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Crime Scene and Death Scene

Investigations

DATO’ DR ZAHARI BIN NOOR, DIMP.
MD(USM), DLM(Sheffield), DMJ(Lond),
MSc(Sheffield), DipForMed(Monash). FFFLM(Lond)

Ketua Jabatan dan Pakar Perunding Forensik
Jabatan Perubatan Forensik
Hospital Pulau Pinang

Post mortem – what it means
•  Post mortem Examina1on – examining the dead
body which means reviewing the Medical Records,
notes, history, examining the circumstances of the
death which may include death scene examina1on as
well as physical examina1on and inves1ga1ons on
the body.
•  The ABending Medical Officer conduc1ng the
examina1on is given the authority to dissect
(internal examina1on) and take whatever por1on of
1ssues and specimens from the body.

Medicolegal Post Mortem
•  Post mortem examina1on are conducted :-
1. Iden1fy the body
2. To determine the Cause and Manner of
Death (S328 CPC).
2. To manage evidences from the body
3. To interpret injuries/findings for
reconstruc1ng the events preceding
death.

•  “Suicidal” death with unusual circumstances. •  Death in fire with suspicious circumstances. •  Body found dead where the circumstances were unusual or suspicious. •  Sudden death where the manner of death may not be explained. •  Firearms death. •  Explosion scene death. •  Search and recovery of human remains. •  Exhuma1on . •  Death in custody. •  Major incidents or disasters involving mul1ple fatali1es. •  Mul1ple deaths with problems of iden1fica1on or suspicious circumstances. •  Accident death with unusual circumstances. •  Suspected child abuse (fatal abuses).The type of cases that a Forensic Medicine Specialist may be involved are :- •  Homicidal death. •  Suspicious circumstances. •  Bodies with difficult iden1fica1on.

Post Mortem Examina1on Scene of Death/Incident examina1on (CSI) History from rela1ve/police 9Interview) Clinical records (Review) External examina1on (Examine) Limited internal (Dissect) Full internal Imaging Specialized procedures - eyeball. brain. marrow •  Laboratory Ix •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  . spinal. lung en bloc.

before post mortem examina1on •  RECONSTRUCTION If body has been moved or died in hospital Aaer Post Mortem Examina1on completed .CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION •  EVIDENCE AND RECONSTRUCTION If body has not been moved or disturbed Urgent CSI.

workload. evidence collec1on. evidence mx and Reconstruc1on of event •  Major Incidents – Assess the number of casual1es. reconstruc1on of event . evidence mx and Reconstruc1on of event •  Suspicious circumstances – determine the cause & manner of death. manpower & logis1cs requirement.Scene of incident examina1on •  Homicides - determine the cause & manner of death.

recover. . determine the cause & manner of death. iden1fy human remains. determine the cause & manner of death.•  Recovery of human remains – search. evidence mx and Reconstruc1on of event •  Exhuma1on – clandes1ne or known burial grounds- search. evidence mx and Reconstruc1on of event. recover. iden1fy human remains.

CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION .

Crime Scene Inves1ga1on – Forensic Medical
Team’s Plan of ac1on
Scene recogni1on
Scene site
Body
Surroundings
Methods of searches and recovery
Mode and route of transporta1on of the body and
body parts
•  Period of site protec1on and preserva1on
•  Cleaning of site
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Crime Scene Protocol- Hayden & Henry C Lee
•  Secure – establish a
baseline.
•  Interview – officers,
witnesses.
•  Examine – the scene and
environment.
•  Photograph – overall, mid,
close, with/without scale,
with/without marker.

•  Sketch – the spa1al
rela1onships of the scene.
•  Process – the scene and
scene components.
•  Reconstruct –
•  Report – logs, evidence
reports, inves1ga1ve
ac1ons.

Scene recogni1on
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Plan of ac1on
Manpower
Equipment
Communica1ons
Decontamina1on area

•  Time of body being found.Scene recogni1on •  Informa1on required. •  What is the condi1on of the body. •  Any informa1on the body was last seen alive •  Circumstances of events surrounding the body . •  Loca1on of the scene •  Who and how many dead bodies. when contacted by the police.

Where the body was found .

Exhuma1on .

Scene of Crime – Condi1on of the body .

Condi1ons of the body- Body
Integrity

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Severely charred from burns .

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Covered with debris from blast .

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Unless for public safety & welfare. •  The FMT must never interfere with any CPR aBempts by any Emergency & Rescue Team unless to assist the CPR aBempts. •  Nobody must enter the scene without supervision/authorized by the Inves1ga1ng Officer.Restric1ons on arrival at the scene •  Instruct the Inves1ga1ng Officer the body must remains undisturbed 1ll the FMT arrived. .

•  Only authorized persons involved in the inves1ga1on remain in the inner perimeter of the scene. •  All persons entering the inner perimeter must be recorded – name. agency •  All persons in the inner perimeter must wear suitable PPE’s. rank.Entering the Death (Crime) Scene •  Enter the loca1on only with supervision of the Inves1ga1ng Officer. .

Basic PPEs @ Crime Scene •  Forensic Team at a scene of Crime at Jalan Wong Ah Jang on December 2005 GLOVES BOOTS GOWN .

iden1fy forensic evidence esp.Conduct the scene “walk through” •  Provide overview of the en1re scene •  1st opportunity to locate. view the body. fragile evidence and determine the next inves1ga1ve procedures and examina1on of the body •  Establish per1nent scene perimeters .

Procedures Reassess the scene boundaries Establish path of entry and exit Den1fy visible fragile evidence Document and collect if appropriate fragile evidence •  Locate and view evidence •  •  •  •  •  .

doc .Documenta1on before Body Examina1on •  Police Photographer take photograph of all the located evidence and body during scene walk through. •  Tagging of evidence by the police team •  Sketching of the scene and the body •  Descrip1on of the scene and the body in the Crime Scene Form Crime Scene Forms\HTAA-JPF-B002-CRIME SCENE FORM.

•  Measure Temperature of the body and surrounding •  Assess the stages of post mortem changes . •  Pronouncing death •  Assess whether the body has been moved or not.Ini1al examina1on of the body •  Assess the posi1on and condi1on of the body.

asphyxial signs. external pathological marks or abnormali1es .•  Examine for obvious injuries. impaled weapons etc •  Assess the iden1fica1on markers if possible – eg visual.

at least should be brought to the hospital to cer1fy that death has taken place by the doctor. body parts. . skeletal remains. •  In Malaysia. the AMO/Rescue/Ambulance operators cannot cer1fy death has taken place.Death Scene examina1on- Pronounced death •  Pronounced death – unless obviously death has taken place e. decomposed.g. catastrophic injury not compa1ble with life eg.mangled/decapitated body.

the early changes •  Examine for the absence of pulse and respira1on •  Record the 1me and date of pronouncement of death .Pronouncing death •  Assessing the condi1on of the body – post mortem changes esp.

Examine the scene around and on the body •  Look and list the clothing. personal items. (Final accoun1ng of such items must be carried out at autopsy). jewelry when such material are visible and iden1fiable. . But without disrobing or otherwise significantly disturbed the body.

Determine whether or not the body has been moved •  Importance 1.  The actual place may provide most informa1on on the circumstances of death for reconstruc1on 4.  If the body has been moved may alter the rate of post mortem changes . raised issue of which jurisdic1on will be inves1ga1ng & prosecu1ng 2.  If the body has been moved. 3. it may be that loca1on where forensic evidence may be most recovered.  Its important to locate the actual place of death/ injuries .

How to determine whether body has been moved or not? •  Condi1on of the body •  Posi1on of the body – odd posi1on. rela1on between lividity with posi1on of the body .

•  Measure for at least 5 minutes . inner ear (will perforate the ear drum).Measuring body temperature •  Measure the surrounding temperature first within 20 to 30 cm from the body. •  Use Rectal Thermometer or Body Thermometer •  Site: Rectum. intra abdominal (require incision).

loca1on. •  Degree of decomposi1on •  Insect ac1vity •  Temperature .Assess the post mortem changes •  Lividity (color. •  Rigidity (stage. distribu1on) consistent or not with posi1on. loca1on) consistent or not with the scene and posi1on. intensity.

•  Any sharps or needles should be safely secured . money or any jewelry or documents found at the scene are best taken charge by the police.The Police CSI team •  Collect all the relevant evidence at the scene. drugs. •  Photograph and sketch drawing the en1re scene for photographic evidence •  Items such as weapon.

•  Photograph and Sketch drawing the body and all personal items at the vicinity before removing. •  Ensure body is protected from further trauma and contamina1on .Transpor1ng the body from the scene to the Mortuary •  Secure items on the body.

•  Cover the hands and feet and even the head if necessary in a paper bag or large size envelope. •  Place the body in a body bag. •  Supervise removal and placing body in the body bag and police vehicle. Tagged and staked the scene and the body bag if more than 1 bodies. (prevent further trauma and contamina1on) .

spills. body fluids. body fluids contamina1ng materials around the body •  Chemical – any chemicals at the scene. body.Hazards at the crime scene •  Bio hazards – blood. surroundings etc . falling masonry. fuel •  Physical – sharp metal edges. noxious gases.

Beware physical hazards .

Jangan pegang mayat tanpa sarung tangan .

media other non essen1als - Inner perimeter. for work area and command post - Core area. larger than actual scene. the scene site .Safety barriers at the scene Scene recogni1on evaluate the scene and plan the opera1on •  3 1er perimeter for isola1ng and securing the scene •  - Outer perimeter. for onlookers.

An Exhumation Crime Scene Are there any outer and inner perimeters? Any perimeter at all? .

Infected bodies etc Minimum protec1ve equipment Gloves. mask. apron. explosive scene. skeletal remains. shoe cover or boots Body bag or body pouch . hazardous fire. body with blood spaBers.Protec1ve equipment Depending on the hazards or levels of threat- Body at the scene. chemical spills.

hand phone with a gloved hand aaer handling the body and place the phone near your mouth and ears! .Communica1ons •  Levels of command – plan of ac1on and securing perimeters •  Using of communica1on equipments at the scene- hands free.

Decontamina1on area •  Designated changing area •  Place to change clothes to protec1ve suite and removing it aaer out from the core area •  Place to discard contaminated gloves. mask etc in biohazard bag •  Within the inner perimeter •  Best is area have water supply – tap water. mobile containment suite/vehicle . aprons.

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CRV as a scene of crime. Dept.CSI - Interes1ng Cases… A burnt car. at Kampung Ubai. involving Police. Bomba. Kuantan . of Forensic Medicine. HTAA & Chemistry Dept.

CSI - Interes1ng Cases… Above shown picture taken from a murder scene at Jabor. Kuantan in March 2006 .

Homicide or Natural cause? Bleeding Esophageal Varices with massive Upper GIT Bleeding .

Gardner. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Illinois: Northwestern University Press. 2nd ed. Recovered 27 Sept. •  Osterburg. 6th ed. 2001. Henry and Timothy Palmbach and Marilyn T. Bloodstain PaBern Analysis.feinc. 4th ed. New York: Academic Press. Ohio: Anderson Publishing. David A. Criminal Inves1ga1on: A Method For Inves1ga1ng the Past. Evanston. Crime Scene Processing Protocol.net/cs-proc. The Eviden1al Founda1ons ofProbabilis1c Reasoning. Miller. •  Lee. 1994. Joseph M. •  Bevel. •  Rynearson. 2002. 2006 hBp://www. Evidence and Crime SceneReconstruc1on. 2004. Redding.htm. James and Richard H. 2002. CA: Na1onal Crime Inves1ga1on and Training. Ward. Tom and Ross M. Cincinna1. .References •  Baldwin. Henry Lee’s Crime Scene Handbook. •  Schum. Hayden.

ALL HOMICIDE CASES PAKAR PERUBATAN FORENSIK WAJIB KE TEMPAT KEJADIAN WALAUPUN MANGSA TELAH DIBAWA KE HOSPITAL DAN SELEPAS BEDAHSIASAT !!! .

THE REAL CSI YOU DON’T SEE THESE ON TV .

Scene of incident – Determine the cause & manner of death Carbon Monoxide Poisoning .

Search and Recovering human remains .Scene of Crime.

Scene of Crime - Exhuma1on .

Scene of Crime.Determine the manner of death in suspicious case .

Scene of Incident- Major incident Helicopter crash Highland Tower Collapse-1994 .

Scene of death in custody .

Scene of Crime- Homicides .

Homicides- Do not move the body un1l the Forensic Pathologist arrived at the scene .

The crime scene .

51 spatter Small arterial spurt broken pottery .

53 Neck incisions ‘Hesitation’ injuries Probe in carotid artery Thyroid cartilage .

72 Blood flow paBern .

Stabbing 1 74 .

76 Blood flow on the shirt Horizontally to R side .

78 Bloodspots on the pants .

Homicide or Natural cause? Bleeding Esophageal Varices with massive Upper GIT Bleeding .

Altered blood – malaenic stool and blood .

Out door scene- oaen no blood spaBer esp. if it rains prior to discovery .

. The Body was pulled out from the car boot and left on the ground. Hair swipe blood pattern and blood smear patterns in the car boot.Pictures of the victim and the car.

THE REAL CSI AS SEEN ON TV .

Assess the Scene for further ac1on .

Supervise body removal from the scene .

Document and collect evidence from the body .

EXTERNAL EXAMINATION •  •  •  •  •  •  Iden1fica1on Features Condi1on of the Body Post Mortem Changes Abnormali1es of Deformi1es. diseases Injuries Detail examina1on of injuries .

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Examine clothing carefully. bullet may exit out and trapped within the clothing folds. .

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Cheroh 188/05 .

Cheroh 188/05 .

Jerangau 80/05 .

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Kuantan 463/08 .

Kuantan 463/08 .

9/7/08 .Dabong 160/08.

Signs of recent delivery & pregnancy. •  Admits had delivered a baby at home.Dabong 160/08- 9/7/08 •  A 15 yrs old girl referred to HRPZ Kota Bharu h/o PV bleeding. But died shortly thereaaer.1 week ago and secretly buried the baby at back of the house 1 day later •  Had sexual rela1onship with cousin aged 22 yrs .

Dabong 160/08- 9/7/08 .

Chendering 134/08 .

Chendering 134/08 .

Chendering 134/08 .

Chendering 134/08 .

Chendering 134/08 .

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HAVE YOU LOST YOUR APPETITE NOW? 1993 1987 PRESENT .