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Functions of Public Speaking

Aristoteles in his book entitled The Rhetoric described four functions of public Speaking: (1) to avoid and
prevent the emergence of deviation and unfair condition, (2) to convey instruction, (3) to talk about a case so it
can be viewed from various points of view, (4) as a device to maintain oneself.
Find out recent facts on the function of public speaking for the abovementioned functions ?
According to Whitman and Boase (1983), in contemporary practice, public speaking functions as follows :














To attract attention
To entertain
To inform
To inquire
To persuade
To convince
To stimulate
To denounce
To impress
To warn
To arise spirit (motivate)
To instruct
To explore
To move mass
To confuse

From all contemporary function above, we would like to discuss a few of them commonly used in daily
practice: to convince, to inform, to actuate and to entertain:
a.

To Convince
This expression are mostly found in a speech to make people believe (convince), such as:
 I am convinced that ….

I believe [think, suppose, guess, presume, assume, doubt, expect, know] (that) ….
 I am sure that …
 There is no doubt that ……….
 It appears to me that ………..
 I would firmly say that ……
 I am completely sure that ……
 The best of my knowledge ……
 We must now consider the possibility that ………
 Don’t pose any doubt, just take this conviction that ……..

b. To Instruct
 Let me order you to …………
 I would invite [advise] you to ……….
 I would recommend that you should ……….
 It will be better if you ……….
 You should have known better that ……….
 I want you to …….
 I would like you to ……….
 Allow me to request you to …….
 I wonder if you would let me remind you ………
 I would ask you to pay close attention to ………
 I warn you that ……….
 All we have to do is ………

peace. THEN SAY WHAT YOU HAVE JUST SAID." In other words.. You do not need to ……… Etc. report. notify. say your real message.  Further studies show us that …….  It is widely known that …  In the majority of cases. repetition is valuable. say what your message is going to be. announce.  There is reason to be believe that ……  I wish you good luck  I hope you succeed in  There is no need to despair of ……  Don’t ever be in despair of ……. say what your message was. SAY IT. analyze] that …. quote some jokes. declare.   c. a public speaker may use... inform..  According to the researchers. an optimist] that …. communicate. In presentations.  Our data confirm that …. use the three parts of your presentation to reinforce your message: In the introduction. explain. d.  I am hopeful [optimistic. To Entertain To cheer up the atmosphere and to invite laugh or convenience. ……. Introduction . To Inform  I would like to say [tell you.. e.  I live in the hope that …. …………  In accordance with the state ideology …  In line with the newest treaty ……  Referring to the rule of the game …. We are obliged to ……. ideas from some public figures or bibles or holy books. In the conclusion. proclaim. there is a golden rule about repetition: "SAY WHAT YOU ARE GOING TO SAY. THE PRESENTATION ITSELF Most presentations are divided into 3 main parts (+ questions): - Introduction Body Conclusion As a general rule in communication. To actuate/stimulate  I do hope that …. In the body.

" Give instructions about questions: "Please feel free to interrupt me if you have any questions. Then I'll mention some of the problems we've encountered and how we overcame them." "I'll try to answer any of your questions after the presentation." .." Outline your structure: "To start with I'll describe the progress made this year.. ladies and gentlemen" "Good afternoon. everybody" Introduce your subject: "My purpose today is to introduce our new range of. Finally. After that I'll consider the possibilities for further growth next year.Use the introduction to: Welcome your audience: "Good morning." "I am going to talk about.. I'll summarise my presentation (before concluding with some recommendations)..

." "That's all I have to say about..do not hurry ." "First of all." Invite questions: "Are there any questions?" "Can I answer any questions?" Other expressions: Introducing the subject: "I'd like to start by.Body The body is the 'real' presentation." "May I thank you all for being such an attentive audience.." "I'd like to sum up now.be enthusiastic . divided up logically.." "I would suggest / propose / recommend the following strategy.keep to your structure .use your notes ." Give recommendations: "In conclusion." Thank your audience: "Thank you for your attention...maintain eye contact ...signpost throughout ." Finishing a subject: "Well. Remember these key points while delivering the body of your presentation: .look friendly . my recommendations are.." "We've looked at. I've told you about..give time on visuals . you will now be 'in control'..." .. I'll.." "Let's begin by. with plenty of carefully spaced visuals. The body should be well structured....modulate your voice ... You will be relaxed and confident. If the introduction was well prepared and delivered.remain polite when dealing with difficult questions Conclusion Use the conclusion to: Sum up: "In conclusion.

" "I'd like to deal with this question later." "To start with." Analysing a point and giving recommendations: "Where does that lead us?" "Let's consider this in more detail...." "What does this mean for ABC?" Giving examples: "For example.after that.." Dealing with questions: "We'll be examining this point in more detail later on......next..." ..to finish up.Starting another subject: "Now we'll move on to...secondly...." Ordering: "Firstly." "Let me turn now to..." "First of all. shall we?" "I'd like now to recap. let's sum up.then...thirdly......" Summarising and concluding: "In conclusion..." "As an illustration..." "Right." "I'll come back to this question later in my talk......lastly.... if I may.......finally........later." "A good example of this is." "Next.

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