture, forestry, agroforestry, fisheries), city planning (urban
ecology), community health, economics, basic and applied science, and human social interaction
(human ecology). For example, the Circles of Sustainability approach treats ecology as more than
the environment 'out there'. It is not treated as separate from humans. Organisms (including
humans) and resources compose ecosystems which, in turn, maintain biophysical feedback
mechanisms that moderate processes acting on living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components of
the planet. Ecosystems sustain life-supporting functions and produce natural capital like biomass
production (food, fuel, fiber, and medicine), the regulation of climate, global biogeochemical
cycles, water filtration, soil formation, erosion control, flood protection, and many other natural
features of scientific, historical, economic, or intrinsic value.
The word "ecology" ("kologie") was coined in 1866 by the German scientist Ernst Haeckel (1834
1919). Ecological thought is derivative of established currents in philosophy, particularly from ethics
and politics.[1] Ancient Greek philosophers such as Hippocrates and Aristotle laid the foundations of
ecology in their studies on natural history. Modern ecology became a much more rigorous science in
the late 19th century. Evolutionary concepts relating to adaptation and natural selection became the
cornerstones of modern ecological theory.

1Integrative levels, scope, and scale of organization


1.1Hierarchical ecology




1.5Niche construction



1.8Individual ecology

1.9Population ecology

1.9.1Metapopulations and migration

1.10Community ecology

1.11Ecosystem ecology

1.11.1Food webs

1.11.2Trophic levels

1.11.3Keystone species

2Ecological complexity

3Relation to evolution

3.1Behavioural ecology

3.2Cognitive ecology

3.3Social ecology



3.5.1r/K-Selection theory
3.6Molecular ecology
4Human ecology

4.1Restoration and management

5Relation to the environment

5.1Disturbance and resilience

5.2Metabolism and the early atmosphere

5.3Radiation: heat, temperature and light

5.4Physical environments




5.4.4Wind and turbulence



5.4.7Biogeochemistry and climate


6.1Early beginnings

6.2Since 1900

7See also



10External links

Integrative levels, scope, and scale of organization

See also: Integrative level
The scope of ecology contains a wide array of interacting levels of organization spanning micro-level
(e.g., cells) to a planetary scale (e.g., biosphere) phenomena. Ecosystems, for example, contain
abiotic resources and interacting life forms (i.e., individual organisms that aggregate
into populations which aggregate into distinct ecological communities). Ecosystems are dynamic,
they do not always follow a linear successional path, but they are always changing, sometimes
rapidly and sometimes so slowly that it can take thousands of years for ecological processes to bring
about certain successional stages of a forest. An ecosystem's area can vary greatly, from tiny to
vast. A single tree is of little consequence to the classification of a forest ecosystem, but critically
relevant to organisms living in and on it.[2] Several generations of an aphid population can exist over
the lifespan of a single leaf. Each of those aphids, in turn, support diverse bacterial communities.
The nature of connections in ecological communities cannot be explained by knowing the details of
each species in isolation, because the emergent pattern is neither revealed nor predicted until the
ecosystem is studied as an integrated whole.[4] Some ecological principles, however, do exhibit

collective properties where the sum of the components explain the properties of the whole, such as
birth rates of a population being equal to the sum of individual births over a designated time frame. [5]

Hierarchical ecology
See also: Biological organisation and Biological classification
System behaviors must first be arrayed into different levels of organization. Behaviors corresponding to higher levels
occur at slow rates. Conversely, lower organizational levels exhibit rapid rates. For example, individual tree leaves
respond rapidly to momentary changes in light intensity, CO2concentration, and the like. The growth of the tree
responds more slowly and integrates these short-term changes.
O'Neill et al. (1986)[6]:76

The scale of ecological dynamics can operate like a closed system, such as aphids migrating on a
single tree, while at the same time remain open with regard to broader scale influences, such as
atmosphere or climate. Hence, ecologists classify ecosystems hierarchically by analyzing data
collected from finer scale units, such as vegetation associations, climate, and soil types, and
integrate this information to identify emergent patterns of uniform organization and processes that
operate on local to regional, landscape, and chronological scales.
To structure the study of ecology into a conceptually manageable framework, the biological world is
organized into a nested hierarchy, ranging in scale from genes, to cells, to tissues, to organs,
to organisms, to species, to populations, to communities, to ecosystems, to biomes, and up to the
level of the biosphere.[7] This framework forms a panarchy[8] and exhibits non-linearbehaviors; this
means that "effect and cause are disproportionate, so that small changes to critical variables, such
as the number of nitrogen fixers, can lead to disproportionate, perhaps irreversible, changes in the
system properties."[9]:14

Main article: Biodiversity
Biodiversity refers to the variety of life and its processes. It includes the variety of living organisms, the genetic
differences among them, the communities and ecosystems in which they occur, and the ecological
and evolutionary processes that keep them functioning, yet ever changing and adapting.
Noss & Carpenter (1994)[10]:5

Biodiversity (an abbreviation of "biological diversity") describes the diversity of life from genes to
ecosystems and spans every level of biological organization. The term has several interpretations,
and there are many ways to index, measure, characterize, and represent its complex organization. [11]
Biodiversity includes species diversity, ecosystem diversity, and genetic diversity and scientists
are interested in the way that this diversity affects the complex ecological processes operating at and
among these respective levels.[12][14][15] Biodiversity plays an important role in ecosystem
services which by definition maintain and improve human quality of life.[13][16][17] Preventing species
extinctions is one way to preserve biodiversity and that goal rests on techniques that preserve
genetic diversity, habitat and the ability for species to migrate.[citation needed] Conservation priorities and
management techniques require different approaches and considerations to address the full
ecological scope of biodiversity. Natural capital that supports populations is critical for
maintaining ecosystem services[18][19] and species migration(e.g., riverine fish runs and avian insect
control) has been implicated as one mechanism by which those service losses are experienced.
An understanding of biodiversity has practical applications for species and ecosystem-level
conservation planners as they make management recommendations to consulting firms,
governments, and industry.[21]


Heat (Thermal energy)

Matter is made up of particles or molecules. These molecules move (or vibrate)
constantly. A rise in the temperature of matter makes the particles vibrate faster.
Thermal energy is what we call energy that comes from the temperature of matter. The
hotter the substance, the more its molecules vibrate, and therefore the higher its
thermal energy.
For example, a cup of hot tea has thermal energy in the form of kinetic energy from its
vibrating particles. When you pour some milk into your hot tea, some of this energy is
transferred from the hot tea to the particles in the cold milk. What happens next? The
cup of tea is cooler because it lost thermal energy to the milk. The amount of thermal
energy in an object is measured in Joules (J)
We cannot discuss thermal energy without touching on Temperature. Heat and
Temperature do not mean the same thing.
The temperature of an object is to do with how hot or cold it is, measured in degrees
Celsius (C). Temperature can also be measured in a Fahrenheit scale, named after the
German physicist called Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686 1736). It is denoted by the
symbol 'F'. In Fahrenheit scale, water freezes at 32 F, and boils at 212 F. In Celsius
scale, water freezes at 0C and boil at 100C.
A thermometer is an instrument used to measure the temperature of an object.
Let's look at this example to see how thermal energy and temperature are related:
A swimming pool at 40C is at a lower temperature than a cup of tea at 90C.
However, the swimming pool contains a lot more water. Therefore, the pool has more
thermal energy than the cup of tea even though the tea is hotter than the water in the

Let us see this example below:

If we want to boil the water in these two beakers, we must increase their temperatures
to 100C. You will notice that will take longer to boil the water in the large beaker than
the water in the small beaker. This is because the large beaker contains more water and
needs more heat energy to reach 100C.

Conduction, Convection and Radiation.

Heat can be transferred from particle to particle or object to object in three different
ways. These are Conduction, Convection and Radiation. Click on the buttons above to
learn more.

What is nuclear energy?

Everything around you is made up of tiny objects called atoms. Most of the mass of each atom is
concentrated in the center (which is called the nucleus), and the rest of the mass is in the cloud of
electrons surrounding the nucleus. Protons and neutrons are subatomic particles that comprise the

Under certain circumstances, the nucleus of a very large atom can split in two. In this process, a
certain amount of the large atoms mass is converted to pure energy following Einsteins famous
formula E = MC2, where M is the small amount of mass and C is the speed of light (a very large
number). In the 1930s and 40s, humans discovered this energy and recognized its potential as a
weapon. Technology developed in the Manhattan Project successfully used this energy in a chain
reaction to create nuclear bombs. Soon after World War II ended, the newfound energy source found
a home in the propulsion of the nuclear navy, providing submarines with engines that could run for
over a year without refueling. This technology was quickly transferred to the public sector, where
commercial power plants were developed and deployed to produce electricity. Read more about
the history of nuclear energy.

Nuclear Energy Today

Nuclear reactors produce just under 20% of the electricity in the USA. There are over 400 power
reactors in the world (about 100 of these are in the USA). They produce base-load electricity 24/7
without emitting pollutants (including CO2) into the atmosphere. They do, however,
create radioactive nuclear waste which must be stored carefully.

Featured Pages
Nuclear Overview

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Reactors Nuclear Waste Fast

Reactors Molten Salt Reactors Thorium Nuclear Fuel Radiation on Airplanes History of
Nuclear First-hand Chernobyl Memories Fukushima Fish The Age of Earth

Fission and Fusion

There are two fundamental nuclear processes considered for energy production: fission and fusion.

Fission is the energetic splitting of large atoms such as Uranium or Plutonium into two
smaller atoms, called fission products. To split an atom, you have to hit it with a neutron.
Several neutrons are also released which can go on to split other nearby atoms, producing a
nuclear chain reaction of sustained energy release. This nuclear reaction was the first of the
two to be discovered. All commercial nuclear power plants in operation use this reaction to
generate heat which they turn into electricity.

Fusion is the combining of two small atoms such as Hydrogen or Helium to produce heavier
atoms and energy. These reactions can release more energy than fission without producing
as many radioactive byproducts. Fusion reactions occur in the sun, generally using Hydrogen
as fuel and producing Helium as waste (fun fact: Helium was discovered in the sun and
named after the Greek Sun God, Helios). This reaction has not been commercially
developed yet and is a serious research interest worldwide, due to its promise of nearly
limitless, low-pollution, and non-proliferative energy.

Click here to see animations of fission and fusion reactions.

This site focuses on nuclear fission. In order to harness fusion, many daunting engineering and
physics problems must be solved. The time line for solving these problems is undefined, so we as a
society must turn to other solutions to solve the energy problems, at least for now. Fusion research is
exciting and making great progress, and it should continue to interest humanity.

Energy density of various fuel sources

The amount of energy released in nuclear reactions is astounding. Table 1 shows how long a 100
Watt light bulb could run from using 1 kg of various fuels. The natural uranium undergoes nuclear
fission and thus attains very high energy density (energy stored in a unit of mass).


Energy Density

100W light bulb

time (1kg)



1.2 days



3.1 days



3.8 days

Crude oil


4.8 days



5.3 days

Natural Uranium (LWR)


182 years

Reactor Grade Uranium



1,171 years

Natural Uranium


25,700 years

Thorium (breeder)


25,300 years

Table 1 Energy densities of various energy sources in MJ/kg and in length of time that 1 kg of each
material could run a 100W load. Natural uranium has undergone no enrichment (0.7% U-235),
reactor-grade uranium has 5% U-235. By the way, 1 kg of weapons grade uranium (95% U-235)
could power the entire USA for 177 seconds. All numbers assume 100% thermal-to-electrical
conversion. See our energy density of nuclear fuel page for details.

Capabilities of Nuclear Power

Table 1 sums the sustainability of nuclear power up quite well. However, there is quite a bit of talk
about nuclear fuel (Uranium) running low just like oil. Technically, this is a non-issue, as nuclear
waste is recyclable. Economically, it could become a major issue. Today's commercial nuclear
reactors burn less than 1% of the fuel that is mined for them and the rest of it or so is thrown away
(as depleted uranium and nuclear waste). The US recycling program shut down in the 70s due
to proliferation and economic concerns. Today, France and Japan are recycling fuel with great
success. New technology exists that can greatly reduce proliferation concerns. Without recycling, the
2005 Uranium Reserves Red Book published by the U.N. IAEA suggests that there are over 200
years of Uranium reserves at current demand. There is also a very large supply of uranium dissolved
in seawater at very low concentration. No one has found a cheap-enough way to extract it yet,
though people have come close. Nuclear reactors can also run on Thorium fuel.


In operation, nuclear power plants emit nothing into the environment except hot water. The classic
cooling tower icon of nuclear reactors is just that, a cooling tower. Clean water vapor is all that comes
out. Very little CO2 or other climate-changing gases come out of nuclear power generation (certainly
some CO2 is produced during mining, construction, etc., but the amount is about 50 times less than
coal and 25 times less than natural gas plants. Details coming soon). The spent nuclear fuel (nuclear
waste) can be handled properly and disposed of geologically without affecting the environment in
any way.
Theyre safe too. In March, 2013 the former NASA scientist James Hansen (of the 350 ppm limit
fame) published a paper showing that nuclear energy has saved a total of 1.8 million lives in its
history worldwide just by displacing air pollution that is a known killer 2. That includes any deaths
nuclear energy has been responsible for from its accidents.

With nuclear power, many countries can approach energy independence. Being "addicted to oil" is a
major national and global security concern for various reasons. Using electric or plug-in hybrid
electric vehicles (PHEVs)powered by nuclear reactors, we could reduce our oil demands by orders of
magnitude. Additionally, many nuclear reactor designs can provide high-quality process heat in
addition to electricity, which can in turn be used to desalinate water, prepare hydrogen for fuel cells,
or to heat neighborhoods, among many other industrial processes.

Problems with Nuclear Power

Nuclear Waste
When atoms split to release energy, the smaller atoms that are left behind are often left in excited
states, emitting energetic particles that can cause biological damage. Some of the longest lived
atoms dont decay to stability for hundreds of thousands of years. This nuclear waste must be
controlled and kept out of the environment for at least that long. Designing systems to last that long
is a daunting task one that been a major selling point of anti-nuclear groups.

Dramatic accidents

Three major accidents have occurred in commercial power plants: Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and
Fukushima. Chernobyl was an uncontrolled steam explosion which released a large amount of
radiation into the environment, killing over 50 people, requiring a mass evacuation of hundreds of
thousands of people, and causing up to 4000 cancer cases. Three Mile Island was a partial-core
meltdown, where coolant levels dropped below the fuel and allowed some of it to melt. No one was
hurt and very little radiation was released, but the plant had to close, causing the operating company
and its investors to lose a lot of money. Fukushima was a station black-out caused by a huge
Tsunami. Four neighboring plants lost cooling and the decay heat melted the cores. Radiation was
released and the public was evacuated. These three accidents are very scary and keep many people
from being comfortable with nuclear power.

Nuclear power plants are larger and more complicated than other power plants. Many redundant
safety systems are built to keep the plant operating safely. This complexity causes the up-front cost
of a nuclear power plant to be much higher than for a comparable coal plant. Once the plant is built,
the fuel costs are much less than fossil fuel costs. In general, the older a nuclear plant gets, the more
money its operators make. The large capital cost keeps many investors from agreeing to finance
nuclear power plants.

The next stop

Go on to our nuclear reactor page to find out about how nuclear energy is turned into electricity.

1. Office of Air Quality, "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam
Generating Units -- Final Report to Congress," EPA-453/R-98-004a, 1998 (Online)
2. P. Kharecha and J. Hansen, "Prevented Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from
Historical and Projected Nuclear Power," Environ. Sci. Technol., 2013, 47 (9), pp 4889
4895 (Press release)
3. A. Gabbard, "Coal Combustion: Nuclear Resource or Danger," (online).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Three Gorges Dam in Central China is the world's largest power producing facility of any kind.
Part of a series about

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Environment portal

Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015 hydropower generated 16.6% of

the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity,[1] and was expected to increase about
3.1% each year for the next 25 years.
Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of
global hydropower in 2013. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of
production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use.
The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity.
The hydro station consumes no water, unlike coal or gas plants. The average cost of electricity from
a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S. cents per kilowatt-hour.[2] With a dam and
reservoir it is also a flexible source of electricity since the amount produced by the station can be
changed up or down very quickly to adapt to changing energy demands. Once a hydroelectric
complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, and has a considerably lower output
level of greenhouse gasesthan fossil fuel powered energy plants.[3]


2Generating methods

2.1Conventional (dams)



3Sizes, types and capacities of hydroelectric facilities

3.1Large facilities





3.6Calculating available power



4.1.2Low power costs

4.1.3Suitability for industrial applications

4.1.4Reduced CO2 emissions

4.1.5Other uses of the reservoir


4.2.1Ecosystem damage and loss of land

4.2.2Siltation and flow shortage

4.2.3Methane emissions (from reservoirs)


4.2.5Failure risks
4.3Comparison with other methods of power generation

5World hydroelectric capacity

6Major projects under construction

7See also


9External links

See also: Hydropower History

Museum Hydroelectric power plant Under the Town in Serbia, built in 1900.[4][5]

Hydropower has been used since ancient times to grind flour and perform other tasks. In the mid1770s, French engineer Bernard Forest de Blidor published Architecture Hydraulique which
described vertical- and horizontal-axis hydraulic machines. By the late 19th century, the electrical
generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics.[6] The growing demand for
the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well.[7] In 1878 the world's first hydroelectric
power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William George
Armstrong. It was used to power a single arc lamp in his art gallery.[8] The old Schoelkopf Power
Station No. 1 near Niagara Falls in the U.S. side began to produce electricity in 1881. The
first Edisonhydroelectric power station, the Vulcan Street Plant, began operating September 30,
1882, in Appleton, Wisconsin, with an output of about 12.5 kilowatts.[9] By 1886 there were 45
hydroelectric power stations in the U.S. and Canada. By 1889 there were 200 in the U.S. alone. [6]
At the beginning of the 20th century, many small hydroelectric power stations were being
constructed by commercial companies in mountains near metropolitan areas. Grenoble, France held
the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism with over one million visitors. By 1920 as
40% of the power produced in the United States was hydroelectric, the Federal Power Act was
enacted into law. The Act created the Federal Power Commission to regulate hydroelectric power
stations on federal land and water. As the power stations became larger, their associated dams
developed additional purposes to include flood control, irrigation and navigation. Federal funding
became necessary for large-scale development and federally owned corporations, such as
the Tennessee Valley Authority (1933) and the Bonneville Power Administration (1937) were created.
Additionally, the Bureau of Reclamation which had begun a series of western U.S. irrigation
projects in the early 20th century was now constructing large hydroelectric projects such as the
1928 Hoover Dam.[10] The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was also involved in hydroelectric
development, completing the Bonneville Dam in 1937 and being recognized by the Flood Control Act
of 1936 as the premier federal flood control agency.[11]
Hydroelectric power stations continued to become larger throughout the 20th century. Hydropower
was referred to as white coal for its power and plenty.[12] Hoover Dam's initial 1,345 MW power station
was the world's largest hydroelectric power station in 1936; it was eclipsed by the 6809 MW Grand
Coulee Dam in 1942.[13] The Itaipu Dam opened in 1984 in South America as the largest, producing
14,000 MW but was surpassed in 2008 by the Three Gorges Dam in China at 22,500 MW.
Hydroelectricity would eventually supply some countries, including Norway, Democratic Republic of
the Congo, Paraguay and Brazil, with over 85% of their electricity. The United States currently has

over 2,000 hydroelectric power stations that supply 6.4% of its total electrical production output,
which is 49% of its renewable electricity.[7]

Generating methods

Turbine row at El Nihuil II Power Station in Mendoza, Argentina

Cross section of a conventional hydroelectric dam.

A typical turbine and generator

Conventional (dams)
See also: List of conventional hydroelectric power stations
Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water
turbine and generator. The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the
difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called
the head. A large pipe (the "penstock") delivers water from the reservoir to the turbine.[14]

Main article: Pumped-storage hydroelectricity
See also: List of pumped-storage hydroelectric power stations
This method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water
between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, the excess generation
capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. When the demand becomes greater, water
is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. Pumped-storage schemes currently
provide the most commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the
daily capacity factor of the generation system. Pumped storage is not an energy source, and
appears as a negative number in listings.[15]

Main article: Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity
See also: List of run-of-the-river hydroelectric power stations
Run-of-the-river hydroelectric stations are those with small or no reservoir capacity, so that only the
water coming from upstream is available for generation at that moment, and any oversupply must
pass unused. A constant supply of water from a lake or existing reservoir upstream is a significant
advantage in choosing sites for run-of-the-river. In the United States, run of the river hydropower
could potentially provide 60,000 megawatts (80,000,000 hp) (about 13.7% of total use in 2011 if
continuously available).[16]

Main article: Tide power
See also: List of tidal power stations
A tidal power station makes use of the daily rise and fall of ocean water due to tides; such sources
are highly predictable, and if conditions permit construction of reservoirs, can also be dispatchable to
generate power during high demand periods. Less common types of hydro schemes use
water's kinetic energy or undammed sources such as undershot water wheels. Tidal power is viable
in a relatively small number of locations around the world. In Great Britain, there are eight sites that
could be developed, which have the potential to generate 20% of the electricity used in 2012. [17]
Solar Projects with Power Producers

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Waste management
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. For

other uses, see Waste management
Not to be confused with Sanitary engineering.
This article needs additional citations
for verification. Please help improve this
article by adding citations to reliable
sources. Unsourced material may be
challenged and removed. (May 2011) (Learn
how and when to remove this template

Waste management in Kathmandu, Nepal

Waste management in Stockholm, Sweden

Waste management is all the activities and actions
required to manage waste from its inception to its
final disposal.[1] This includes amongst other things,
collection, transport, treatment and disposal
of waste together with monitoring and regulation. It
also encompasses the legal and regulatory
framework that relates to waste management
encompassing guidance on recycling etc.
The term normally relates to all kinds of waste,
whether generated during the extraction of raw
materials, the processing of raw materials into
intermediate and final products, the consumption of
final products, or other human activities,[1] including
municipal (residential, institutional, commercial),

agricultural, and social (health care, household

hazardous wastes, sewage sludge).[2] Waste
management is intended to reduce adverse effects
of waste on health, the environment or aesthetics.
Waste management practices are not uniform among
countries (developed and developing nations);
regions (urban and rural area), and sectors
(residential and industrial).[3]
1Central principles of waste
o 1.1Waste hierarchy
o 1.2Life-cycle of a product
o 1.3Resource efficiency
o 1.4Polluter pays principle
o 2.1Modern era
3Waste handling and transport
o 3.1Waste handling practices
4Financial models
5Disposal solutions

o 5.1Landfill
o 5.2Incineration
o 7.1Biological reprocessing
o 7.2Energy recovery
o 7.3Pyrolysis
o 7.4Resource recovery
o 7.5Sustainability
8Avoidance and reduction methods
9International waste movement
11Challenges in developing countries
13Scientific journals
14See also
16External links

Central principles of waste management[edit]

Diagram of the waste hierarchy

There are a number of concepts about waste
management which vary in their usage between
countries or regions. Some of the most general,
widely used concepts include:
Waste hierarchy[edit]
The waste hierarchy refers to the "3
Rs" reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste
management strategies according to their
desirability in terms of waste minimisation. The
waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most
waste minimisation strategies. The aim of the waste
hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical
benefits from products and to generate the minimum
amount of waste; see: resource recovery.The waste
hierarchy is represented as a pyramid because the
basic premise is for policy to take action first and
prevent the generation of waste. The next step or
preferred action is to reduce the generation of waste
i.e. by re-use. The next is recycling which would
include composting. Following this step is material

recovery and waste-to-energy. Energy can be

recovered from processes i.e. landfill and
combustion, at this level of the hierarchy. The final
action is disposal, in landfills or through incineration
without energy recovery. This last step is the final
resort for waste which has not been prevented,
diverted or recovered.[4] The waste hierarchy
represents the progression of a product or material
through the sequential stages of the pyramid of
waste management. The hierarchy represents the
latter parts of the life-cycle for each product.[4]
Life-cycle of a product[edit]
The life-cycle begins with design, then proceeds
through manufacture, distribution, use and then
follows through the waste hierarchy's stages of
reduce, reuse and recycle. Each of the above stages
of the life-cycle offers opportunities for policy
intervention, to rethink the need for the product, to
redesign to minimize waste potential, to extend its
use.[4] The key behind the life-cycle of a product is to
optimize the use of the world's limited resources by
avoiding the unnecessary generation of waste.
Resource efficiency[edit]
Resource efficiency reflects the understanding that
current, global, economic growth and development
can not be sustained with the current production and
consumption patterns. Globally, we are extracting

more resources to produce goods than the planet

can replenish.[4] Resource efficiency is the reduction
of the environmental impact from the production and
consumption of these goods, from final raw material
extraction to last use and disposal. This process of
resource efficiency can address sustainability.
Polluter pays principle[edit]
The Polluter pays principle is a principle where the
polluting party pays for the impact caused to the
environment. With respect to waste management,
this generally refers to the requirement for a waste
generator to pay for appropriate disposal of the
unrecoverable material.

Main article: History of waste management

Throughout most of history, the amount
of waste generated by humans was insignificant due
to low population density and low societal levels of
the exploitation of natural resources. Common waste
produced during pre-modern times was mainly ashes
and human biodegradable waste, and these were
released back into the ground locally, with
minimum environmental impact. Tools made out
of wood or metal were generally reused or passed
down through the generations.

However, some civilizations do seem to have been

more profligate in their waste output than others. In
particular, the Maya of Central America had a fixed
monthly ritual, in which the people of the village
would gather together and burn their rubbish in large
Modern era[edit]

Sir Edwin Chadwick's 1842 report The Sanitary

Condition of the Labouring Populationwas influential
in securing the passage of the first legislation aimed
at waste clearance and disposal.
Following the onset of industrialisation and the
sustained urban growth of large population centres
in England, the buildup of waste in the cities caused
a rapid deterioration in levels of sanitation and the
general quality of urban life. The streets became
choked with filth due to the lack of waste clearance
regulations.[6] Calls for the establishment of a
municipal authority with waste removal powers
occurred as early as 1751, when Corbyn Morris in

London proposed that " the preservation of the

health of the people is of great importance, it is
proposed that the cleaning of this city, should be put
under one uniform public management, and all the
filth be...conveyed by the Thames to proper distance
in the country".[7]
However, it was not until the mid-19th century,
spurred by increasingly
devastating cholera outbreaks and the emergence of
a public health debate that the first legislation on
the issue emerged. Highly influential in this new
focus was the report The Sanitary Condition of the
Labouring Population in 1842[8] of the social
reformer, Edwin Chadwick, in which he argued for
the importance of adequate waste removal and
management facilities to improve the health and
wellbeing of the city's population.
In the UK, the Nuisance Removal and Disease
Prevention Act of 1846 began what was to be a
steadily evolving process of the provision of
regulated waste management in London.
The Metropolitan Board of Works was the first citywide authority that centralized sanitation regulation
for the rapidly expanding city and the Public Health
Act 1875 made it compulsory for every household to
deposit their weekly waste in "moveable
receptacles: for disposalthe first concept for a

Manlove, Alliott & Co. Ltd. 1894 destructor furnace.

The use of incinerators for waste disposal became
popular in the late 19th century.
The dramatic increase in waste for disposal led to
the creation of the first incineration plants, or, as
they were then called, "destructors". In 1874, the
first incinerator was built in Nottingham by Manlove,
Alliott & Co. Ltd. to the design of Albert Fryer.
However, these were met with opposition on
account of the large amounts of ash they produced
and which wafted over the neighbouring areas. [10]
Similar municipal systems of waste disposal sprung
up at the turn of the 20th century in other large
cities of Europe and North America. In 1895, New
York City became the first U.S. city with publicsector garbage management.[9]
Early garbage removal trucks were simply open
bodied dump trucks pulled by a team of horses. They
became motorized in the early part of the 20th
century and the first close body trucks to eliminate
odours with a dumping lever mechanism were
introduced in the 1920s in Britain.[11] These were

soon equipped with 'hopper mechanisms' where the

scooper was loaded at floor level and then hoisted
mechanically to deposit the waste in the truck.
The Garwood Load Packer was the first truck in
1938, to incorporate a hydraulic compactor.
Waste handling and transport[edit]

Main articles: Waste collection vehicle, Dustbin,

and Waste sorting

Molded plastic, wheeled waste bin in Berkshire,

Waste collection methods vary widely among
different countries and regions. Domestic waste
collection services are often provided by local
government authorities, or by private companies for
industrial and commercial waste. Some areas,
especially those in less developed countries, do not
have formal waste-collection systems.
Waste handling practices[edit]

Curbside collection is the most common method of

disposal in most European countries, Canada, New
Zealand and many other parts of the developed
world in which waste is collected at regular intervals
by specialised trucks. This is often associated with
curb-side waste segregation. In rural areas waste
may need to be taken to a transfer station. Waste
collected is then transported to an appropriate
disposal facility. In some areas, vacuum collection is
used in which waste is transported from the home or
commercial premises by vacuum along small bore
tubes. Systems are in use in Europe and North

Main article: Automated vacuum collection

Pyrolysis is used to dispose of some wastes
including tires, a process that can produce
recovered fuels, steel and heat. In some cases tires
can provide the feedstock for cement manufacture.
Such systems are used in USA, California, Australia,
Greece, Mexico, the United Kingdom and in Israel.
The RESEM pyrolysis plant that has been operational
at Texas USA since December 2011, and processes
up to 60 tons per day.[12] In some jurisdictions
unsegregated waste is collected at the curb-side or
from waste transfer stations and then sorted into
recyclables and unusable waste. Such systems are
capable of sorting large volumes of solid waste,
salvaging recyclables, and turning the rest into bio-

gas and soil conditioner. In San Francisco, the local

government established its Mandatory Recycling and
Composting Ordinance in support of its goal of zero
waste by 2020, requiring everyone in the city to keep
recyclables and compostables out of the landfill. The
three streams are collected with the curbside
"Fantastic 3" bin system - blue for recyclables, green
for compostables, and black for landfill-bound
materials - provided to residents and businesses and
serviced by San Francisco's sole refuse hauler,
Recology. The City's "Pay-As-You-Throw" system
charges customers by the volume of landfill-bound
materials, which provides a financial incentive to
separate recyclables and compostables from other
discards. The City's Department of the
Environment's Zero Waste Program has led the City
to achieve 80% diversion, the highest diversion rate
in North America.[13] Other businesses such as Waste
Industries use a variety of colors to distinguish
between trash and recycling cans.
Financial models[edit]
In most developed countries, domestic waste
disposal is funded from a national or local tax which
may be related to income, or notional house value.
Commercial and industrial waste disposal is typically
charged for as a commercial service, often as an
integrated charge which includes disposal costs.

This practice may encourage disposal contractors to

opt for the cheapest disposal option such as landfill
rather than the environmentally best solution such
as re-use and recycling. In some areas such
as Taipei, the city government charges its
households and industries for the volume of rubbish
they produce. Waste will only be collected by the
city council if waste is disposed in government
issued rubbish bags. This policy has successfully
reduced the amount of waste the city produces and
increased the recycling rate.[citation needed]
Disposal solutions[edit]
Main article: Landfill

A landfill compaction vehicle in action.

Spittelau incineration plant in Vienna

Main article: Incineration
Incineration is a disposal method in which solid
organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to
convert them into residue and gaseous products.
This method is useful for disposal of residue of both
solid waste management and solid residue from
waste water management. This process reduces the
volumes of solid waste to 20 to 30 percent of the
original volume. Incineration and other high
temperature waste treatment systems are
sometimes described as "thermal treatment".
Incinerators convert waste materials
into heat, gas, steam, and ash.
Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by
individuals and on a large scale by industry. It is
used to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste. It

is recognized as a practical method of disposing of

certain hazardous waste materials (such as
biological medical waste). Incineration is a
controversial method of waste disposal, due to
issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants.
Incineration is common in countries such
as Japan where land is more scarce, as these
facilities generally do not require as much area as
landfills. Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste
(EfW) are broad terms for facilities that burn waste
in a furnace or boiler to generate heat, steam or
electricity. Combustion in an incinerator is not
always perfect and there have been concerns about
pollutants in gaseous emissions from incinerator
stacks. Particular concern has focused on some very
persistent organic compounds such
as dioxins, furans, and PAHs, which may be created
and which may have serious environmental

Main article: Recycling

Waste not the Waste. Sign in Tamil Nadu, India

Steel crushed and baled for recycling

Recycling is a resource recovery practice that refers
to the collection and reuse of waste materials such
as empty beverage containers. The materials from
which the items are made can be reprocessed into
new products. Material for recycling may be
collected separately from general waste using
dedicated bins and collection vehicles, a procedure
called kerbside collection. In some communities, the
owner of the waste is required to separate the
materials into different bins (e.g. for paper, plastics,
metals) prior to its collection. In other communities,
all recyclable materials are placed in a single bin for
collection, and the sorting is handled later at a
central facility. The latter method is known as
"single-stream recycling."[14][15]
The most common consumer products recycled
include aluminium such as beverages
cans, copper such as wire, steel from food and
aerosol cans, old steel furnishings or equipment,
rubber tyres, polyethylene and PET bottles, glass bot
tles and jars, paperboard cartons, newspapers,

magazines and light paper, and corrugated

fiberboard boxes.
PVC, LDPE, PP, and PS (see resin identification code)
are also recyclable. These items are usually
composed of a single type of material, making them
relatively easy to recycle into new products. The
recycling of complex products (such as computers
and electronic equipment) is more difficult, due to
the additional dismantling and separation required.
The type of material accepted for recycling varies by
city and country. Each city and country has different
recycling programs in place that can handle the
various types of recyclable materials. However,
certain variation in acceptance is reflected in the
resale value of the material once it is reprocessed.
Biological reprocessing[edit]
Main articles: Composting, Home
composting, Anaerobic digestion, and Microbial fuel

An active compost heap.

Recoverable materials that are organic in nature,
such as plant material, food scraps, and paper
products, can be recovered through composting and
digestion processes to decompose the organic
matter. The resulting organic material is then
recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or
landscaping purposes. In addition, waste gas from
the process (such as methane) can be captured and
used for generating electricity and heat
(CHP/cogeneration) maximising efficiencies. The
intention of biological processing in waste
management is to control and accelerate the natural
process of decomposition of organic matter.
(See resource recovery).
Energy recovery[edit]
Main article: Waste-to-energy
Energy recovery from waste is the conversion of
non-recyclable waste materials into usable heat,

electricity, or fuel through a variety of processes,

including combustion, gasification, pyrolyzation,
anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas recovery.[16] This
process is often called waste-to-energy. Energy
recovery from waste is part of the non-hazardous
waste management hierarchy. Using energy recovery
to convert non-recyclable waste materials into
electricity and heat, generates a renewable energy
source and can reduce carbon emissions by
offsetting the need for energy from fossil sources as
well as reduce methane generation from landfills.
Globally, waste-to-energy accounts for 16% of
waste management.[17]
The energy content of waste products can be
harnessed directly by using them as a direct
combustion fuel, or indirectly by processing them
into another type of fuel. Thermal treatment ranges
from using waste as a fuel source for cooking or
heating and the use of the gas fuel (see above), to
fuel for boilers to generate steam and electricity in
a turbine. Pyrolysis and gasification are two related
forms of thermal treatment where waste materials
are heated to high temperatures with
limited oxygen availability. The process usually
occurs in a sealed vessel under high pressure.
Pyrolysis of solid waste converts the material into
solid, liquid and gas products. The liquid and gas can
be burnt to produce energy or refined into other

chemical products (chemical refinery). The solid

residue (char) can be further refined into products
such as activated carbon. Gasification and
advanced Plasma arc gasification are used to
convert organic materials directly into a synthetic
gas (syngas) composed of carbon
monoxide and hydrogen. The gas is then burnt to
produce electricity and steam. An alternative to
pyrolysis is high temperature and pressure
supercritical water decomposition (hydrothermal
monophasic oxidation).
Main article: Pyrolysis
Pyrolysis is a process of thermo-chemical
decomposition of organic materials by heat in the
absence of oxygen which produces various
hydrocarbon gases.[18] During pyrolysis, the
molecules of object are subjected to very high
temperatures leading to very high vibrations.
Therefore, every molecule in the object is stretched
and shaken to an extent that molecules starts
breaking down. The rate of pyrolysis increases
with temperature. In industrial applications,
temperatures are above 430 C (800 F).[19] Fast
pyrolysis produces liquid fuel for feedstocks like
wood. Slow pyrolysis produces gases and solid
charcoal.[20] Pyrolysis hold promise for conversion of
waste biomass into useful liquid fuel. Pyrolysis of

waste plastics can produce millions of litres of fuel.

Solid products of this process contain metals, glass,
sand and pyrolysis coke which cannot be converted
to gas in the process.
Resource recovery[edit]
Main article: Resource recovery
Resource recovery is the systematic diversion of
waste, which was intended for disposal, for a
specific next use.[21] It is the processing of
recyclables to extract or recover materials and
resources, or convert to energy.[22] These activities
are performed at a resource recovery facility.
Resource recovery is not only environmentally
important, but it is also cost effective.[23] It
decreases the amount of waste for disposal, saves
space in landfills, and conserves natural resources.

Resource recovery (as opposed to waste

management) uses LCA (life cycle analysis) attempts
to offer alternatives to waste management. For
mixed MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) a number of
broad studies have indicated that administration,
source separation and collection followed by reuse
and recycling of the non-organic fraction and energy
and compost/fertilizer production of the organic
material via anaerobic digestion to be the favoured

As an example of how resource recycling can be

beneficial, many of the items thrown away contain
precious metals which can be recycled to create a
profit, such as the components in circuit boards.
Other industries can also benefit from resource
recycling with the wood chippings in pallets and
other packaging materials being passed onto sectors
such as the horticultural profession. In this instance,
workers can use the recycled chips to create paths,
walkways, or arena surfaces.
The management of waste is a key component in a
business' ability to
maintaining ISO14001 accreditation. Companies are
encouraged to improve their environmental
efficiencies each year by eliminating waste
through resource recovery practices, which are
sustainability-related activities. One way to do this is
by shifting away from waste management to
resource recovery practices like recycling materials
such as glass, food scraps, paper and cardboard,
plastic bottles and metal. a lot of conferences will
discuss this topic as the international Conference on
Green Urabnism which will be held in Italy From 12
14 October 2016
Avoidance and reduction methods[edit]

Main article: Waste minimization

An important method of waste management is the

prevention of waste material being created, also
known as waste reduction. Methods of avoidance
include reuse of second-hand products, repairing
broken items instead of buying new, designing
products to be refillable or reusable (such as cotton
instead of plastic shopping bags), encouraging
consumers to avoid using disposable products (such
as disposable cutlery), removing any food/liquid
remains from cans and packaging,[24] and designing
products that use less material to achieve the same
purpose (for example, lightweighting of beverage
International waste movement[edit]
While waste transport within a given country falls
under national regulations, trans-boundary
movement of waste is often subject to international
treaties. A major concern to many countries in the
world has been hazardous waste. The Basel
Convention, ratified by 172 countries, deprecates
movement of hazardous waste from developed to
less developed countries. The provisions of the Basel
convention have been integrated into the EU waste
shipment regulation. Nuclear waste, although
considered hazardous, does not fall under the
jurisdiction of the Basel Convention.

Waste is not something that should be discarded or

disposed of with no regard for future use. It can be a
valuable resource if addressed correctly, through
policy and practice. With rational and consistent
waste management practices there is an opportunity
to reap a range of benefits. Those benefits include:
1. Economic - Improving economic
efficiency through the means of
resource use, treatment and
disposal and creating markets for
recycles can lead to efficient
practices in the production and
consumption of products and
materials resulting in valuable
materials being recovered for
reuse and the potential for new
jobs and new business
2. Social - By reducing adverse
impacts on health by proper
waste management practices,
the resulting consequences are
more appealing settlements.
Better social advantages can
lead to new sources of
employment and potentially
lifting communities out of poverty

especially in some of the

developing poorer countries and
3. Environmental - Reducing or
eliminating adverse impacts on
the environmental through
reducing, reusing and recycling,
and minimizing resource
extraction can provide improved
air and water quality and help in
the reduction of greenhouse
gas emissions.
4. Inter-generational Equity Following effective waste
management practices can
provide subsequent generations a
more robust economy, a fairer
and more inclusive society and a
cleaner environment.[4]
Challenges in developing countries[edit]
Waste management in cities with developing
economies and economies in transition experience
exhausted waste collection services, inadequately
managed and uncontrolled dumpsites and the
problems are worsening.[4] Problems with
governance also complicate the situation. Waste

management, in these countries and cities, is an

ongoing challenge and many struggle due to weak
institutions, chronic under-resourcing and rapid
urbanization.[4] All of these challenges along with the
lack of understanding of different factors that
contribute to the hierarchy of waste management,
affect the treatment of waste.[26]
Traditionally the waste management industry has
been a late adopter of new technologies such
as RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags, GPS
and integrated software packages which enable
better quality data to be collected without the use of
estimation or manual data entry.[27]
Scientific journals[edit]

See also: Category:Waste management journals

Related scientific journals in this area include:
Environmental and Resource
Environmental Monitoring and
Journal of Environmental
Assessment Policy and

Journal of Environmental
Economics and Management
See also[edit]
Biomedical waste
Curb mining
List of waste disposal incidents
List of waste management
List of waste types
Solid waste policy in India
Solid waste policy in the United
Waste management in Turkey

1. ^ a b Glossary of Environment
Statistics : Series F, No. 67 /
Department for Economic and
Social Information and Policy
Analysis, United Nations. New
York: UN, 1997.
2. ^ Waste Management
(2013). "Editorial Board/Aims &
Scopes". Waste Management. 34:
IFC. doi:10.1016/S0956053X(14)00026-9.
3. ^ Davidson, G. (2011). "Waste
Management Practices".
%202011%20(1.49%20MB).pdf. E
xternal link in |publisher= (help);
4. ^ a b c d e f g United Nations
Environmental Programme
(2013). "Guidelines for National
Waste Management Strategies
Moving from Challenges to

Opportunities." (PDF). ISBN 97892-807-3333-4.

5. ^ Barbalace, Roberta Crowell
(2003-08-01). "The History of
Retrieved 2013-12-09.
6. ^ Florence Nightingale, Selected
Writings of Florence Nightingale,
ed. Lucy Ridgely Seymer (New
York: The Macmillan Co., 1954),
pp. 38287
7. ^ a b Herbert, Lewis
(2007). "Centenary History of
Waste and Waste Managers in
London and South East
England". Chartered Institution
of Wastes Management.
8. ^ Chadwick, Edwin (1842).
"Chadwick's Report on Sanitary
Conditions". excerpt
fromReport...from the Poor Law
Commissioners on an Inquiry into
the Sanitary Conditions of the
Labouring Population of Great
Britain (pp.369-372) (online

source). added by Laura Del Col:

to The Victorian Web.
Retrieved 2009-11-08.
9. ^ a b National Waste & Recycling
Association. "History of Solid
Waste Management".
Washington, DC. Retrieved 201312-09.
10.^ Gandy, Matthew
(1994). Recycling and the Politics
of Urban Waste.
Earthscan. ISBN 9781853831683.
11.^ "Covered Bodies".
12.^ RESEM Waste Tyre Pyrolysis
Plant in USA, retrieved 2011-1024
14.^ City of Chicago, Illinois.
Department of Streets and
Sanitation. "What is Single

Stream Recycling." Accessed

15.^ Montgomery County,
Maryland. Division of Solid Waste
Services. "Curbside
Collection."Accessed 2013-12-09.
16.^ a b USEPA (2014). "Energy
Recovery from Waste".
17.^ New Energy Corporation
(2014). "Waste Hierarchy".
18.^ Oxford Reference - Pyrolysis
19.^ Encyclopedia Britannica
20.^ By Prabir Basu : Biomass
Gasification, Pyrolysis and
Torrefaction : Practical Design
and Theory
21.^ USEPA (2012). "Frequent
22.^ a b Government of Montana
(2012). "Resource Recovery".
23.^ a b Grand Traverse County
(2006). "What is Resource

24.^ "Removing food remains to

reduce waste". Retrieved 2012-0925.
25.^ Schneider, Michael; Johnson,
Liz. "Lightweighting". Projects in
Scientific Computing. Pittsburgh
Supercomputing Center,
Carnegie Mellon University,
University of Pittsburgh.
Retrieved 2012-09-25.
26.^ Science Direct (2013). "Waste
Management". Volume 33, Issue
1 pp220-232.
27.^ Claire Swedberg. "Air-Trak
Brings Visibility to Waste
Management". RFID Journal.
Retrieved 1 October 2015.
External links[edit]
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