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UNIVERSITY OF THE CORDILLERAS

COLLEGE OF NURSING

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS IN
THE SUBJECT PHYSICS

COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT) SCAN
GROUP 4
(BSN1-SECTION3)

SUBMITTED BY:
ODEJAYI, OLUWASIKEMI MARIAM
MATEO, KRISTA MAE S.
IRISH, BELGICA
SUBMITTED TO: MA’AM NASPER P. ANOD
SUBMITTED ON: JULY 13, 2016

COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY(CT) SCAN

or scans. BRIEF HISTORY CT was invented in 1972 by British engineer Godfrey Hounsfield of EMI Laboratories. Massachusetts. England and by South Africa-born physicist Allan Cormack of Tufts University. of areas inside the body.DEFINITION A computed tomography (CT) scan is an imaging method that uses x-rays to create pictures of cross-sections of the body. Hounsfield and Cormack were later awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their contributions to medicine and science. It makes use of computer-processed combinations of many Xray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object. A CT scan images provide more detailed information than plain X-rays do. It uses special x-ray equipment to create detailed pictures. . It is also called computerized tomography and computerized axial tomography (CAT). Tomography is from the Greek word "tomos" meaning "slice" or "section" and "graphia" meaning "describing". allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

During its 25-year history.000 CT scanners installed in the U.S. There are now about 6. CT exams are now quicker and more patient-friendly than ever before. The original systems were dedicated to head imaging only. The first CT scanner developed by Hounsfield in his lab at EMI took several hours to acquire the raw data for a single scan or "slice" and took days to reconstruct a single image from this raw data. circa 1974 The first clinical CT scanners were installed between 1974 and 1976. Tremendous research and development has been made to provide excellent image quality for diagnostic confidence at the lowest possible x-ray dose.000 installed worldwide. but "whole body" systems with larger patient openings became available in 1976. more anatomy can be scanned in less time. Faster scanning helps to eliminate artifacts from patient motion such as breathing or peristalsis. and resolution. CT has made great improvements in speed. . patient comfort.Original "Siretom" dedicated head CT scanner. An entire chest (forty 8 mm slices) can be scanned in five to ten seconds using the most advanced multi-slice CT system. As CT scan times have gotten faster. and about 30. CT became widely available by about 1980. The latest multi-slice CT systems can collect up to 4 slices of data in about 350 ms and reconstruct a 512 x 512-matrix image from millions of data points in less than a second.

cross-sectional views of all types of tissue. measure its . abdomen and pelvis because it provides detailed. This image is a coarse 128 x 128 matrix. liver. kidney. ovary and pancreas since the image allows a physician to confirm the presence of a tumor.Original axial CT image from the dedicated Siretom CT scanner circa 1975. USES CT imaging is:  one of the fastest and most accurate tools for examining the chest. such as lymphoma and cancers of the lung.  performed on patients with acute symptoms such as chest or abdominal pain or difficulty breathing.  often the best method for detecting many different cancers.  used to examine patients with injuries from trauma such as a motor vehicle accident. in 1975 physicians were fascinated by the ability to see the soft tissue structures of the brain. however. Axial CT image of a normal brain using a state-ofthe-art CT system and a 512 x 512 matrix image. including the black ventricles for the first time (enlarged in this patient). Note the two black "pea-shaped" ventricles in the middle of the brain and the subtle delineation of gray and white matter.

CT is commonly used to assess for pulmonary embolism (a blood clot in the lung vessels) as well as for aortic aneurysms. feet and other skeletal structures because it can clearly show even very small bones as well as surrounding tissues such as muscle and blood vessels.size. identify its precise location and determine the extent of its involvement with other nearby tissue. diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases that can lead to stroke.  an examination that plays a significant role in the detection.  invaluable in diagnosing and treating spinal problems and injuries to the hands. CT imaging is often used to evaluate:  lymphoma  neuroblastoma  kidney tumors  congenital malformations of the heart. kidney failure or even death. In pediatric patients. kidneys and blood vessels  cystic fibrosis  complications of acute appendicitis  complications of pneumonia  inflammatory bowel disease  severe injuries Radiologists and radiation oncologists often use the CT examination to: .

1.  Monitor the effectiveness of certain treatments. such as organ transplants or gastric bypass.plan for and assess the results of surgery. FUNCTION CT scan has the following functions:  Diagnose muscle and bone disorders. biopsy and radiation therapy. bowel or other internal organs in cases of trauma. liver. plan and properly administer radiation treatments for tumors as well as monitor response to chemotherapy. heart and vessels. spleen.guide biopsies and other procedures such as abscess drainages and minimally invasive tumor treatments.  Detect internal injuries and internal bleeding.  Detect and monitor diseases and conditions such as cancer. lung nodules and liver masses. such as cancer treatment. kidneys. . such as bone tumors and fractures. 4.  Guide procedures such as surgery.  Pinpoint the location of a tumor. 2. 5.stage. infection or blood clot.quickly identify injuries to the lungs. heart disease. 3.measure bone mineral density for the detection of osteoporosis.