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PIPETULATOR

Mass Flow Rate


Pipe Diameter
Velocity
Dynamic Pressure
Reynolds Number
Roughness
FDash (Alsthul Approx)
Friction Factor
Pressure Drop / m
Fitting K Factor
Fitting Pressure Drop

5 kg/s
100 mm
0.64
203
4.9E+04
0.046
0.0228
0.0228
46

m/s
pa
mm

pa / m

0.3
60.80912865 pa

Example 1 use of K Factor different

Example 2 use of K Factor different

CIRCULAR
DUCT Sizing Calc

CIRCULAR
DUCT Sizing Calc

Volume Flow Rate

0.77 m/s

Volume Flow Rate

0.032 m/s

Hydraulic Diameter

500 mm

Hydraulic Diameter

100 mm

Velocity
Dynamic Pressure
Reynolds Number
Roughness
FDash (Alsthul Approx)
Friction Factor
Pressure Drop

3.92
9.23
1.1E+05
0.15
0.0192
0.0192
0.35

Fitting K Factor

m/s
pa
mm

pa/m

0.038359

Fitting Pressure Drop

3.54 pa
K Factor

Velocity
Dynamic Pressure
Reynolds Number
Roughness
FDash (Alsthul Approx)
Friction Factor
Pressure Drop
Pressure loss Factor
Fitting K Factor
Fitting Pressure Drop

4.07
9.96
2.3E+04
0.15
0.0285
0.0285
2.84
0.75
7.47

m/s
pa
mm

pa/m

9.96 pa
K Factor

Note
K Factor

______________

or alternative K Factor = PD for fittings


X 10

0.6 * v squared

K Factor =

AS CIBSE / HVAC CALC GUIDELINES


BSRIA Guide 30/2007 page 107
or alternative K Factor = PD for fittings
K Factor =is the Pressure loss factor

Where P is the pressure drop


K X Pv

where delta P is = to K x 0.5 X P X V squared

and V is the Velocity per metre, squared


where P is eqaul to 1.2 Kg/m density of air
Multiply by the Dynamic pressure and again by 10 is by a Factor of experience
This may be reduced or increased depending on
TM 23 air leakage requirements,..but as a general guide 10 is used

Pv = 0.5 X P X V squared.,.
Where V = velocity in m/s

USE OF THIS K FACTOR ALLOWS NO AIR LEAKAGE,


but this may be considered

Example 1 use of K Factor different

Example 2 use of K Factor different

Exmple 3 - use of K Factor different

DUCT Sizing Calc

DUCT Sizing Calc

DUCT Sizing Calc

Volume Flow Rate


Duct Width
Duct Height

5.8 m/s
1000 mm
800 mm

Volume Flow Rate


Duct Width
Duct Height

5.8 m/s
1000 mm
800 mm

Volume Flow Rate


Duct Width
Duct Height

5.8 m/s
1000 mm
800 mm

Hydraulic Diameter

984 mm

Hydraulic Diameter

984 mm

Hydraulic Diameter

984 mm

Velocity
Dynamic Pressure
Reynolds Number
Roughness
FDash (Alsthul Approx)
Friction Factor
Pressure Drop / m
Fitting K Factor

7.63
34.94
4.2E+05
0.15
0.0147
0.0153
0.54

m/s
pa
mm

pa/m

0.015513

Fitting Pressure Drop

5.42 pa

7.63
34.94
4.2E+05
0.15
0.0147
0.0153
0.54
0.75
26.20

Fitting Pressure Drop

m/s
pa
mm

pa/m

34.94 pa

AS CIBSE / HVAC CALC GUIDELINES


BSRIA Guide 30/2007 page 107
or alternative K Factor = PD for fittings

Note
K Factor

Velocity
Dynamic Pressure
Reynolds Number
Roughness
FDash (Alsthul Approx)
Friction Factor
Pressure Drop / m
Pressure loss Factor
Fitting K Factor s/t

Velocity
Dynamic Pressure
Reynolds Number
Roughness
FDash (Alsthul Approx)
Friction Factor
Pressure Drop / m
Fitting K Factor s/t
2.97 mm WG
Fitting Pressure Drop

7.63
34.94
4.2E+05
0.15
0.0147
0.0153
0.54

m/s
pa
mm

pa/m

58.22589
29.11 pa

Simple Calculation of K Factor


FOR FITTINGS

so E18

K = V squared
divided by
2g

K Factor = is the Pressure loss factor


______________ X 10

where 2 g is

divided by
K X Pv

0.6 * v squared

where delta P is = to K x 0.5 X P X V squared

where P is eqaul to 1.2 Kg/m density of air

2 times Gravity at
9.81 mm WG

Pv = 0.5 X P X V squared.,.
Where V = velocity in m/s

Times 9.81 to
convert to pa

0.6 X E12 X E12

then multiplied by Dynamic pressure X factor of 10


Where P is the pressure drop
and V is the Velocity per metre, squared

USE OF THIS K FACTOR ALLOWS NO AIR LEAKAGE,


but this may be considered

Multiply by the Dynamic pressure and again by 10 is by a Factor of experience


This may be reduced or increased depending on TM 23 air leakage requirements,..but as a general guide 10 is used
Then air velocities ,..may be increassed by a factor of 10% to allow for any subsequent air leakage

Pipe Surface Roughness (CIBSE C4.7)


Material

Roughness (mm)

Non-ferrous drawn piping


Plastic piping
Asbestos cement piping

0.0015
0.003
0.013

Black steel piping (new)

0.046

Black steel piping (rusted)

density (kg/m)
dynamic viscosity (Pa/m)
kinematic viscosity (m/s)

10
999.73
0.00131
1.306E-06

Duct Surface Roughness (CIBSE C4.7)


Material
steel
neat cement/plaster
spiral wound galvanised
sheet aluminium
plastic
brickwork/concrete
rough brickwork

DATA to ,..INPUT

OUTPUT / ANSWER

DUCT SIZING Calculation Sheet


EXAMPLE Type 1

2.5

Properties of Water
Temperature (C)

Doosan Babcock Reference Sheet

CALCULATION
TITLE:
Prepared:
CDB

VENTILATION SYSTEM DUCT SIZING,


DUCT VELOCITY AND PRESSURE DROP CALCULATIONS
Date:
2/4/2010

DUCT Sizing

3. Assumptions

Volume Flow Rate


Duct Width
Duct Height

0.064 m/s
150 mm
150 mm

a) Assumed data

Hydraulic Diameter

165 mm

Roughness (mm)
0.15
0.25
0.075
0.05
0.005
1.3
5

The flow rate into the rooms are a combination of mechanical ventilation and cascaded air.
Given the room volumes (m3/s) we can calculate the required duct size , air flow rates (m/s) and
pressure drops (pa)

Velocity
Dynamic Pressure
Reynolds Number
Roughness
FDash (Alsthul Approx)
Friction Factor
Pressure Drop / m

2.99
5.35
2.7E+04
0.15
0.0265
0.0265
0.86

m/s
pa
mm

pa/m

Minimum and maximum criteria have been based on CIBSE guide B


Properties of Air (STP)
Temperature (C)
Barometric Pressure (kPa)
density (kg/m)
dynamic viscosity (Pa/m)
kinematic viscosity (m/s)

Fitting K Factor
20
101.325
1.20
0.000018
0.0000150

0.160673

Duct sizing and general design criteria have been based on CIBSE guides B and C
Fitting Pressure Drop
Pressure loss criteria has been limited in final ducts to each room to 1.00 pa per metre, duct in branches
may slightly be in excess of this requirement to optimise the size of the duct and due to physical
constraints of the actula size of the plant room may have dictated smaller duct with increase in rsistance
but the limiting factors of using the duct velocities as detailed in CIBSE guides have .
had an overiding influence on this duct sizing calculation
Note
K Factor

8.60 pa

______________

so E18
X 10

divided by

4. Method
0.6 * v squared

0.6 X E12 X E12

There are 5 different types of calculation to complete.


1. Each room has an assigned a volume flow ( M/s ) calculated from the room volume

then multiplied by Dynamic pressure X factor of 10

A)

Firstly to Calculate the duct size based on the Volume Flow rate (M/s)

Where P is the pressure drop

B)

The Duct Size gives the required Duct area

and V is the Velocity per metre, squared

For rectangular duct, width "a" X width "b" = cross sectional area
For circular duct

Multiply by the Dynamic pressure and again by 10 is by a Factor of experienc


This may be reduced or increased depending on TM 23 air leakage requirements,..but

(pye r squared)

Then air velocities ,..may be increassed by a factor of 10% to allow for any su
C)

From the area of the duct the simpliest formula we can use to calculate the flow rate
we can calculate the flow rate in M/sec by the following formula

Flow Rate
M/sec

Flow Rate ( M/s )


area of duct ( M )

Once that we have the flow rate (M/sec), we can determin whether the duct size
is as required, whilst keeping the velocities within minimum and maximum
criteria as detailed within the CIBSE Guides
D)

Once that we have settled on the duct size and duct velocity we can determine the
Pressure loss through each of the duct fittings bythe following formula and criteria
K Factor

= PD for fittings

K Factor =

K X Pv

AS CIBSE / HVAC CALC GUIDELINES

where K is = to 0.5 X P X V squared

where P is eqaul to 1.2 Kg/m density of air


Pv = 0.5 X P X V squared.,. Where V = velocity in m/s
USE OF THIS K FACTOR ALLOWS NO AIR LEAKAGE, but this may be considered
There are several alternatives to working out the Pressure loss and pressure loss factors
of fittings but the CIBSE Guides give detailed explanation to this criteria and formula's
E)

Once that we have settled on the duct size and duct velocity we can also determ
Pressure loss through the duct itself bythe following formula and criteria
USE OF D'ARCY Formula
use of D'Arcy Formula
h =

2 ( a + b ) f L V
2gab

Where
h
a
b
L
V

is the Head Loss due to friction in WG mm


is the width of the duct
(M)
is the other width/side of duct (M)
is the length, of 1 metre of duct
is the Velocity of Duct Flow (Squared)

Pa
Pw

ENTER DATA
below

Pa is the Density of Air


Pw is the Density of Water
f being the frictional coeffitiant

1.2 Kg/m
998 Kg/m
0.45

=
Note that 1 mm WG =

DATA to ,..INPUT

9.81 pa resistance

mm
Example
Sum of

Volume flo

3.99 m / sec

2 (a+b) f

0.45 value 1

sum of V
Sum of Value 1 * 2
Sum of 2 g a b
Sum of

0.200

0.500

7.164045
1.1772
0.001202

Sum of of D'Arcy Formula

6.085665

or

mm
0.300

15.9201 value 2

Pa
Pw

h =

Duct size

### M WG

7.317433 mm WG
### pa / metre

OUTPUT / ANSWER

We have a program in excell which calculates the duct size, given the volume flow rate
and calculates the pressure loss per metre run and pressure loss per fitting
(Screen shots of this ductalator, program have been included at the end of this document
for information and examples)
The calculations in this document will determine the required Velocity through the duct
the specified size of duct and the required pressure drop through each section of duct and fitting
associated with the duct installation, however there may be slight variations between
the computor calculation and the manual calculation method.

OUTPUT / ANSWER

.6 X E12 X E12

EXAMPLE Type 2
AS CIBSE ,..K Factors for fittings

DUCT Sizing
Volume Flow Rate
Duct Width
Duct Height

0.064 m/s
150 mm
150 mm

Hydraulic Diameter

165 mm

Velocity
Dynamic Pressure
Reynolds Number
Roughness
FDash (Alsthul Approx)
Friction Factor
Pressure Drop / m
Pressure loss Factor
Fitting K Factor s/t
Fitting Pressure Drop

2.99
5.35
2.7E+04
0.15
0.0265
0.0265
0.86
0.75
4.01

m/s
pa
mm

pa/m

5.35 pa

AS CIBSE / HVAC CALC GUIDELINES


BSRIA Guide 30/2007 page 107
or alternative K Factor = PD for fittings
K Factor =is the Pressure loss factor
K X Pv
where delta P is = to K x 0.5 X P X V
where P is eqaul to 1.2 Kg/m density of air
Pv = 0.5 X P X V (squared)
Where V = velocity in m/s

USE OF THIS K FACTOR ALLOWS


NO AIR LEAKAGE,
but this may be considered

by 10 is by a Factor of experience
M 23 air leakage requirements,..but as a general guide 10 is used

a factor of 10% to allow for any subsequent air leakage

EXAMPLE Type 3

DUCT Sizing
Volume Flow Rate
Duct Width
Duct Height

0.064 m/s
150 mm
150 mm

Hydraulic Diameter

165 mm

Velocity
Dynamic Pressure
Reynolds Number
Roughness
FDash (Alsthul Approx)
Friction Factor
Pressure Drop / m
Fitting K Factor s/t
0.45 mm WG
Fitting Pressure Drop

2.99
5.35
2.7E+04
0.15
0.0265
0.0265
0.86

m/s
pa
mm

pa/m

8.918197
4.46 pa

Simple Calculation of K Factor


FOR FITTINGS

K = V squared
divided by
2g
where 2 g is
2 times Gravity at
9.81 mm WG
Times 9.81 to
convert to pa