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You are on page 1of 26

to them

Alexander Diaz-Lopez

Swarthmore College

Algebra: Much More than Arithmetic!

Lathisms.org

Pamela Harris

Erik Insko

Mo Omar

Bruce Sagan

Definition

A symmetric group of degree n, denoted by Sn , is the set of all

bijective mappings from the set [n] := {1, 2, . . . , n} to itself.

We can represent the elements of Sn in a variety of ways (one-line

notation, two-line notation, matrices). We will use the one-line

notation.

S3 = {123 132

Since Sn is a bijective map : [n] [n] we can represent

by plotting the points (i, (i)).

p

6

pb

p6 p

p

6

pb

bp

bp

pb

p

@

p p @pb

pb p

p

bp

p

A

p A p

A

p Apb

p-

p-

p6 p

p

p

p

= 123

= 132

= 231

p-

pb

bp

p p

@

p @

pb

p

p6 pb

p

A

p

p A p

A

p

p Apb

p

p

p

6

bp

@

p

p @bp

p

@

p

p

p @pb

p-

= 213

p-

= 312

pb

= 321

p-

Definition

Let Sn , and = 1 2 n denote its one-line notation. A

permutation is said to have peak at i if i1 < i > i+1 .

6

p

pb

6

p

pb

pb

p-

= 123

bp

p

@

p p @pb

bp

p

p

p

= 132

p-

Peak sets in Sn

Definition

The peak set of a permutation is the set of peaks in :

P() = {i [n] : i is a peak of }.

Peak sets in Sn

Definition

The peak set of a permutation is the set of peaks in :

P() = {i [n] : i is a peak of }.

Given a subset S [n], we denote the set of all permutations with

peak set S by

P(S; n) = { Sn : P() = S}.

Peak sets in Sn

Definition

The peak set of a permutation is the set of peaks in :

P() = {i [n] : i is a peak of }.

Given a subset S [n], we denote the set of all permutations with

peak set S by

P(S; n) = { Sn : P() = S}.

Question

How many permutations in Sn have a given peak set i.e., what is

the cardinality of P(S; n)?

Example in S3

6

p

pb

p6 p

p

6

pb

bp

bp

pb

p

@

p p @pb

pb p

p

p

bp

A

p A p

A

p Apb

p-

p-

p6 p

p

p

p

= 123

= 132

= 231

p-

pb

bp

p p

@

p @

pb

p

p6 pb

p

A

p

p A p

A

p

p Apb

p

6

bp

p

p

@

p

p @bp

p

@

p

p

p @pb

p-

= 213

p-

= 312

pb

P({2}; 3) = {132, 231}.

= 321

p-

Peak sets in Sn

Question

How many permutations in Sn have a given peak set?

Peak sets in Sn

Question

How many permutations in Sn have a given peak set?

Let P(S; n) denote the set of permutations in Sn with peak set S.

If S = {i1 , i2 , . . . , is } then

|P(S; n)| = pS (n)2n|S|1

where pS (x ) is a polynomial depending on S of degree is 1,

which takes on integral values when evaluated at integers.

Peak sets in Sn

Question

How many permutations in Sn have a given peak set?

Let P(S; n) denote the set of permutations in Sn with peak set S.

If S = {i1 , i2 , . . . , is } then

|P(S; n)| = pS (n)2n|S|1

where pS (x ) is a polynomial depending on S of degree is 1,

which takes on integral values when evaluated at integers.

The polynomial pS (x ) is what is called the peak polynomial of S.

Theorem

If S = {i1 , i2 , . . . , is } then

|P(S; n)| = pS (n)2n|S|1

where pS (x ) is a polynomial depending on S of degree is 1.

Theorem

If S = {i1 , i2 , . . . , is } then

|P(S; n)| = pS (n)2n|S|1

where pS (x ) is a polynomial depending on S of degree is 1.

(Open) Question

What does the 2n|S|1 mean?

Question

What properties does pS (n) have?

Theorem

If S = {i1 , i2 , . . . , is } then

|P(S; n)| = pS (n)2n|S|1

where pS (x ) is a polynomial depending on S of degree is 1.

(Open) Question

What does the 2n|S|1 mean?

Question

What properties does pS (n) have?

The coefficients of the peak polynomial when written in the

binomial basis centered at max(S) are non-negative.

m = max(S) we get

m

X

x m

pS (x ) =

( pS )(m)

.

j

j=0

j

The coefficients (j pS )(k) are all non-negative when k = max(S).

In 2013, Billey, Burdzy, and Sagan:

verified it computationally for all 2m subsets containing a

In 2013, Billey, Burdzy, and Sagan:

verified it computationally for all 2m subsets containing a

In 2015, Billey, Fahrbach, and Talmage:

posed a stronger conjecture bounding the moduli of the roots

max(S) 15,

discovered a computationally efficient recursive algorithm for

computing pS (x ), and

proved that the positivity conjecture holds in several special

cases

In 2013, Billey, Burdzy, and Sagan:

verified it computationally for all 2m subsets containing a

In 2015, Billey, Fahrbach, and Talmage:

posed a stronger conjecture bounding the moduli of the roots

max(S) 15,

discovered a computationally efficient recursive algorithm for

computing pS (x ), and

proved that the positivity conjecture holds in several special

cases

In Fall 2015 ...

Theorem (DL., Harris, Insko, Omar 2016)

Let S = {i1 , i2 , . . . , is } [n + 1] with i1 < i2 < . . . < is be an

(n + 1)-admissible set. Then for q max(S)

|P(S; q + 1)| = 2|P(S; q)| + 2

s

X

`=1

|P(Si` ; q)| +

s

X

`=1

|P(Sbi` ; q)|.

Theorem (DL., Harris, Insko, Omar 2016)

Let S = {i1 , i2 , . . . , is } [n + 1] with i1 < i2 < . . . < is be an

(n + 1)-admissible set. Then for q max(S)

|P(S; q + 1)| = 2|P(S; q)| + 2

s

X

|P(Si` ; q)| +

`=1

s

X

|P(Sbi` ; q)|.

`=1

2q|S| pS (q + 1) = 2q|S| pS (q) +

pS (x ) =

s

X

`=1

pSi` (x ) +

s

X

`=1

s

X

`=1

s

X

`=1

pbS (x ).

i`

i`

Main Result

Let S [n] be an admissible set with m = max(S). If pS (x ) is

expanded in the binomial basis centered at m as

max(S)

pS (x ) =

X

j=0

x m

( pS )(m)

j

(m pS )(x ) = 0.

Current work

p

6

pb

p6 p

p

6

pb

bp

bp

pb

p

@

p p @pb

pb p

p

bp

p

A

p A p

A

p Apb

p-

p-

= 123

p

p

= 231

p-

pb

bp

p p

@

p @

pb

p

p6 pb

p

A

p

p A p

A

p

p Apb

p

p

p

6

bp

@

p

p @bp

p

@

p

p

p @pb

p-

p6 p

p

= 132

= 213

p-

= 312

pb

= 321

p-

Other projects

and Omar:

Peaks on families of graphs - Sn is in fact the path graph on

n vertices.

Joint with Harris, Insko, Sagan:

Find a combinatorial interpretation for the coefficients of

Joint with ??

Find the meaning of these results when looking at the peak

Thanks!

via awards from the National Science Foundation (DMS-1545136)

and the National Security Agency (H98230-15-1-0091).

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