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INTRODUCTION

An accurate impression plays a
pivotal role in success of a prosthesis.
This accuracy develops through
thorough knowledge of impression
materials and in the ability of the
operator to understand the material.
An impression is an “imprint” or negative
likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas,
made in plastic material which becomes
hardened or set while in contact with the
tissue
-Heartwell
An impression is the perpetual preservation
of what already exists and not the meticulous
replacement of what is missing
- M.M.Devan

1756-german Philip praff recorded the first
attempt to obtain impression of dental arch
with wax and he was dentist to FREDDERICK
THE GREAT KING OF PRUSSIA.
1925—Alphous poller of Vienna granted
British patent for an" improved material for
molding articles of all kinds”.
1925 First tooth impression made INSIDE
MOUTH.
Used material for recording elevations and
depressions of duramater of skull.

IDEAL REQUIREMENTS TO OBTAIN AN ACCURATE IMPRESSION Fluid enough to adapt to the oral tissues Viscous enough to be contained in the tray adequate Setting time Adequate tear resistance Dimensionally stable Biocompatible Cost effective .particles in a solution. Two phases Dispersed phase.COLLOIDS – Is a heterogeneous mixture of two phases where two phases are not readily differentiated. molecules held by primary or secondary forces .

Fillers in impression materials 4th stage of matter Size of particle 1 to 200nm. Sol appearance characteristic of viscous liquid .Colloidal silica in resins .solutions suspending the particles.Dispersion phase. HYDROCOLLOID Colloidal particles suspended in water. COLLOIDS IN DENTISTRY .

All colloidal dispersions are termed sols In the gel state. the dispersed phase agglomerates. network of fibrils that forms a weak brush heap structure. The fibrils may branch and intermesh to form a brush-heap structure Gel strength DEPENDS ON— Concentration of dispersed phase Temperature Addition of modifiers such as fillers and chemicals Dimensional effects Syneresis Imbibition HYDROCOLLOID .Gel is a semisolid state. forming chains or fibrils called micelles.

AGAR (REVERSIBLE HYDROCOLLOID) Organic hydrophillic colloid which is a galactose sulphate Polysaccharide extracted from seaweeds Sulphuric ester of a linear polymer of galactose.secondary bonds (weak) hold the fibrils together.Reversible (AGAR) Irreversible (ALGINATE) AGAR. Agar .break at slightly elevated temperatures and become re-established as it cools to room temperature reversible MODE OF SUPPLY .

GELATION TEMPERATURE Temp at which hydrocolloid material sets to gel. If temp higher than oral temperature of 37oc.As gel in collapsible tube Number of cylinders in a glass jar. LIQUEFACTION TEMPERATURE Gel heated to a temperature to return to sol Temperature is(70-100oc) Higher than gelation temperature Temperature lag is hysteresis Gelation process Gel Sol (70 – 100oC) liquefaction .material may injure soft tissue.

Triple tray technique Manipulation preparation of material Making of impression Removal of impression Conditioning unit Liquefying : Placed in boiling water for 10 min Storage: Stored in sol condition at 65oC Tempering : at 45oC for 3-10 minutes Making the Agar impression . VISCOSITY OF MATERIAL Important role in impression material Fillers and other modifiers like borate can decrease viscosity.temperature Sol Gel (37 – 50oC) gelation temperature Temperature lag makes it possible to use agar as dental impression material.

Gelation is accelerated by circulating cool water (18-21oC) through the tray for 3-5 min. perforated water cooled tray to circulate water so that material gels fast.Syringe material. outer layer removed and impression made.applied on to the prepared tooth Tray hydrocolloid is removed from the tempering basin. Wet Field Technique LAMINATE TECHNIQUE (ALGINATE – AGAR METHOD) The tray hydrocolloid is replaced with a mix of chilled alginate that bonds to the syringe agar . directly taken from storage compartment .

ADVANTAGES Maximum detail is produced as hydrocolloid and not alginate is in contact with prepared tooth SHORT COMINGS Bond between agar and alginate is not always strong. Higher viscosity alginate displaces the agar during seating.Alginate gels by a chemical reaction Agar gels by means of contact with the cool hydrocolloid. Dimensional accuracy of alginate limits the use to single units. PROPERTIES FLOW sufficiently fluid to record details if correctly manipulated .

8% ACCURACY AND DIMENSIONAL CHANGES least dimensional changes occur when stored in 100% humidity.c(98.GELATION TEMPERATURE agar sol should revert to a gel at temp of 37. . on an average flexibility of 11% is desired ELASTICITY AND ELASTIC RECOVERY occurs to extent of 98.2 psi is applied.when a stress of 14.6 f) FLEXIBILITY when removed from mouth flexibility should e 4-15%. prompt pouring is recommended Reproduction limit a reproduction limit up to 25um is achievable.

WORKING AND SETTING TIME ranges between 7-15 min and setting time is 15 min. if material is handled properly. DISADVANTAGES Cannot be electroplated Painful during insertion/gelation. . Produces most undercut areas correctly Well tolerated by patients Cheap as compared to elastic materials. TEAR AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH tear strength tear strength of 4 psi and compressive strength of 116psi ADVANTAGES Accurate dies can be prepared.

.Tears easily Expensive armantarium required Impossible to sterilize material DIMENSIONAL STABILITY After 1 hour shrinks in air . Powell showed that IODOPHOR disinfectant prevents microbial growth.15% in another one hour shrinks Syneresis and imbibition make it dimensionally unstable Storage in 100%humidity makes it dimensionally stable DISINFECTION Even though unsuitable with disinfectant solution.

Duplicating dental casts and models. Quadrant impressions without deep undercuts and single impressions. APPLICATIONS Full mouth impressions without deep undercuts. Crown and bridge impressions because of accuracy.Other agents may be bleach or gluteraldehyde. ALGINATE (IRREVERSIBLE HYDROCOLLOID) .

Developed as a substitute for the agar impression material when its supply become scarce during World War II A chemist from Scotland perceived that certain brown seaweed (algae) succumbs an atypical mucous extraction anhydro-B-d-mannuronic acid or alginic acid (insoluble in water) England chemist received patent for using alginate as dental impression material United States-1945 Introduced alginate during World War II. .

and porous.DIATOMACEOUS EARTH????? Diatoms are tiny. Diatomaceous earth is the remains of microscopic phytoplankton. 5% sodium. Lightweight. single-celled algae found in plankton. DE is approximately 3% magnesium. white. Diatomaceous earth is a fine. gritty. 2% iron . similar to coral. found in prehistoric freshwater sea beds. crystalline powder made up of the fossilized shells of diatoms. 86% silicon.

boron. According to concentration of sodium phosphate Fast set 1.5 min II.and trace minerals such as titanium. copper and zirconium MODE OF SUPPLY As powder In bulk in tin or sachets In preweighed individual containers I.25 – 2min Regular set 3 – 4. According to concentration of filler Soft set Hard set Soluble alginate + calcium sulfate calcium Insoluble alginate gel trisodium phosphate (retarder) NA3PO4+3CASO4-----CA3PO4+3NA2SO4 . manganese.

.SODIUM ALGINATE+CASO4+H20---CALCIUM ALGINATE+NA2SO4 Final set structure differs from agar in that these are held together by primary bonds rather than intermolecular forces so no effect of temperature. The fibrils are formed by chemical action irreversible GELATION TIME Amount of retarder added (manufacturer) By altering the temperature of water.

colder the water—longer is gelation time Warmer the water-shorter is gelation time Cooling mixing bowl and spatulaprolong the gelation time MANIPULATION Preparing the mix Loading the tray Seating tray Removal of impression MIXING OF ALGINATE The measured powder is sifted into premeasured water .

A vigorous figure – 8 motion. . Strength increases after gelation 2-3 min after gelation tray to be kept in mouth Tackiness lost during this time. Thickness of alginate impression between tray and mouth 3mm atleast Adhesives used in plastic or rim lock trays SEATING TRAY Saliva to be wiped off from palate To be held in place firmly without any movement. with the mix being stropped against the sides of rubber mixing bowl with intermittent rotations 180 degrees of spatula to press out air bubbles Mixing time between 45 secs – 1 min smooth creamy mixture LOADING TRAY Sufficient bulk of material to be inserted for Impression material should adhere to tray so that it can be withdrawn from around teeth. REMOVAL OF IMPRESSION Impression to be removed with a jerk.

Gentle . Pouring as soon as possible.long continued pull causes tearing of impression.5% for 10% strain Flexibility : 14% at a stress of 1000 g /cm2 Strength : Compressive strength= 50009000 g/cm2 Tear strength= 380-700 g / cm COMPATIBILITY WITH GYPSUM To overcome surface softness of gypsum cast for waxing procedures from a hydrocolloid impression material immersing impression in solution containing accelerator for setting of gypsum incorporating plaster hardener in material HARDENING AGENT PREVENTS Syneresis Retarding action of gel . Permanent deformation : 1-1. Causes deformation.

potash alum.distortion occurs Short shelf lie STORAGE Should be poured at once. titanium fluoride DIMENSIONAL STABILITY AND SHELF LFE AIR– looses water by evaporation and shrinks WATER—Absorbs water and swells If held in mouth for 6 to 7 min.Zinc sulphate.magnese sulfate. however storage if becomes necessary then in In wet paper towel In plastic bag humidor .

keeping in environment 100% relative humidity results in least dimensional change. BIOCOMPATIBILITY Fine silica particles become airborne from the can when lid is removed silicosis and pulmonary hypersensitivity Incorporation of glycerin to agglomerate alginate particles to reduce dusting ADVANTAGES Easy to mix Minimum equipment Flexibility of set impression Low cost Comfortable to patient DISADVANTAGES Not accurate for crown and bridge impressions Cannot be corrected .If storage is unavoidable.

RECENT ADVANCES IN ALGINATE HIGH TEAR STRENGTH ALGINATES Silicon reinforced 2 paste system CHROMATIC ALGINATE Sodium Silico Fluoride --PH Controller DUST FREE ALGINATE organic glycol---.dedusting agent SOFT SET AND HARD SET-according to filler content ALGINATE WITH DISINFECTANT SOLUTION ALGINATE WITH DISINFECTANT SOLUTION Alginate compatible with disinfectant solutions such .

A KIRK.169:83) F GHANI. And it provides high degree of disinfection when compared with plain material. Making impressions for orthodontic and study models .WILSON APPLICATIONS Impression making  when undercuts are present  in mouth with excessive flow of saliva  For partial dentures with clasps Preliminary impressions for complete dentures. BLUE PRINT ASEPT.J. gluteraldehyde chlorhexidine and organic peracetic acid A quaternary ammonium salt has been added to alginate powder. BDJ.M..(1990.as sodium hypochlorite. For duplicating models.

Preparation of athletic mouth protectors for sports people. properties and handling characteristics of impression materials is vital as it helps us use materials in a better and more rational manner thereby eliminating causes of failures . CAUSES TO REMAKE HYDROCOLLOID IMPESSIONS CONCLUSION The need to understand and evaluate the composition.