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Pipe Diameter

Velocity

Dynamic Pressure

Reynolds Number

Roughness

FDash (Alsthul Approx)

Friction Factor

Pressure Drop / m

Fitting K Factor

Fitting Pressure Drop

5 kg/s

100 mm

0.64

203

4.9E+04

0.046

0.0228

0.0228

46

m/s

pa

mm

pa / m

0.3

60.80912865 pa

CIRCULAR

DUCT Sizing Calc

CIRCULAR

DUCT Sizing Calc

0.77 m/s

0.032 m/s

Hydraulic Diameter

500 mm

Hydraulic Diameter

100 mm

Velocity

Dynamic Pressure

Reynolds Number

Roughness

FDash (Alsthul Approx)

Friction Factor

Pressure Drop

3.92

9.23

1.1E+05

0.15

0.0192

0.0192

0.35

Fitting K Factor

m/s

pa

mm

pa/m

0.038359

3.54 pa

K Factor

Velocity

Dynamic Pressure

Reynolds Number

Roughness

FDash (Alsthul Approx)

Friction Factor

Pressure Drop

Pressure loss Factor

Fitting K Factor

Fitting Pressure Drop

4.07

9.96

2.3E+04

0.15

0.0285

0.0285

2.84

0.75

7.47

m/s

pa

mm

pa/m

9.96 pa

K Factor

Note

K Factor

______________

X 10

0.6 * v squared

K Factor =

BSRIA Guide 30/2007 page 107

or alternative K Factor = PD for fittings

K Factor =is the Pressure loss factor

K X Pv

where P is eqaul to 1.2 Kg/m density of air

Multiply by the Dynamic pressure and again by 10 is by a Factor of experience

This may be reduced or increased depending on

TM 23 air leakage requirements,..but as a general guide 10 is used

Pv = 0.5 X P X V squared.,.

Where V = velocity in m/s

but this may be considered

Duct Width

Duct Height

5.8 m/s

1000 mm

800 mm

Duct Width

Duct Height

5.8 m/s

1000 mm

800 mm

Duct Width

Duct Height

5.8 m/s

1000 mm

800 mm

Hydraulic Diameter

984 mm

Hydraulic Diameter

984 mm

Hydraulic Diameter

984 mm

Velocity

Dynamic Pressure

Reynolds Number

Roughness

FDash (Alsthul Approx)

Friction Factor

Pressure Drop / m

Fitting K Factor

7.63

34.94

4.2E+05

0.15

0.0147

0.0153

0.54

m/s

pa

mm

pa/m

0.015513

5.42 pa

7.63

34.94

4.2E+05

0.15

0.0147

0.0153

0.54

0.75

26.20

m/s

pa

mm

pa/m

34.94 pa

BSRIA Guide 30/2007 page 107

or alternative K Factor = PD for fittings

Note

K Factor

Velocity

Dynamic Pressure

Reynolds Number

Roughness

FDash (Alsthul Approx)

Friction Factor

Pressure Drop / m

Pressure loss Factor

Fitting K Factor s/t

Velocity

Dynamic Pressure

Reynolds Number

Roughness

FDash (Alsthul Approx)

Friction Factor

Pressure Drop / m

Fitting K Factor s/t

2.97 mm WG

Fitting Pressure Drop

7.63

34.94

4.2E+05

0.15

0.0147

0.0153

0.54

m/s

pa

mm

pa/m

58.22589

29.11 pa

FOR FITTINGS

so E18

K = V squared

divided by

2g

______________ X 10

where 2 g is

divided by

K X Pv

0.6 * v squared

2 times Gravity at

9.81 mm WG

Pv = 0.5 X P X V squared.,.

Where V = velocity in m/s

Times 9.81 to

convert to pa

Where P is the pressure drop

and V is the Velocity per metre, squared

but this may be considered

This may be reduced or increased depending on TM 23 air leakage requirements,..but as a general guide 10 is used

Then air velocities ,..may be increassed by a factor of 10% to allow for any subsequent air leakage

Material

Roughness (mm)

Plastic piping

Asbestos cement piping

0.0015

0.003

0.013

0.046

density (kg/m)

dynamic viscosity (Pa/m)

kinematic viscosity (m/s)

10

999.73

0.00131

1.306E-06

Material

steel

neat cement/plaster

spiral wound galvanised

sheet aluminium

plastic

brickwork/concrete

rough brickwork

DATA to ,..INPUT

OUTPUT / ANSWER

EXAMPLE Type 1

2.5

Properties of Water

Temperature (C)

CALCULATION

TITLE:

Prepared:

CDB

DUCT VELOCITY AND PRESSURE DROP CALCULATIONS

Date:

2/4/2010

DUCT Sizing

3. Assumptions

Duct Width

Duct Height

0.064 m/s

150 mm

150 mm

a) Assumed data

Hydraulic Diameter

165 mm

Roughness (mm)

0.15

0.25

0.075

0.05

0.005

1.3

5

The flow rate into the rooms are a combination of mechanical ventilation and cascaded air.

Given the room volumes (m3/s) we can calculate the required duct size , air flow rates (m/s) and

pressure drops (pa)

Velocity

Dynamic Pressure

Reynolds Number

Roughness

FDash (Alsthul Approx)

Friction Factor

Pressure Drop / m

2.99

5.35

2.7E+04

0.15

0.0265

0.0265

0.86

m/s

pa

mm

pa/m

Properties of Air (STP)

Temperature (C)

Barometric Pressure (kPa)

density (kg/m)

dynamic viscosity (Pa/m)

kinematic viscosity (m/s)

Fitting K Factor

20

101.325

1.20

0.000018

0.0000150

0.160673

Duct sizing and general design criteria have been based on CIBSE guides B and C

Fitting Pressure Drop

Pressure loss criteria has been limited in final ducts to each room to 1.00 pa per metre, duct in branches

may slightly be in excess of this requirement to optimise the size of the duct and due to physical

constraints of the actula size of the plant room may have dictated smaller duct with increase in rsistance

but the limiting factors of using the duct velocities as detailed in CIBSE guides have .

had an overiding influence on this duct sizing calculation

Note

K Factor

8.60 pa

______________

so E18

X 10

divided by

4. Method

0.6 * v squared

1. Each room has an assigned a volume flow ( M/s ) calculated from the room volume

A)

Firstly to Calculate the duct size based on the Volume Flow rate (M/s)

B)

For rectangular duct, width "a" X width "b" = cross sectional area

For circular duct

This may be reduced or increased depending on TM 23 air leakage requirements,..but

(pye r squared)

Then air velocities ,..may be increassed by a factor of 10% to allow for any su

C)

From the area of the duct the simpliest formula we can use to calculate the flow rate

we can calculate the flow rate in M/sec by the following formula

Flow Rate

M/sec

area of duct ( M )

Once that we have the flow rate (M/sec), we can determin whether the duct size

is as required, whilst keeping the velocities within minimum and maximum

criteria as detailed within the CIBSE Guides

D)

Once that we have settled on the duct size and duct velocity we can determine the

Pressure loss through each of the duct fittings bythe following formula and criteria

K Factor

= PD for fittings

K Factor =

K X Pv

Pv = 0.5 X P X V squared.,. Where V = velocity in m/s

USE OF THIS K FACTOR ALLOWS NO AIR LEAKAGE, but this may be considered

There are several alternatives to working out the Pressure loss and pressure loss factors

of fittings but the CIBSE Guides give detailed explanation to this criteria and formula's

E)

Once that we have settled on the duct size and duct velocity we can also determ

Pressure loss through the duct itself bythe following formula and criteria

USE OF D'ARCY Formula

use of D'Arcy Formula

h =

2 ( a + b ) f L V

2gab

Where

h

a

b

L

V

is the width of the duct

(M)

is the other width/side of duct (M)

is the length, of 1 metre of duct

is the Velocity of Duct Flow (Squared)

Pa

Pw

ENTER DATA

below

Pw is the Density of Water

f being the frictional coeffitiant

1.2 Kg/m

998 Kg/m

0.45

=

Note that 1 mm WG =

DATA to ,..INPUT

9.81 pa resistance

mm

Example

Sum of

Volume flo

3.99 m / sec

2 (a+b) f

0.45 value 1

sum of V

Sum of Value 1 * 2

Sum of 2 g a b

Sum of

0.200

0.500

7.164045

1.1772

0.001202

6.085665

or

mm

0.300

15.9201 value 2

Pa

Pw

h =

Duct size

### M WG

7.317433 mm WG

### pa / metre

OUTPUT / ANSWER

We have a program in excell which calculates the duct size, given the volume flow rate

and calculates the pressure loss per metre run and pressure loss per fitting

(Screen shots of this ductalator, program have been included at the end of this document

for information and examples)

The calculations in this document will determine the required Velocity through the duct

the specified size of duct and the required pressure drop through each section of duct and fitting

associated with the duct installation, however there may be slight variations between

the computor calculation and the manual calculation method.

OUTPUT / ANSWER

.6 X E12 X E12

EXAMPLE Type 2

AS CIBSE ,..K Factors for fittings

DUCT Sizing

Volume Flow Rate

Duct Width

Duct Height

0.064 m/s

150 mm

150 mm

Hydraulic Diameter

165 mm

Velocity

Dynamic Pressure

Reynolds Number

Roughness

FDash (Alsthul Approx)

Friction Factor

Pressure Drop / m

Pressure loss Factor

Fitting K Factor s/t

Fitting Pressure Drop

2.99

5.35

2.7E+04

0.15

0.0265

0.0265

0.86

0.75

4.01

m/s

pa

mm

pa/m

5.35 pa

BSRIA Guide 30/2007 page 107

or alternative K Factor = PD for fittings

K Factor =is the Pressure loss factor

K X Pv

where delta P is = to K x 0.5 X P X V

where P is eqaul to 1.2 Kg/m density of air

Pv = 0.5 X P X V (squared)

Where V = velocity in m/s

NO AIR LEAKAGE,

but this may be considered

by 10 is by a Factor of experience

M 23 air leakage requirements,..but as a general guide 10 is used

EXAMPLE Type 3

DUCT Sizing

Volume Flow Rate

Duct Width

Duct Height

0.064 m/s

150 mm

150 mm

Hydraulic Diameter

165 mm

Velocity

Dynamic Pressure

Reynolds Number

Roughness

FDash (Alsthul Approx)

Friction Factor

Pressure Drop / m

Fitting K Factor s/t

0.45 mm WG

Fitting Pressure Drop

2.99

5.35

2.7E+04

0.15

0.0265

0.0265

0.86

m/s

pa

mm

pa/m

8.918197

4.46 pa

FOR FITTINGS

K = V squared

divided by

2g

where 2 g is

2 times Gravity at

9.81 mm WG

Times 9.81 to

convert to pa

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