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Airbus FDA Events List

by Flight Operations SMS Support & Services and Ops Eng & Post Flight Applications
SP1000541 - 2.4.0
Published 17/05/2011
Copyright 2002-2010 AIRBUS S.A.S.
The content of this document is the property of AIRBUS. It is supplied in confidence and commercial security on its content must be maintained.
It must not be used for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied, nor may information contained in it be disclosed to unauthorized persons.
It must not be reproduced in whole or part without permission in writing form the owners of the copyright.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Table of Contents
Preface............................................................................................................................... ix
Glossary.............................................................................................................................. 1
1. Standard Events................................................................................................................ 3
1005 - Speed High in Approach (below 2500ft RA)............................................................ 4
1006 - Speed Above VMO............................................................................................. 5
1007 - Speed Above MMO.............................................................................................6
1008 - Speed Above VLO Retraction............................................................................... 7
1009 - Speed Above VLE.............................................................................................. 8
1010 - Speed High in Approach (at 1000ft)....................................................................... 9
1011 - Speed Low in Approach (at 1000ft)...................................................................... 10
1012 - Speed High in Approach (at 500ft)....................................................................... 11
1013 - Speed Low in Approach (at 500ft)........................................................................ 12
1014 - Speed High in Approach (at 50ft)......................................................................... 13
1015 - Speed Low in Approach (at 50ft)......................................................................... 14
1016 - Speed Above VLO Extension.............................................................................. 15
1017 - Speed Above VFE............................................................................................. 16
1021 - Speed Above 250kts (below 10000ft).................................................................... 17
1022 - Speed High at Touch Down................................................................................ 18
1023 - Speed Low at Touch down..................................................................................19
1024 - Speed Above Maximum Tire Speed...................................................................... 20
1025 - Speed Above Recommended Turbulence Speed...................................................... 21
1027 - Rejected Take Off Detected.................................................................................22
1028 - Speed Low....................................................................................................... 23
1029 - Braking Delayed at Landing................................................................................ 24
1030 - Taxi Speed High in straight line........................................................................... 25
1031 - Taxi Speed High in turn..................................................................................... 26
1032 - Speed High in Climb (below 1000ft).....................................................................27
1033 - Tail Wind at Landing (below 100ft)...................................................................... 28
1034 - VAPP Questionable in Approach..........................................................................29
1035 - Braking Questionable at Landing..........................................................................30
1036 - Average Tail Wind (100ft - 10ft)......................................................................... 31
1038 - Speed Low in Climb (100ft - 1500ft).................................................................... 32
1051 - U-turn Detected.................................................................................................33
1052 - High Speed Exit Detected................................................................................... 34
1053 - Rolling Take Off............................................................................................... 35
1100 - Pitch High at Take Off....................................................................................... 36
1101 - Pitch Rate High at Take Off................................................................................ 37
1102 - Pitch Rate Low at Take Off................................................................................ 38
1103 - Pitch High in Climb........................................................................................... 39
1104 - Pitch Low in Climb........................................................................................... 40
1105 - Side Stick Pitch cycling at Landing (below 200ft) .................................................. 41
1108 - Pitch High at Touch Down..................................................................................42
1109 - Pitch Low at Touch Down.................................................................................. 43
1111 - Pitch Rate High at Landing................................................................................. 44
1113 - Pitch down input (below 100ft)............................................................................ 45
1200 - Bank High in Approach (below 100ft)...................................................................46
1201 - Bank High in Approach (400ft - 100ft)..................................................................47
1202 - Bank High in Approach (1000ft - 400ft) ............................................................... 48
1203 - Bank High in Approach (above 1000ft)................................................................. 49
1204 - Bank Cycling in Approach.................................................................................. 50
1205 - Side Stick Roll cycling (below 200ft).................................................................... 51
1206 - Bank High in Initial Climb (Take Off - 100ft)........................................................ 52
1207 - Bank High in Initial Climb (100ft - 400ft)..............................................................53
1208 - Bank High in Initial Climb (400ft - 1000ft)............................................................ 54
1209 - Bank Cycling during Initial Climb ....................................................................... 55
1210 - Bank High during Flare (below 10ft) ................................................................... 56

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SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1211 - Bank Oscillation in Approach (below 100ft)........................................................... 57


1219 - Roll Spoilers extension at Landing (below 50ft)...................................................... 58
1311 - Level Off in Approach below 1400ft (G/S off) .......................................................59
1312 - Path High in Approach (at 1200ft)........................................................................ 60
1313 - Path Low in Approach (at 1200ft)........................................................................ 61
1314 - Path High in Approach (at 800ft)......................................................................... 62
1315 - Path Low in Approach (at 800ft).......................................................................... 63
1316 - Path High in Approach (at 400ft)......................................................................... 64
1317 - Path Low in Approach (at 400ft).......................................................................... 65
1400 - Path High in Descent (above FL100).................................................................... 66
1401 - Rate Of Descent High in Approach (above 2000ft) ................................................. 67
1402 - Rate Of Descent High in Approach (from 2000ft - 1000ft) ....................................... 68
1403 - Rate Of Descent High in Approach (from 1000ft - 500ft) ......................................... 69
1404 - Rate Of Descent High in Approach (below 500ft) ................................................... 70
1405 - Path High at Landing (below 20ft)....................................................................... 71
1406 - Rate Of Descent High in Descent (FL100 - FL30) .................................................. 72
1407 - Rate Of Climb Low in Initial Climb (below 1000ft)................................................. 73
1500 - Vertical Acceleration High at Take Off................................................................. 74
1501 - Vertical Acceleration High in Flight..................................................................... 75
1504 - Vertical Acceleration High at Touchdown ............................................................. 76
1510 - Lateral Acceleration High at Touchdown............................................................... 77
1600 - Flaps Early Retraction at Take Off....................................................................... 78
1601 - Flaps Late Setting at Landing.............................................................................. 79
1602 - Flaps Questionable Setting at Landing................................................................... 80
1605 - Configuration Change Questionable during Go Around ............................................81
1606 - Speed Brakes Used in Approach (below 1000ft) ..................................................... 82
1607 - Auto Pilot Off Detected in Cruise.........................................................................83
1609 - Landing Gear Late Retraction.............................................................................. 84
1611 - Reversers Delayed at Landing..............................................................................85
1613 - Speed Brakes Out with Significant Thrust.............................................................. 86
1617 - Landing Gear Early Retraction............................................................................. 87
1618 - Rudder Large Inputs (above 200ft) ...................................................................... 88
1619 - Reversers High Thrust at Low Speed.................................................................... 89
1623 - Autoland.......................................................................................................... 90
1624 - Ground Spoilers lever not armed.......................................................................... 91
1701 - Thrust Low in Approach (below 500ft RA)............................................................ 92
1702 - EGT High........................................................................................................ 93
1703 - Thrust Reduction Late at Landing.........................................................................94
1705 - Thrust Asymmetry in Flight................................................................................ 95
1706 - Thrust Asymmetry during Landing Roll Out...........................................................96
1708 - Thrust High during Taxi .................................................................................... 97
1709 - Thrust Power High at Line-Up............................................................................. 98
1710 - No Standard Reverse Use................................................................................... 99
1800 - HDG Deviation at Take Off (100kts - Rotation) ................................................... 100
1801 - Deviation below Glideslope (above 1000ft).......................................................... 101
1802 - Deviation above Glide slope (above 1000ft)..........................................................102
1803 - Deviation from Localizer ................................................................................. 103
1804 - Deviation below Glideslope (1000ft-300ft) .......................................................... 104
1805 - Deviation above Glide slope (1000ft-300ft) ......................................................... 105
1807 - Heading Deviation at Landing (above 60kts).........................................................106
1808 - Long Flare Time..............................................................................................107
1812 - Height Low at Threshold ................................................................................. 108
1813 - Height High at Threshold.................................................................................. 109
1814 - HDG Significant Change in Approach (below 500ft) ............................................. 110
1816 - Lateral Deviation at Landing..............................................................................111
1817 - Short Flare Distance......................................................................................... 112
1818 - Long Flare Distance......................................................................................... 113
1819 - Short Flare Time............................................................................................. 114

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SP1000541 - 2.4.0

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1820 - High Vertical Speed before Touchdown............................................................... 115


1821 - Heading Deviation at Take-Off ......................................................................... 116
1822 - Aircraft not on center line................................................................................. 117
1901 - Flaps/Slats Extended Above Max Altitude ........................................................... 118
1902 - Altitude Above Maximum Operating Altitude....................................................... 119
1903 - Windshear Warning..........................................................................................120
1904 - Go Around..................................................................................................... 121
1905 - Engine Reverser selected in Flight...................................................................... 122
1906 - Bounced Landing............................................................................................. 123
1907 - Touch And Go................................................................................................ 124
1909 - Alpha Floor.................................................................................................... 125
1910 - Alternate Law................................................................................................. 126
1911 - Direct Law..................................................................................................... 127
1914 - Overweight Landing......................................................................................... 128
1917 - Dual Stick Inputs............................................................................................. 129
1918 - TCAS Resolution Advisory............................................................................... 130
1919 - Level Bust...................................................................................................... 131
1920 - GPWS Warning (above 1000ft).......................................................................... 132
1921 - GPWS Warning (1000ft - 500ft)......................................................................... 133
1922 - GPWS Warning (below 500ft)........................................................................... 134
1923 - Autoland Warning............................................................................................135
1924 - Landing Gear Not Locked Down........................................................................ 136
1932 - Engine Shutdown in Flight................................................................................ 137
1933 - Smoke Warning............................................................................................... 138
1934 - Take Off Configuration Warning........................................................................ 139
1936 - Long Holding.................................................................................................. 140
1940 - Destination Change in Flight..............................................................................141
2000 - Continuously Low during final........................................................................... 142
2001 - Continuously Slow during final.......................................................................... 143
2002 - Continuously High during final.......................................................................... 144
2003 - Continuously Fast during final........................................................................... 145
2004 - Continuously Steep during final..........................................................................146
2009 - Late Offset in Short Final..................................................................................147
2012 - Roll Oscillations prior to Flare........................................................................... 148
2020 - Over Rotation at Take Off................................................................................. 149
2021 - Under Rotation at Take Off............................................................................... 150
2022 - Bank continuously excessive close to ground........................................................ 151
2200 - Low Energy Situation in Approach..................................................................... 152
2201 - High Energy Situation in Approach..................................................................... 153
2205 - Tail Strike Hazard at Landing............................................................................ 154
2206 - Wing Strike Hazard at Landing.......................................................................... 155
2207 - Hard Landing Hazard....................................................................................... 156
2214 - Tail Strike Hazard at Take Off........................................................................... 157
....................................................................................................................................... clix

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SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Airbus FDA Events List

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

ix

Preface
Airbus FDA event list is referencing all existing FDA events implemented in Airbus AirFASE application,
with their operational objectives. According to parameters recording availability (customized frame), some
events, out of this list, might not be enabled or active

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Preface

ix

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Preface

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Glossary
The following is a complete list of the terms used throughout this document.

A
AC

Aircraft

AFE

Above Field Elevation, An altitude AFE will be zero when the aircraft is on the
reference runway.

AP

Auto Pilot

ATC

Air Traffic Control

A/THR

Auto Thrust

C
CAS

Calibrated Airspeed

CFIT

Controlled Flight Into Terrain

E
ECAM

Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor

EGPWS

Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System

EGT

Exhaust Gas Temperature

EPR

Engine Pressure Ratio

F
FCU

Flight Control Unit

FOD

Foreign Object Debris

FPA

Flight Path Angle

G
G/S

Glide Slope

GS

Ground Speed

GPWS

Ground Proximity Warning System

I
ILS

Instrument Landing System

L
LOC

Localizer

M
MMO

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Maximum Operation Mach

Glossary

MW

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Monitoring Window

N
NPA

Non Precision Approach

P
PF

Pilot flying (Captain or First Officer)

PNF

Pilot not flying (Captain or First Officer)

R
RA

Radio Altimeter / Altitude

S
SOP

Standard Operations and Procedures

T
TCAS

Traffic Collision Avoidance System

THR

Thrust

THR_DEFICIT

Lack of Engine Thrust

TOD

Top Of Descent

TOL

Time Over Limit

V
V1
V2
VAPP

Approach Speed Target

VFE

Maximum Flaps Extended Speed

VLE

Maximum Landing Gear Extension Speed

VLO

Maximum Landing Gear Operation Speed

VLS

Lowest Selectable Speed

VMO

Maximum Operating Speed

Glossary

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1
Standard Events
Standard Events A Standard event is one that is detected when its related parameter deviates beyond a
specified limit or a minimum period of time.
Specific Events When a parameter deviates beyond the limit for a period considered to be excessive for the
aircraft safety, instead of detecting numerous identical events, a synthetic event called steady behavior
is detected.
Logical Combination of Events Combination of several events, when Standard or Specific Events are
detected simultaneously a higher hazard level is detected.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

Speed High in Approach (below 2500ft RA)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1005 - Speed High in Approach (below 2500ft RA)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the AC airspeed at 2500ft above the runway (AFE) during approach is above the
specified Deviation Limit speeds.
The Deviation Limits are fixed speeds which can be adjusted for airline policy, and if necessary for specific
airfields.
All approaches should be stable by 1000ft RA (Radio Altitude) which may not be achieved if the AC
speed is high at 2500ft.

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Speed Above VMO

1006 - Speed Above VMO


Operational Goal
This event detects if the AC Calibrated Airspeed( _CAS ) exceeds the Maximum Operating Speed limit
( _VMO ).
At lower altitudes the aircraft speed is restricted by Airspeed limit _VMO whereas at high altitude, the
AC speed can not exceed the Mach limit.
Exceeding _VMO by a large margin can cause structural damage. The event is triggered only in the
Medium and High severity levels

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

Speed Above MMO

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1007 - Speed Above MMO


Operational Goal
This event is raised when the AC Mach Number exceeds the Maximum Operating Mach Number ( _MMO
).
At high altitude, the AC maximum speed is restricted by the Mach Number limit _MMO whereas at lower
altitudes, the AC speed can not exceed the Maximum Operation Speed _VMO .
The AC can fly close to _MMO in normal operation but auto-thrust normally keeps the speed below the
limit by the flight envelope protection.
Exceeding _MMO by a large amount can cause airframe buffeting and possible AC handling changes.
The _MMO limit can be exceeded slightly in turbulence or in climb/descent at high altitude with large
wind component changes, otherwise an _MMO exceedance would indicate an abnormal situation.
The event is only triggered in Medium and High severity levels

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Speed Above VLO Retraction

1008 - Speed Above VLO Retraction


Operational Goal
When the landing gear is selected to retract/up, this event is raised if the airspeed or Mach Number exceeds
the Maximum Landing Gear Operating Speed ( _VLO ) for more than 3 seconds.
If the landing gear is operated from extend to retract above the Maximum Landing Gear Operating Speed
( _VLO ) the gear doors may be damaged, with possible damage to the gear assembly.
The event is triggered only in the High severity level

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

Speed Above VLE

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1009 - Speed Above VLE


Operational Goal
This event is raised if the airspeed or Mach Number exceeds for more than 3 seconds the Maximum Landing
Gear Extended Speed limit ( VLE ) when the landing gear is extended/down.
Exceeding the VLE limit with the landing gear extended can damage the structure of the AC or the landing
gear.
The event is triggered only in High severity level.

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Speed High in Approach (at 1000ft)

1010 - Speed High in Approach (at 1000ft)


Operational Goal
Approach speed events monitor the AC airspeed reduction to final approach speed,by checking the airspeed
at 3 key altitudes (1000 feet, 500 feet and 50 feet ) with Deviation Limits decreasing from 1000 feet to
50 feet.
This event is raised when the AC airspeed is more than 15 kts faster than the approach speed at 1000ft AFE .
One of the parameters for a safe landing requires that the AC decelerates from the higher descent speed to
approach speed well before the runway threshold, and it is Airbus policy that the AC should normally be
stabilized at approach speed by 1000ft above the runway or at the latest by 500ft in good weather conditions.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

10

Speed Low in Approach (at 1000ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1011 - Speed Low in Approach (at 1000ft)


Operational Goal
Approach speed events monitor the AC airspeed reduction to final approach speed, by checking the
airspeed at 3 key altitudes (1000 feet, 500 feet and 50 feet ) with Deviation Limits decreasing from 1000
feet to 50 feet.
This event detects when the AC airspeed is more than 5 kts below the approach speed at 1000ft AFE .
It is Airbus policy that the AC should normally be stabilized at approach speed by 1000ft above the runway
or at the latest by 500ft in good weather conditions.
An AC with low airspeed at 1000ft may be in a low energy state requiring large thrust corrections possibly
leading to an unstable approach.

10

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Speed High in Approach (at 500ft)

11

1012 - Speed High in Approach (at 500ft)


Operational Goal
Approach speed events monitor the AC airspeed reduction to final approach speed,by checking the airspeed
at 3 key altitudes (1000 feet, 500 feet and 50 feet ) with Deviation limits decreasing from 1000 feet to
50 feet.
This event detects if the airspeed was more than 10 kts faster than the approach speed at 500ft AFE .
Approaches with high speed at 500ft can be unstable and / or lead to runway excursions.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

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12

Speed Low in Approach (at 500ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1013 - Speed Low in Approach (at 500ft)


Operational Goal
Approach speed events monitor the AC airspeed reduction to final approach speed, by checking the
airspeed at 3 key altitudes (1000 feet, 500 feet and 50 feet ) with Deviation limits decreasing from 1000
feet to 50 feet.
This event detects when the airspeed was more than 5 kts slower than the approach speed at 500ft AFE .
An AC with low airspeed at 500ft may be in a low energy state requiring large thrust corrections possibly
leading to an unstable approach and / or short touch down.

12

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Speed High in Approach (at 50ft)

13

1014 - Speed High in Approach (at 50ft)


Operational Goal
Approach speed events monitor the AC airspeed reduction to final approach speed,by checking the airspeed
at 3 key altitudes (1000 feet, 500 feet and 50 feet ) with Deviation Limits decreasing from 1000 feet to
50 feet.
This event is raised when the AC airspeed is more than 8 kts above the approach speed at 50ft.
If the AC speed is fast at 50ft, the flare can be excessively long, and the AC may over-run the runway in
limiting conditions such as slippery or short runway.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

13

14

Speed Low in Approach (at 50ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1015 - Speed Low in Approach (at 50ft)


Operational Goal
Approach speed events monitor the AC airspeed reduction to final approach speed, by checking the
airspeed at 3 key altitudes (1000 feet, 500 feet and 50 feet ) with Deviation Limits decreasing from 1000
feet to 50 feet.
This event detects if the AC speed is more than 5 kts below the approach speed at 50ft.
If the AC airspeed is low at 50ft, this may result in a heavy, or short landing, or a tail strike.

14

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Speed Above VLO Extension

15

1016 - Speed Above VLO Extension


Operational Goal
While the landing gear is selected to extend/down, this event is raised if the airspeed exceeds the Maximum
Landing Gear Operating Speed (VLO) for more than 3 seconds.
If the landing gear is operated above the Maximum Landing Gear Operating Speed ( VLO ), the gear doors
may be damaged with possible consequences to the gear assembly.
The event is triggered in High severity level only.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

15

16

Speed Above VFE

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1017 - Speed Above VFE


Operational Goal
Before the flaps / slats are retracted after takeoff, this event detects if the AC speed exceeds the Maximum
Flap Extended Speed limit ( _VFE ) for more than 3 seconds, .
AC damage can be caused by exceeding AC structural limit speeds, and any exceedance will generate
hearing and visual warnings to alert the crew.
Events to detect these exceedances and AC warnings are essential in a Flight Analysis System. The severity
levels are Medium and High, with no Low level .

16

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Speed Above 250kts (below 10000ft)

17

1021 - Speed Above 250kts (below 10000ft)


Operational Goal
This events detects when AC airspeed ( CAS ) exceeds 250 kts below 10000ft.
This event is compliant with standard rules for speed limitation within ICAO ATS Airspace.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

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18

Speed High at Touch Down

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1022 - Speed High at Touch Down


Operational Goal
This event is raised if the AC airspeed ( _CAS ) at landing is faster than the Approach Speed ( _VAPP ).
The AC flies the approach at the required approach speed _VAPP , and by the landing the airspeed will
normally be reduced below _VAPP .
A high speed at landing can cause extra brake and tire wear or lead to over-runs on short or slippery
runways.

18

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Speed Low at Touch down

19

1023 - Speed Low at Touch down


Operational Goal
This event detects if the airspeed at landing is more than 5 kts below the aircraft minimum airspeed (
_VLS ).
A low airspeed at landing may result in a heavy, or short landing, or a tailstrike due to the high pitch
attitude at low speed.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

19

20

Speed Above Maximum Tire Speed

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1024 - Speed Above Maximum Tire Speed


Operational Goal
This event detects if the AC ground speed ( _GS ) exceeds the Maximum Tire Limit Speed with the AC
on the ground.
The AC tires have a maximum speed limit which varies according to the aircraft type.If this ground speed
is exceeded, damage to the tires can occur, such as treads detaching or tires weakening so it may fail later
at normal speeds.

20

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Speed Above Recommended Turbulence Speed

21

1025 - Speed Above Recommended Turbulence Speed


Operational Goal
This event detects if AC speed exceeds the Turbulence Target Speed (280 kts or .78 Mach) in turbulent
conditions.
In turbulence the AC speed and vertical acceleration fluctuate significantly, and may reach the high and
low speed limits in extreme conditions. While flying fast, the maximum speed limit can be exceeded and
the probability of passenger injury is increased.
While flying slowly, airspeed may drop below the minimum speed with the likelyhood of control
difficulties.
The turbulence target speed is chosen to give sufficient margins from both the high and low speed limits.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

21

22

Rejected Take Off Detected

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1027 - Rejected Take Off Detected


Operational Goal
This event detects a rejected take-off above 50 kts( _CAS ).
A crew report of the event is required by most airlines.
The AC can accept repetitive braking at relatively low take-off weights and speeds. Whereas the AC must
always be capable of stopping from V1, a rejected take-off from high speed and high take-off weights can
result in considerable wear to the wheel brakes and tires.
All rejected take-off should be examined by the operations / safety departments.
Due to software limitation 3D view is not available when reviewing this event in Flight Replay.

22

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Speed Low

23

1028 - Speed Low


Operational Goal
This event detects if the airspeed ( _CAS ) decreases for more than 3 seconds below the lowest selectable
speed ( _VLS ), which is the lowest speed permitted in normal operations .
The auto-thrust system should always prevent the airspeed decreasing below VLS.
Any decrease below VLS indicates an abnormal situation which should have been detected and corrected
by the crew .

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

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24

Braking Delayed at Landing

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1029 - Braking Delayed at Landing


Operational Goal
This event is raised when the AC deceleration from high speed is slow by comparing the time to decelerate
50 kts against the Deviation time limits.
Immediately after main landing gear touch down, reverse thrust is normally selected which decelerates the
aircraft the most effectively from high speed, and may be augmented by auto-brake, with manual braking
being used at low speed.
Slow deceleration at high speed indicates a delay in reverse thrust selection when it is the most effective
and thus a possible abnormality. However some operators use minimum reverse to keep brake temperatures
at optimum, and certain airfields prohibit use of max reverse thrust for noise abatement.
The crew may also elect to use minimum reverse and braking if they have to continue to the end of a long
runway after landing.

24

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Taxi Speed High in straight line

25

1030 - Taxi Speed High in straight line


Operational Goal
This event is raised when the AC taxi speed ( _GS during taxi out and taxi in) exceeds 32 knots in a
straight line.
High taxi speeds may increase the probability of ground incidents/accidents especially in congested areas.
High taxi speed may also be an indication of a hurry-up syndrome, which increases the chance of crew
errors and is a contributing factor in numerous accidents.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

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26

Taxi Speed High in turn

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1031 - Taxi Speed High in turn


Operational Goal
This event is raised when the AC taxi speed ( _GS during Taxi Out and Taxi In ) exceeds 15kts in a turn.
This event is not triggered during a turn on a high speed exit.
During a 180 degree U-Turn, the trigger values are halved.
High taxi speed in sharp turns may lead to structural damage to the undercarriage and unduly wear the
tires.It is also a hazard for the cabin crew, and may indicate a crew hurry-up syndrome.

26

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Speed High in Climb (below 1000ft)

27

1032 - Speed High in Climb (below 1000ft)


Operational Goal
This event is raised when the AC climb speed is more than 30 kts above V2 and the Pitch attitude is less
than 15 degrees when below 1000ft AFE , indicating that the aircraft has accelerated too soon during the
initial climb.
The initial profile after take off normally requires a climb speed of V2 plus 10-15 kts to at least 1000ft
AFE , and besides being non-standard early acceleration to higher speeds may erode terrain clearance in
limiting conditions.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

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28

Tail Wind at Landing (below 100ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1033 - Tail Wind at Landing (below 100ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects a landing with a tail wind of more than 8 kts.
A strong tail wind increases the landing speed and the required runway distance.
Most aircrafts have a tail wind limit for landing of 10 kts but this may be increased with an amendment
to the Aircraft Flight Manual.
It may be preferable to land at certain airports on runways where the tail wind is the lowest
available,however some airport authorities use runways that are preferred for noise abatement with
significant tail-winds which may adversely affect safety standards.

28

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

VAPP Questionable in Approach

29

1034 - VAPP Questionable in Approach


Operational Goal
This event detects when the difference between _VAPP and _VLS speeds is more than 20 kts below 200ft
on approach for more than 4 seconds.
All approach speed monitoring is referenced to _VAPP from the pilots PFD,so it is important to verify
this reference speed.
This event verifies the integrity of the _VAPP speed in the final approach.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

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30

Braking Questionable at Landing

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1035 - Braking Questionable at Landing


Operational Goal
This event detects harsh braking when the AC deceleration below 100 kts on runway is at least 0.35G
for 3 seconds.
Braking should always be made smoothly for passenger comfort and to minimize wear of aircraft systems.
Harsh braking can indicate poor planning, or execution of the approach and landing, or an external problem
which might point to a possible ground incident. Harsh braking can also indicate unnecessary early runway
exit which may be due to ATC factors.

30

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Average Tail Wind (100ft - 10ft)

31

1036 - Average Tail Wind (100ft - 10ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects a landing with a significant tail wind.
A strong tail wind increases the landing speed and the required runway distance.
Most aircraft have a tail wind limit for landing of 10 kts but this may be increased with an amendment to
the Aircraft Flight Manual. It may be preferable to land at certain airports on runways where the tail wind
is the lowest, however some airport authorities can use runways that are preferred for noise abatement with
significant tail-winds which can adversely affect safety standards.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

31

32

Speed Low in Climb (100ft - 1500ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1038 - Speed Low in Climb (100ft - 1500ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the airspeed ( _CAS ) in the initial climb between 100 feet and 1500 feet is below
V2 plus 6 kts for more than 3 seconds.
The AC should initially climb at close to V2 + 10 kts with all engines operating.
A lower speed may indicate wind-shear or questionable handling technique, and safety margins may be
affected if speed falls below V2.

32

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

U-turn Detected

33

1051 - U-turn Detected


Operational Goal
This event detects a 180 degrees turn. There is no severity associated to this event. It triggers INFO event
only.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

33

34

High Speed Exit Detected

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1052 - High Speed Exit Detected


Operational Goal
This event detects when the aircraft has departed the runway by a high speed exit.
There is no severity associated to this event, it is mainly designed to avoid triggering taxi speed events
when the AC leaves the runway by a high speed exit.

34

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Rolling Take Off

35

1053 - Rolling Take Off


Operational Goal
This event detects when the aircraft executes a rolling take-off.
There is no severity associated to this event, this is only an information event.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

35

36

Pitch High at Take Off

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1100 - Pitch High at Take Off


Operational Goal
This event detects high pitch attitude at takeoff. If the HIGH limit of this event is exceeded, a tail strike
may occur.
High pitch at take-off may be linked to a wrong pitch trim setting, an AC balance error, or a questionable
rotation technique

36

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Pitch Rate High at Take Off

37

1101 - Pitch Rate High at Take Off


Operational Goal
This event detects a too rapid rotation rate at take-off. If the rotation rate exceeds the relevant triggering
values during the MW, the event is raised with the corresponding severity.
The normal rotation rate during take-off is 3 per second, and a very strong rotation can lead to the
possibility of a tail strike, a low initial climb speed affecting performance and/or an abnormal G factor.
Higher rotation rates than usual ones might be necessary or explained in abnormal circumstances such as
wind shear or take-off roll longer than expected.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

37

38

Pitch Rate Low at Take Off

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1102 - Pitch Rate Low at Take Off


Operational Goal
This event detects too slow rotation rate at take-off if the rotation rate is less than 2.25 per second.
The normal rotation rate during take-off is 3 per second, and a slow rotation rate can lead to a high initial
climb speed reducing obstacle clearance.
Slow rotation rates might be necessary in abnormal circumstances such as wind shear.

38

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Pitch High in Climb

39

1103 - Pitch High in Climb


Operational Goal
This event detects if the AC pitch angle is above a defined value in initial climb for longer than 3 seconds.
A pitch angle above this value may indicate aircraft mis-handling or an abnormal situation such as wind
shear.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

39

40

Pitch Low in Climb

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1104 - Pitch Low in Climb


Operational Goal
This event detects if the AC pitch angle is less than a defined value in initial climb for more than 3 seconds.
A pitch angle below this value can indicate aircraft mis-handling or an abnormal situation such as system
failure or wind shear. A low pitch may also significantly reduce the obstacle clearance

40

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Side Stick Pitch cycling at Landing (below 200ft)

41

1105 - Side Stick Pitch cycling at Landing (below 200ft)


Operational Goal
Side stick pitch cycling has been identified as a contributing factors in high G landings. Nose down input
should be avoided below 100ft. Side stick pitch cycling is detrimental to a well controlled flare and landing.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

41

42

Pitch High at Touch Down

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1108 - Pitch High at Touch Down


Operational Goal
This event detects if the AC pitch angle exceeds the limit imposed by the geometric configuration of the
AC at landing ( rear fuselage length, and landing gear extension when compressed ).
An excessive pitch angle at landing indicates a possible tail strike.

42

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Pitch Low at Touch Down

43

1109 - Pitch Low at Touch Down


Operational Goal
This event detects a pitch attitude of less than 2,5 during landing.
Low pitch angle during landing can indicate high approach airspeed or under-flare which could lead to a
heavy touch-down. In some cases it may even lead to a nose gear harsh touch down.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

43

44

Pitch Rate High at Landing

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1111 - Pitch Rate High at Landing


Operational Goal
This event detects a rapid rotation rate (more than 2 per second) during the landing flare.
Following a stabilized approach the landing flare should consist of a gentle increase in pitch from the
approach attitude to arrest the rate of descent prior to touch down.
A too strong flare may lead to a tail strike or indicate an abnormal approach. Rapid rotations in the flare
might be necessary in windshear or with a down draft close to the runway.

44

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Pitch down input (below 100ft)

45

1113 - Pitch down input (below 100ft)


Operational Goal
Pitch down input has been identified as a contributing factor to high G landings. Nose down input should
be avoided below 100ft, where the rate of descent should keep stabilised until the flare.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

45

46

Bank High in Approach (below 100ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1200 - Bank High in Approach (below 100ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the AC bank angle is more than 6 below 100 feet AFE in final approach.
High bank angles at very low altitude could be due to wind shear or a severe crosswind, or could indicate
a poor approach technique and may lead to aircraft damage and/or a runway excursion.

46

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Bank High in Approach (400ft - 100ft)

47

1201 - Bank High in Approach (400ft - 100ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the AC bank angle is more than a certain value for longer than 3 seconds between
400 feet AFE and 100 feet AFE in approach.
High bank angles at low altitude in final approach indicate an problems in runway alignment that might
have been caused by a late runway change or poor alignment by the crew following a circling approach,
and may lead to a poor landing or runway excursion.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

47

48

Bank High in Approach (1000ft - 400ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1202 - Bank High in Approach (1000ft - 400ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the AC bank angle is more than a certain value for longer than 3 seconds between
1000 feet AFE and 400 feet AFE in approach.
High bank angles in final approach indicate an abnormal situation that might have been caused by a late
runway change or alignment by the crew following a circling or visual approach.

48

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Bank High in Approach (above 1000ft)

49

1203 - Bank High in Approach (above 1000ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the AC bank angle is more than a certain value above 1000 feet AFE for longer than
3 seconds, except during cruise ( CRUISE ).
The maximum bank angle commanded by the FD / AP is 25 and is the maximum bank angle that is
required in normal operations.
A bank angle significantly larger that 25 is abnormal which is why an event is triggered if the 32 bank
angle is exceeded.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

49

50

Bank Cycling in Approach

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1204 - Bank Cycling in Approach


Operational Goal
This event detects abnormal bank oscillations during the approach by counting the number of times the
AC rolls in opposite directions around the average bank angle taken over a maximum time interval.
Bank oscillations during approach may indicate over-controlling by the pilot and this may indicate a control
problem due to a system failure.

50

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Side Stick Roll cycling (below 200ft)

51

1205 - Side Stick Roll cycling (below 200ft)


Operational Goal
Side stick roll cycling has been identified as contributing factors to high g landings. Side stick roll cycling
is detrimental to a well controlled flare and a wings level landing.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

51

52

Bank High in Initial Climb (Take Off - 100ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1206 - Bank High in Initial Climb (Take Off - 100ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the AC bank angle is more than 6 for longer than 3 seconds below 100 feet AFE
in the initial take-off phase.
High bank angles at very low altitude after take-off may indicate directional control problems perhaps after
an engine failure or in wind shear or a severe crosswind. It may also be associated to a questionable side
stick lateral input during rotation initiation.

52

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Bank High in Initial Climb (100ft - 400ft)

53

1207 - Bank High in Initial Climb (100ft - 400ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the AC bank angle is more than 15 for longer than 3 seconds between 100 feet AFE
and 400 feet AFE in the initial climb.
High bank angles at low altitude in the initial climb might indicate directional control problems perhaps
after an engine failure which could significantly degrade climb performance, or could simply be required
by tight turns in the departure procedure.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

53

54

Bank High in Initial Climb (400ft - 1000ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1208 - Bank High in Initial Climb (400ft - 1000ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if bank angle is more than 25 between 400 feet AFE and 1000 feet AFE in the initial
climb for longer than 5 seconds.
High bank angles in the initial climb might indicate directional control problems perhaps after an engine
failure which could significantly degrade climb performance, or could simply be required by tight turns
in the departure procedure .

54

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Bank Cycling during Initial Climb

55

1209 - Bank Cycling during Initial Climb


Operational Goal
This event detects abnormal bank oscillations during the initial climb by counting the number of times the
AC rolls in opposite directions around the average bank angle taken over a maximum time interval.
Bank oscillations during the initial climb could indicate a control problem due to a system failure or overcontrolling by the pilot.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

55

56

Bank High during Flare (below 10ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1210 - Bank High during Flare (below 10ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects bank angles of more than 5 below 10ft Radio Altimeter ( RA ) and lasts the first 10
seconds of the landing roll.
Bank angles during the flare could be required to align the aircraft with the runway centerline in strong
crosswinds, otherwise significant bank angles in the flare and initial landing roll could indicate an abnormal
situation possibly leading to a runway excursion and/or aircraft damage.

56

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Bank Oscillation in Approach (below 100ft)

57

1211 - Bank Oscillation in Approach (below 100ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects large bank angle changes below 100 feet AFE .
Significant bank angles below 100ft may be required for runway alignment during strong cross winds, but
large changes in bank angles could indicate an abnormal situation possibly leading aircraft damage and/
or a runway excursion .

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

57

58

Roll Spoilers extension at Landing (below 50ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1219 - Roll Spoilers extension at Landing (below 50ft)


Operational Goal
Except for strong crosswind decrab techniques, roll spoilers extension during flare may lead to a residual
bank at landing and to a possible wing tip /engine nacelle damage or may lead to a runway excursion

58

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Level Off in Approach below 1400ft (G/S off)

59

1311 - Level Off in Approach below 1400ft (G/S off)


Operational Goal
This event detects a level off at an altitude during approach between 1400 feet and 100 feet if the rate of
descent reduces to less that 300 ft per minute for longer than 10 seconds.
Leveling off during an approach may form part of a type of Non Precision Approach (NPA) procedure that
may lead to an unstable final descent to the runway, and statistically, unstable final approaches have been
involved in a large number of landing accidents.
Generally, "Level Off" NPA procedures are in the process of being replaced with Constant Angle
approaches which allows an ILS like profile. This event detects a levelling off in the approach procedure
and allows the operator to investigate the approach.
There may be other factors which caused the crew to level off during the last part of the approach which
may need investigation.
This event is not active during an ILS approach.
Note that this event has no severity level as it is for information only, and must not be included in risk
statistics .

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

59

60

Path High in Approach (at 1200ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1312 - Path High in Approach (at 1200ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the AC actual flight Path Angle ( PTHA ) is too steep when crossing 1200 feet AFE .
A stable approach should be flown down a 3 degree path, or on the ILS glideslope ( _GLIDE_ANGLE
) when installed on the runway which most frequently is 3 degrees.
An actual aircraft Flight Path Angle ( PTHA ) significantly steeper than 3 degrees indicates a possible
unstable approach with high airspeeds and rates of descent which can lead to a poor landing or even a
runway excursion.

60

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Path Low in Approach (at 1200ft)

61

1313 - Path Low in Approach (at 1200ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the aircraft's actual flight Path Angle ( FPA ) is too shallow when crossing 1200 feet
AFE .
A stable approach should be flown down a 3 degree path, or on the ILS glideslope ( GA ) when installed
on the runway which most frequently is 3 degrees.
An actual aircraft Flight Path Angle ( PTHA ) significantly shallower than 3 degrees indicates an abnormal
approach which may require investigation. Such situations are precursors of CFITs
A Rate of Descent of less that 300 feet per minute for longer than 10 seconds is detected as a Level Off
and this event is not triggered.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

61

62

Path High in Approach (at 800ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1314 - Path High in Approach (at 800ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the AC actual flight Path Angle ( PTHA ) is too steep when crossing 800 feet AFE .
A stable approach should be flown down a 3 degree path, or on the ILS glideslope ( GA ) when installed
on the runway which most frequently is 3 degrees.
An actual aircraft Flight Path Angle ( PTHA ) significantly steeper than 3 degrees indicates a possible
unstable approach with high airspeeds and rates of descent which can lead to a poor landing or even a
runway excursion. It may also lead to a CFIT.

62

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Path Low in Approach (at 800ft)

63

1315 - Path Low in Approach (at 800ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the aircraft's actual flight Path Angle ( PTHA ) is too shallow when crossing 800
feet AFE .
A stable approach should be flown down a 3 degree path, or on the ILS glideslope ( _GLIDE_ANGLE
) when installed on the runway which most frequently is 3 degrees.
An actual aircraft Flight Path Angle ( PTHA ) significantly shallower than 3 degrees indicates an abnormal
approach which may require investigation. Such situations are precursors of CFITs.
A Rate of Descent of less that 300 feet per minute for longer than 10 seconds is detected as a Level Off
and this event is not triggered.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

63

64

Path High in Approach (at 400ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1316 - Path High in Approach (at 400ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the aircraft's actual flight Path Angle ( PTHA ) is too steep when crossing 400 feet
AFE .
A stable approach should be flown down a 3 degree path, or on the ILS glideslope ( _GLIDE_ANGLE
) when installed on the runway which most frequently is 3 degrees.
An actual aircraft Flight Path Angle ( PTHA ) significantly steeper than 3 degrees indicates a possible
unstable approach with high airspeeds and rates of descent which can lead to a poor landing or even a
runway excursion especially at low altitudes.

64

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Path Low in Approach (at 400ft)

65

1317 - Path Low in Approach (at 400ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the aircraft's actual flight Path Angle ( PTHA ) is too shallow when crossing 400
feet AFE .
A stable approach should be flown down a 3 degree path, or on the ILS glideslope ( _GLIDE_ANGLE
) when installed on the runway which most frequently is 3 degrees.
An actual aircraft Flight Path Angle ( PTHA ) significantly shallower than 3 degrees indicates an abnormal
approach which may require investigation. It significantly reduces obstacle clearance.
A Rate of Descent of less that 300 feet per minute for longer than 10 seconds is detected as a Level Off
and this event is not triggered .

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

65

66

Path High in Descent (above FL100)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1400 - Path High in Descent (above FL100)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the descent slope from TOD to FL 100 is steeper than 6 for more than 30 seconds.
The most efficient AC descent profile is on a slope of approximately 3 to 4 depending on wind, aircraft
weight and airspeed.
An abnormally steep descent slope can indicate poor Air Traffic Control keeping the aircraft high or other
factors which may need investigation. It may build a hurry-up syndrome in the cockpit.

66

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Rate Of Descent High in Approach (above 2000ft)

67

1401 - Rate Of Descent High in Approach (above 2000ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the descent rate from 3000 feet to 2000 feet AFE exceeds 2000 feet per minute for
longer than 3 seconds.
High rates of descent on approach might lead to a CFIT, as well as an unstabilized approach with its
associated hazards (poor landings, possible runway excursions).

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

67

68

Rate Of Descent High in Approach (from 2000ft - 1000ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1402 - Rate Of Descent High in Approach (from 2000ft - 1000ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the descent rate from 2000 feet to 1000 feet AFE exceeds 1200 feet per minute for
longer than 3 seconds.
High rates of descent on approach might lead to a CFIT, as well as an unstabilized approach with its
associated hazards (poor landings, possible runway excursions).

68

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Rate Of Descent High in Approach (from 1000ft - 500ft)

69

1403 - Rate Of Descent High in Approach (from 1000ft - 500ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the descent rate from 1000 feet to 500 feet AFE exceeds 1100 feet per minute for
longer than 3 seconds.
High rates of descent on approach might lead to a CFIT, as well as an unstabilized approach and its
associated hazards (poor landings, possible runway excursions).

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

69

70

Rate Of Descent High in Approach (below 500ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1404 - Rate Of Descent High in Approach (below 500ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the descent rate from 500 feet to 50 feet AFE exceeds 1000 feet per minute for longer
than 3 seconds.
High rates of descent on approach might lead to a CFIT, as well as an unstabilized approach and its
associated hazards (poor landings, possible runway excursions).

70

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Path High at Landing (below 20ft)

71

1405 - Path High at Landing (below 20ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the descent slope from 20 feet to the ground is steeper than 2.25.
A steep descent slope below 50ft may lead to a hard landing and possible AC damage .

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

71

72

Rate Of Descent High in Descent (FL100 - FL30)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1406 - Rate Of Descent High in Descent (FL100 - FL30)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the descent rate from FL100 to FL30 exceeds 2500 feet per minute for longer than
60 seconds.
Below FL100 many Authorities require that the AC speed must be reduced to 250 knots and this implies
average descent rates in the order of 1500 feet per minute.
High descent rates below FL100 indicate an abnormal situation which might have been caused by Air
Traffic Control or by poor descent planning and energy management. It may lead to a hurry-up syndrome
in the cockpit.

72

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Rate Of Climb Low in Initial Climb (below 1000ft)

73

1407 - Rate Of Climb Low in Initial Climb (below 1000ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the climb rate after takeoff is less than 1000 feet per minute for longer than 5 seconds.
With all engines operating after takeoff, rates of climb should normally be higher than 1000 feet per minute.
Lower climb rates may indicate an engine failure or weather conditions such as windshear or abnormal
aircraft handling resulting in early acceleration. Low climb rates may conflict with the obstacle clearance
requirements.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

73

74

Vertical Acceleration High at Take Off

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1500 - Vertical Acceleration High at Take Off


Operational Goal
This event detects if the vertical acceleration for a normal take-off is exceeded. A high acceleration rate
during rotation can indicate incorrect operational technique, control system abnormality, aircraft erroneous
balance or external influence such as windshear.

74

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Vertical Acceleration High in Flight

75

1501 - Vertical Acceleration High in Flight


Operational Goal
This event detects abnormalities such as in flight turbulence by monitoring abnormal vertical accelerations
during the flight.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

75

76

Vertical Acceleration High at Touchdown

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1504 - Vertical Acceleration High at Touchdown


Operational Goal
This event detects High G landings by monitoring Touch-downs which exceed a Vertical Acceleration of
1.5G. A family of High G landings might be associated to local factors (high altitude airports, wind shear,
surrounding terrain, uphill runways etc..). A severe High G landing might indicate, but not always, a hard
landing as per the maintenance manual.

76

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Lateral Acceleration High at Touchdown

77

1510 - Lateral Acceleration High at Touchdown


Operational Goal
High Lateral acceleration may occur with crosswind or engine out landings. It may result in undue fatigue
or damage for the landing gear and the AC structure.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

77

78

Flaps Early Retraction at Take Off

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1600 - Flaps Early Retraction at Take Off


Operational Goal
This event detects if flaps/slats are retracted early after takeoff in the initial climb, by monitoring the
altitude when the surfaces start to move.
The AIRBUS takeoff performance profile specifies that flap retraction should occur at a particular altitude,
normally above 1000ft AFE .
Significantly early flap retraction may erode takeoff performance and obstacle clearance in limiting
conditions.

78

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Flaps Late Setting at Landing

79

1601 - Flaps Late Setting at Landing


Operational Goal
This event detects late flap selection during approach.
This event may need to be adapted for specific conditions according to the specific airlines policy but the
AIRBUS recommended procedure is to complete the final configuration changes in approach before 1000
feet AFE .

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

79

80

Flaps Questionable Setting at Landing

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1602 - Flaps Questionable Setting at Landing


Operational Goal
This event detects an incorrect flap setting on landing (LANDING).
AIRBUS recommendation is to land in CONF FULL except if a possible wind shear can be anticipated.
An INFO event is raised if landing is done in CONF 3.

80

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Configuration Change Questionable during Go Around

81

1605 - Configuration Change Questionable during Go Around


Operational Goal
This event detects if the Go Around Procedure is carried out incorrectly by monitoring that the flap
configuration changes and gear selection are made in the correct sequence and time frame.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

81

82

Speed Brakes Used in Approach (below 1000ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1606 - Speed Brakes Used in Approach (below 1000ft)


Operational Goal
This event is to detect the use of speedbrakes in the final stabilized phase of the flight.
Speedbrakes reduce dangerously the lift of the AC so as to be avoided under 1000 feet AFE (Above Field
Elevation).

82

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Auto Pilot Off Detected in Cruise

83

1607 - Auto Pilot Off Detected in Cruise


Operational Goal
This event detects AP disconnection longer than 3 minutes during the cruise.
Airbus recommends that the AP must be used whenever possible from shortly after takeoff until established
on the approach, although the crew may need to fly the aircraft manually during climb and descent.
The autopilot would normally remain engaged during the cruise and a long period of manual flight would
indicate an abnormality.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

83

84

Landing Gear Late Retraction

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1609 - Landing Gear Late Retraction


Operational Goal
This event detects if the landing gear is retracted significantly later than normal after take off, missed
approach or go-around. In normal operation the gear is retracted as soon as the crew confirms a positive
climb from the flight instruments, normally by about 100ft AFE .
If the gear retraction is delayed, the increased aerodynamic drag could reduce terrain clearance during the
initial climb especially following an engine failure.
After a touch and go, the gear may be left extended to cool the wheel assembly

84

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Reversers Delayed at Landing

85

1611 - Reversers Delayed at Landing


Operational Goal
This event detects late selection of engine thrust reversers after landing.
Reverse thrust is normally selected immediately after main gear touchdown, and late selection may increase
landing distance with a slippery runway surface or affect brake wear.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

85

86

Speed Brakes Out with Significant Thrust

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1613 - Speed Brakes Out with Significant Thrust


Operational Goal
This event detects when the speedbrakes, also called airbrakes, are selected out with engines at thrust above
60% N1 (or 1.15 EPR) for longer than 20 seconds.
This condition is normally a result of the crew forgetting to retract the speedbrakes, and is accompanied
by an ECAM warning.

86

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Landing Gear Early Retraction

87

1617 - Landing Gear Early Retraction


Operational Goal
The aircraft shall be on a confirmed positive climb before the landing gear is commanded to UP. This event
identifies an unsafe situation whereby this condition is not met.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

87

88

Rudder Large Inputs (above 200ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1618 - Rudder Large Inputs (above 200ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects abnormal rudder deflection commands from the crew. Excessive rudder deflection
commands can over stress the AC structure and reveals highly abnormal handling of the AC .

88

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Reversers High Thrust at Low Speed

89

1619 - Reversers High Thrust at Low Speed


Operational Goal
This event detects if the thrust reversers are not cancelled at the normal speed during the landing roll.
Thrust reversers are most effective at high speed, and at low speed the hot airflow from the reverser exhaust
can be ingested by engines causing surges, or loud explosions and possible engine damage from the shock
and ingestion of foreign objects.
Reverse thrust should therefore be reduced at 70kts towards idle reverse which should be cancelled by
taxi speed of about 25 knots. However in an emergency, full reverse thrust can be kept until the aircraft
has stopped.
Triggering of this event would usually indicate mishandling of reverse thrust, but could indicate an
emergency stop.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

89

90

Autoland

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1623 - Autoland
Operational Goal
This is an info event. Recurrent autoland must be performed for the aircraft systems to keep their
operational cat3 capabilities.

90

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Ground Spoilers lever not armed

91

1624 - Ground Spoilers lever not armed


Operational Goal
This event is triggered when ground spoilers lever is not in armed position prior to take off or landing.
Ground spoilers are significant part of deceleration means for rejected take off or landing:
Ground spoilers participate to lift dumping, by increasing load on wheels, and thus increase wheelbrakes efficiency.
Increasing aerodynamic drag (+30%), it helps aircraft deceleration.
Note: For Airbus type fitted with steep approach modification, the event is inhibited at landing, if steep
approach push button is on.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

91

92

Thrust Low in Approach (below 500ft RA)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1701 - Thrust Low in Approach (below 500ft RA)


Operational Goal
This event is raised when the thrust in the final approach below 500ft AFE was too low as shown by the
_THR_DEFICIT computed parameter.
The response time of engines at very low thrust may be too long to correct the flight path if a rapid increase
in thrust is needed late in the approach.
For this reason approaches should be stabilized below 1000ft at the correct airspeed and engine thrust.
Low thrust on approach is normally associated with fast and possibly unstable approaches

92

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

EGT High

93

1702 - EGT High


Operational Goal
This event is raised when an engine Exhaust Gas Temperature ( EGT ) exceeds the manufacturer's limit
during a takeoff or Go Around for more than 2 seconds.
An excessive EGT may damage the engine hot end section with a likelyhood of subsequent failure if
maintenance actions are not taken.
This event alerts that an engine inspection is required.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

93

94

Thrust Reduction Late at Landing

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1703 - Thrust Reduction Late at Landing


Operational Goal
This event detects if the thrust is reduced late ( below 10ft ) during landing, both with and without active
Autothrust.
A hard or bounced landing can result if the thrust is not reduced at the correct rate and height above the
runway. It may affect the landing distance performance.
If the thrust levers are not retarded to Idle the Autothrust will still be operative and as the aircraft is flared
and the speed tends to decrease this will cause an increase in thrust. An increase in thrust during the flare
will cause an increase in flare distance with its associated hazards.

94

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Thrust Asymmetry in Flight

95

1705 - Thrust Asymmetry in Flight


Operational Goal
In approach phase, this event is raised when there is a thrust asymmetry of more than 10% N1 (or 0.05
EPR) between the engines with both engines operative.
Thrust asymmetry can cause handling difficulties and possibly lead to other problems during approach.
Thrust asymmetry can be due to crew thrust lever mishandling or an engine malfunction .

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

95

96

Thrust Asymmetry during Landing Roll Out

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1706 - Thrust Asymmetry during Landing Roll Out


Operational Goal
This event detects if thrust asymmetry between right and left engines at landing exceeds a certain threshold
with both engines operative in reverse thrust.
With both engines operative reverse thrust asymmetry can be due to crew thrust lever mishandling or an
engine malfunction, and can lead to runway excursions especially on a slippery runway surface .

96

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Thrust High during Taxi

97

1708 - Thrust High during Taxi


Operational Goal
This event detects if the engine thrust during taxiing is excessive.
High engine thrust on the ground can cause considerable damage to ground equipment behind the aircraft,
and high thrust in open areas can cause objects loss at the edge of the taxiway to be thrown up and ingested
by an engine causing damage to fan blades .

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

97

98

Thrust Power High at Line-Up

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1709 - Thrust Power High at Line-Up


Operational Goal
This event detects if takeoff thrust is applied before the AC is aligned with the runway direction.

98

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

No Standard Reverse Use

99

1710 - No Standard Reverse Use


Operational Goal
This event aims at detecting unsafe practice where an engine is left with thrust lever above idle detent
during the landing roll.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

99

100

HDG Deviation at Take Off (100kts - Rotation)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1800 - HDG Deviation at Take Off (100kts - Rotation)


Operational Goal
This event detects significant aircraft heading changes during the takeoff roll. This can indicate a lateral
control problem due to an incorrect control input, a residual rudder trim setting, a crosswind factor or
another abnormality causing a deviation from the centerline which require heading changes to realign the
aircraft with the runway.

100

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Deviation below Glideslope (above 1000ft)

101

1801 - Deviation below Glideslope (above 1000ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects significant excursions below the vertical GLIDE slope in the early phase of an ILS
approach after glideslope capture.
All approaches should be stable by 1000 feet AFE and ILS approaches should be stable when intercepting
the glideslope normally well above 1000ft.
Large vertical excursions below the glideslope above the 1000 feet GATE indicate an unstable situation
which may lead to an unsafe approach at low level.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

101

102

Deviation above Glide slope (above 1000ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1802 - Deviation above Glide slope (above 1000ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects significant excursions above the vertical GLIDE slope after glidelope capture in the
early phase of an ILS approach.
All approaches should be stable by 1000 feet AFE and ILS approaches should be stable when intercepting
the glideslope normally well above 1000ft.
Large vertical excursions above the glideslope above the 1000 feet GATE indicate an unstable situation
which may lead to an unsafe approach at low level.

102

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Deviation from Localizer

103

1803 - Deviation from Localizer


Operational Goal
This event detects significant lateral excursions from the ILS LOCALIZER after localizer capture.
An ILS approach should be laterally stable after localizer capture, and large lateral excursions above the
1000 feet GATE can lead to severe mis-alignment in the final approach phase.
Note: Late LOC Capture is not detected by this event as the monitoring starts when the LOCALIZER has
been captured.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

103

104

Deviation below Glideslope (1000ft-300ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1804 - Deviation below Glideslope (1000ft-300ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects significant excursions below the ILS GLIDE slope after glidslope capture in the final
phase of an ILS approach.
All approaches should be stable by 1000ft AFE and an ILS approach should be vertically stable after
glidelsope capture.
Large vertical excursions below the 1000 feet GATE can indicate a serious erosion of safety standards
including reduced obstacle limits.

104

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Deviation above Glide slope (1000ft-300ft)

105

1805 - Deviation above Glide slope (1000ft-300ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects significant excursions above the ILS GLIDE slope after glideslope capture in the final
phase of an ILS approach.
All approaches should be stable by 1000ft AFE and an ILS approach should be vertically stable after
glideslope capture.
Below the 1000 feet GATE large vertical excursions above the GLIDE can lead to long landing distances
or unstable approaches with high rates of descent in the very short final.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

105

106

Heading Deviation at Landing (above 60kts)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1807 - Heading Deviation at Landing (above 60kts)


Operational Goal
This event detects if there is a Heading Deviation during the landing roll ( LANDING ) above 60 kts. This
can be due to severe crosswinds, crew mis-handling or an abnormal aircraft condition leading to an AC
deviation from the runway centerline.

106

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Long Flare Time

107

1808 - Long Flare Time


Operational Goal
This event detects if a flare is abnormally long. A flare which is too long consumes excessive runway
length, and on short runways, or runways with a slippery surface, this may lead to a hazardous situation.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

107

108

Height Low at Threshold

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1812 - Height Low at Threshold


Operational Goal
This event detects if the AC crosses the runway threshold ( THR )at (or below) 35ft after an ILS approach.
The ILS normally guides the AC to cross the THR at 50 feet AFE , and passing the THR significantly
lower indicates a landing close to the runway THR, which can lead to land before the runway paved surface
( Short Landing ).

108

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Height High at Threshold

109

1813 - Height High at Threshold


Operational Goal
This event detects if the AC crosses the runway threshold ( THR ) at (or above) 60ft AFE after an ILS
approach.
The ILS normally guides the AC to cross the THR at 50 feet AFE , and passing the THR significantly
higher can indicate an abnormal approach perhaps of high energy and may lead to overruns of the runway
in limiting conditions.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

109

110

HDG Significant Change in Approach (below 500ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1814 - HDG Significant Change in Approach (below 500ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects a significant heading change during final approach below 500 ft AFE.
This often indicates a late parallel runway change, but could be a late alignment after a circling or visual
approach, or corrections due to a strong cross wind.

110

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Lateral Deviation at Landing

111

1816 - Lateral Deviation at Landing


Operational Goal
This event detects significant excursions from the runway centerline from Touch Down to 50kts. Large
lateral deviations at landing may lead to possible runway lateral excursions due to track size of this category
of airplane and to a critical reduction in wing tip clearance to surrounding obstacles. Roll out should be
laterally stable and not deviate from the center line to prevent FOD on external engines (the external engines
are high over ground and less prone to FOD than the internal engines on the A380).

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

111

112

Short Flare Distance

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1817 - Short Flare Distance


Operational Goal
This event detects when the AC lands too close to the runway threshold ( THR ), by monitoring the distance
from THR to the first touch down point (LANDING ) after an ILS approach.
AC which lands short or close after the runway threshold may land in the approach area before the runway
paved surface with inevitable AC damage.

112

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Long Flare Distance

113

1818 - Long Flare Distance


Operational Goal
This event detects if the AC lands too far from threshold ( THR ), by monitoring the distance from THR
to the first touch down point (LANDING ) after an ILS approach.
The hazard of an AC which lands considerably after the threshold is over-running the runway paved surface
when the runway distance is limiting for the conditions, eg with slippery runway or tailwind.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

113

114

Short Flare Time

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1819 - Short Flare Time


Operational Goal
This event detects when a flare is abnormally short.
A short flare may lead to a hard landing, since the rate of descent may be abnormally high and or the flare
maneuver started late by the pilot.

114

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

High Vertical Speed before Touchdown

115

1820 - High Vertical Speed before Touchdown


Operational Goal
This event detects when the last part of the flare is performed with a high rate of descent. This can lead
to a hard landing.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

115

116

Heading Deviation at Take-Off

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1821 - Heading Deviation at Take-Off


Operational Goal
This event detects significant aircraft heading changes late in the takeoff roll during TAKE_OFF.
This can indicate a wing lifting due to an incorrect control input for a crosswind or other abnormality
causing a deviation from the centerline which require heading changes to realign the aircraft with the
runway.

116

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Aircraft not on center line

117

1822 - Aircraft not on center line


Operational Goal
This event detects significant excursions from the runway centerline from runway threshold to Touch
Down. Large lateral deviations at landing may lead to possible runway lateral excursions due to track size
of this category of airplane and to a critical reduction in wing tip clearance to surrounding obstacles. Roll
out should be laterally stable and not deviate from the center line to prevent FOD on internal engines (the
External engines are high over ground and less prone to FOD than the internal engines on the A380).

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

117

118

Flaps/Slats Extended Above Max Altitude

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1901 - Flaps/Slats Extended Above Max Altitude


Operational Goal
This event is raised if the AC flies with the Flaps extended above the maximum altitude limit for flight
with Flaps extended.

118

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Altitude Above Maximum Operating Altitude

119

1902 - Altitude Above Maximum Operating Altitude


Operational Goal
This event is raised if the AC flies above its maximum operating altitude for more than 3 seconds.
An exceedance of the AC maximum operating altitude should be investigated.
It could have been a deliberate action by the crew or caused by extreme atmospheric turbulence.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

119

120

Windshear Warning

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1903 - Windshear Warning


Operational Goal
This event is raised if the AC EGPWS system predicts windshear conditions below 1500ft AFE .

120

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Go Around

121

1904 - Go Around
Operational Goal
This event detects when a Go Around procedure is performed.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

121

122

Engine Reverser selected in Flight

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1905 - Engine Reverser selected in Flight


Operational Goal
This event detects if reversers are engaged while aircraft is in flight.

122

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Bounced Landing

123

1906 - Bounced Landing


Operational Goal
This event detects a bounced landing if the aircraft is airborne 1 second after a touch down.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

123

124

Touch And Go

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1907 - Touch And Go


Operational Goal
This event detects if a Touch and Go occurs.

124

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Alpha Floor

125

1909 - Alpha Floor


Operational Goal
This event is raised when the Alpha floor high angle of attack protection is activated to apply full engine
thrust ( TOGA ).

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

125

126

Alternate Law

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1910 - Alternate Law


Operational Goal
This event detects if the AC reverts to the Alternate Flight Control Law for 5 seconds.

126

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Direct Law

127

1911 - Direct Law


Operational Goal
This event is raised when the AC reverts to the Direct Flight Control Law for 5 seconds.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

127

128

Overweight Landing

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1914 - Overweight Landing


Operational Goal
This event detects if a landing occurs with the AC weight 1% heavier than the certified Maximum Landing
Weight.

128

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Dual Stick Inputs

129

1917 - Dual Stick Inputs


Operational Goal
This event detects occurrences of sidestick deflection occurring from both side sticks at the same time
(beyond thresholds in roll or pitch axis) that could affect aircraft trajectory or altitude beyond the path as
intended by the PFs inputs. Dual inputs can also cause the PF to be out of the aircraft control loop. The
aircraft is designed to be flown manually by one pilot and double stick inputs should not occur.
The thresholds used in the aircraft dual stick input logic have resulted from design and testing to represent
the amount of significant sidestick inputs needed to start potentially unsafe trajectory changes. Hence
AirFASE needs to monitor this same risk to safe flight.
It is not the intent of this event to monitor SOPs. Therefore for cases where the take-over button is used by
the PNF, then event reset conditions are applied (ie. no event is triggered or the event triggering condition
is reset if it was previously triggered)

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

129

130

TCAS Resolution Advisory

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1918 - TCAS Resolution Advisory


Operational Goal
This event detects if the AC TCAS system issued a Resolution Advisory for 3 seconds.
A TCAS systems issues a Resolution Advisory to the aircraft (eg to climb or descend) to avoid a possible
collision with another aircraft.
All Resolution Advisories should be investigated.

130

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Level Bust

131

1919 - Level Bust


Operational Goal
This event detects level / altitude bust. A level bust occurs when an aircraft passes an assigned level without
maintaining that level. There may be multiple reasons for the altitude bust such as :
turbulences,
aircraft mishandling,
undesired autopilot disconnection when approaching the level,
wrong or inappropriate altimeter setting.
Level bust are precursors of midair collision and have to be closely monitored especially during operations
in RVSM areas.
The level bust event will be triggered in case of FCU altitude target overshoot or deviation.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

131

132

GPWS Warning (above 1000ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1920 - GPWS Warning (above 1000ft)


Operational Goal
This event is raised if the AC GPWS (Ground Proximity Warning System) issues a warning above 1000
feet AFE .

132

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

GPWS Warning (1000ft - 500ft)

133

1921 - GPWS Warning (1000ft - 500ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the AC GPWS (Ground Proximity Warning System) issues a warning between 1000
feet AFE and 500 feet AFE .
A GPWS Glideslope warning is advisory only.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

133

134

GPWS Warning (below 500ft)

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1922 - GPWS Warning (below 500ft)


Operational Goal
This event detects if the AC GPWS (Ground Proximity Warning System) issues a warning below 500
feet AFE .

134

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Autoland Warning

135

1923 - Autoland Warning


Operational Goal
This event is raised when an autoland warning is generated with at least one auto pilot engaged.
NOTE : During precision approaches CAT 1, late disconnection of the auto pilot (below 200ft) is close to
the auto pilot limitation (160ft in CAT 1), and does not guarantee a safe take over control in some specific
conditions (Xwind, Night, Eng out, etc...)

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

135

136

Landing Gear Not Locked Down

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1924 - Landing Gear Not Locked Down


Operational Goal
This event detects if the the landing gear is not locked down below 1000 feet AFE .
It is Airbus policy for the aircraft to be stabilized in the landing condition with the gear down by 1000ft
on approach.
The AC system issues a warning if the landing gear is not locked down below 750ft Radio Altimeter .

136

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Engine Shutdown in Flight

137

1932 - Engine Shutdown in Flight


Operational Goal
This events detects an engine failure / shutdown.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

137

138

Smoke Warning

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1933 - Smoke Warning


Operational Goal
This event detects if a smoke warning has been issued in the cockpit for 5 seconds.
The AC Flight Warning Computer issues warnings for Avionic, Cargo and Lavatory Smoke .

138

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Take Off Configuration Warning

139

1934 - Take Off Configuration Warning


Operational Goal
This event detects if a takeoff warning has been issued in the cockpit.
The AC Flight Warning Computer issues a warning if the thrust levers are opened to the takeoff setting
when the AC configuration - flaps, trim settings, parking brake, etc - is not correct for takeoff .

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

139

140

Long Holding

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

1936 - Long Holding


Operational Goal
This event detects if more than 2 holding patterns were flown during the descent, approach and Go Around
phases.

140

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Destination Change in Flight

141

1940 - Destination Change in Flight


Operational Goal
This event detects if the final destination changes during the flight or if the landing airport is not the
expected one.
An AC may change its destination in flight due to several causes like systems failure,weather minima, fuel
remaining, passenger ill health or hijacking/rerouting.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

141

142

Continuously Low during final

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

2000 - Continuously Low during final


Operational Goal
This event detects approaches that cross 2 or more of 3 Altitude Gates at a shallow flight path angle, as
detected by LEVEL 1 (M1) Path Low events
1313 - Path Low in Approach (at 1200ft) ,
1315 - Path Low in Approach (at 800ft) and
1317 - Path Low in Approach (at 400ft)
An approach with abnormally low path angle can lead to short landings or possibly infringe obstacle
clearance margins.

142

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Continuously Slow during final

143

2001 - Continuously Slow during final


Operational Goal
This event detects approaches that cross 2 or more of 3 altitude gates at low approach speed, as detected
by the LEVEL 1 (M1) Events Approach Speed Low
1011 - Speed Low in Approach (at 1000ft) ,
1013 - Speed Low in Approach (at 500ft) and
1015 - Speed Low in Approach (at 50ft)
AC with abnormally low speed in approach have low energy and may not have sufficient engine thrust
reponse to recover from windshear or downdrafts, leading to short / hard landings, together with risk of
tail strikes due to high pitch attitude.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

143

144

Continuously High during final

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

2002 - Continuously High during final


Operational Goal
This event detects approaches that cross 2 or more of 3 altitude gates significantly above the 3 glide path
angle to the runway (or the local ILS glidepath angle), as detected by the individual LEVEL 1 (M1) Path
High Events
1312 - Path High in Approach (at 1200ft) ,
1314 - Path High in Approach (at 800ft) and
1316 - Path High in Approach (at 400ft)
Flying significantly above the 3 glide path during approach can lead to final descents on steep approach
angles, causing high rates of descent, difficult speed management and unstable approaches with high risk
of a runway excursion.

144

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Continuously Fast during final

145

2003 - Continuously Fast during final


Operational Goal
This event detects approaches that cross 2 or more of 3 altitudes gates with Approach Speed High, as
detected by the LEVEL 1 (M1) Approach Speed High events
1010 - Speed High in Approach (at 1000ft) ,
1012 - Speed High in Approach (at 500ft) and
1014 - Speed High in Approach (at 50ft)
An abnormally fast approach speed can lead to long flares and high risk of runway over-runs on short
and / or slippery runways .

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

145

146

Continuously Steep during final

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

2004 - Continuously Steep during final


Operational Goal
This event detects approaches that pass 2 or more of 3 altitude gates with High Rate of Descent as detected
by the LEVEL 1 (M1) High Rate of Descent events
1402 - Rate Of Descent High in Approach (from 2000ft - 1000ft) ,
1403 - Rate Of Descent High in Approach (from 1000ft - 500ft) and
1404 - Rate Of Descent High in Approach (below 500ft)
An abnormally steep approach with high rates of descent has a high risk of leading to landing incident
such as a hard landing .

146

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Late Offset in Short Final

147

2009 - Late Offset in Short Final


Operational Goal
This event detects a late runway alignment combined with large bank angles below 400ft AFE using
LEVEL 1 (M1) events
1814 - HDG Significant Change in Approach (below 500ft) and
1201 - Bank High in Approach (400ft - 100ft)
Late runway alignment and large bank angles close to the ground carry a high risk of an landing incident.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

147

148

Roll Oscillations prior to Flare

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

2012 - Roll Oscillations prior to Flare


Operational Goal
This event detects abnormal bank oscillations prior to flare from the LEVEL 1 (M1) events
1200 - Bank High in Approach (below 100ft) and
1211 - Bank Oscillation in Approach (below 100ft)
Large bank angles and rapid roll movements close to the ground carry a high risk of runway excursion
and / or AC damage.

148

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Over Rotation at Take Off

149

2020 - Over Rotation at Take Off


Operational Goal
This event detects over rotation during take off using LEVEL 1 ( M1 ) events
1101 - Pitch Rate High at Take Off and
1103 - Pitch High in Climb
Over rotation during take-off can expose to tail strikes and climb out below the required climb speed which
can lead to control difficulties and might compromise takeoff climb performance .

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

149

150

Under Rotation at Take Off

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

2021 - Under Rotation at Take Off


Operational Goal
This event detects under rotation during take off using LEVEL 1 ( M1 ) events
1102 - Pitch Rate Low at Take Off and
1104 - Pitch Low in Climb
Under rotation during takeoff will lead to high climb speeds and a low climb gradient which might
compromise the required takeoff performance and obstacle clearance.

150

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Bank continuously excessive close to ground

151

2022 - Bank continuously excessive close to ground


Operational Goal
This event detects approaches that pass through 2 or more of 3 altitude gates with Excessive Bank Angle,
as detected by the LEVEL 1 ( M1 ) Excessive Bank Angle events
1200 - Bank High in Approach (below 100ft) ,
1201 - Bank High in Approach (400ft - 100ft) and
1202 - Bank High in Approach (1000ft - 400ft)
Repetitive bank angle and destabilization occuring all along the approach do not comply with hte Stabilized
Approach criteria.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

151

152

Low Energy Situation in Approach

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

2200 - Low Energy Situation in Approach


Operational Goal
This event detects a low energy situation during the approach using LEVEL 2 events
2000 - Continuously Low during final and
2001 - Continuously Slow during final and one
LEVEL 1 (M1) 1701 - Thrust Low in Approach (below 500ft RA)
AC with low energy on approach with low airspeed and low thrust are in a high risk situation, since besides
the possibility of leading to a short or hard landing there will not be sufficient engine response to counteract
any windshear ot downdrafts late in the approach.

152

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

High Energy Situation in Approach

153

2201 - High Energy Situation in Approach


Operational Goal
This event detects a high energy situation during the approach using the three LEVEL 2 events
2002 - Continuously High during final ,
2003 - Continuously Fast during final and
2004 - Continuously Steep during final
AC with high energy on approach have a high risk of runway excursion especially with short / slippery
runways, besides increasing brake wear

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

153

154

Tail Strike Hazard at Landing

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

2205 - Tail Strike Hazard at Landing


Operational Goal
This event detects a high pitch attitude combined with a rapid pitch rate using LEVEL 1 ( M1 ) events
1108 - Pitch High at Touch Down and
1111 - Pitch Rate High at Landing
AC with a high pitch attitude and a rapid pitch up during the flare and landing have a high risk of incuring
a tail strike.

154

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Wing Strike Hazard at Landing

155

2206 - Wing Strike Hazard at Landing


Operational Goal
This event detects large and rapid bank angle changes in the flare using LEVEL 2 ( M2 ) event
2012 - Roll Oscillations prior to Flare and
LEVEL 1 ( M1 ) event 1210 - Bank High during Flare (below 10ft)
AC with large bank angles close to the ground have a high risk of striking a wing tip or engine nacelle
during landing.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

155

156

Hard Landing Hazard

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

2207 - Hard Landing Hazard


Operational Goal
This event detects a high risk of a hard landing using LEVEL 1 ( M1 ) events
1405 - Path High at Landing (below 20ft) and
1820 - High Vertical Speed before Touchdown
AC with a high rate of descent prior to landing combined with a late flare have a high risk of a hard landing.
NOTE : Primary means of hard landing detection remains crew report and maintenance applications

156

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

Tail Strike Hazard at Take Off

157

2214 - Tail Strike Hazard at Take Off


Operational Goal
This event detects a combination of High pitch rate and high pitch during takeoff, using the LEVEL 1
( M1 ) events
1100 - Pitch High at Take Off and
1101 - Pitch Rate High at Take Off
This kind of combination indicates the take off is performed dangerously close to the tail strike margins.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

Standard Events

157

158

Operational Goal

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

158

Standard Events

AIRBUS S.A.S.

SP1000541 - 2.4.0

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shall not be reproduced or disclosed to a third party without the express written consent of AIRBUS S.A.S.
This document and its content shall not be used for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied.
The statements made herein do not constitute an offer. They are based on the mentioned assumptions and
are expressed in good faith. Where the supporting grounds for these statements are not shown, AIRBUS
S.A.S. will be pleased to explain the basis thereof.

AIRBUS S.A.S.

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SP1000541 - 2.4.0

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AIRBUS S.A.S.