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# 1. The inner surface of a plane brick wall is at 60 and the outer surface is at 35.

Calculate
the rate of heat transfer per m2 of surface area of the wall, which is 220 mm thick. The
thermal conductivity of the brick is 0.51 W/m.
Ans- 57.95 W/m2
2. A wall of a furnace is made up of inside layer of silica brick 120 mm thick covered with a
layer of magnesite brick 240 mm thick. The temperatures at the inside surface of silica brick
wall and outside surface of magnesite brick wall are 725 and 110 respectively. the
contact thermal resistance between the two walls at the interface is 0.0035 /W per unit
wall area. If thermal conductivities of silica and magnesite bricks are 1.7 W/m, calculate.
(a) The rate of heat loss per unit area of walls, and
(b) The temperature drop at the interface.
Ans- 5324.67 W/m2, 18.81
3. A furnace wall consists of 200 mm layer of refractory bricks, 6 mm layer of steel plate and a
100 mm layer of insulation bricks. The maximum temperature of the wall is 1150 on the
furnace side and the minimum temperature is 40 on the outermost side of the wall. An
accurate energy balance over the furnace shows that the heat loss from the wall is 400
W/m2. It is known that there is a thin layer of air between the layers of refractory bricks and
steel plate. Thermal conductivities for the three layers are 1.52, 45 and 0.138 W/m
respectively. find:
(a) To how many millimetres of insulation brick is the air layer equivalent?
(b) What is the temperature of the outer surface of the steel plate?
Ans- 329.8
4. (a) derive an expression for the heat loss per m2 of the surface area for a furnace wall as
shown in figure, when the thermal conductivity varies with temperature according to the
relation k = (a+bt2) W/m, where t is in
(c) Find the rate of heat transfer through the wall, if L = 0.2 m, t1=300, t2=30 and a=0.3
and b=510-6.

## Ans- 629.77 W/m2

5. Two slabs, each 120 mm thick, have thermal conductivities of 14.5 W/m and 210 W/m.
These are placed in contact, but due to roughness, only 30% of area is in contact and the gap
in the remaining area is 0.025 mm thick and is filled with air. If the temperature of the face
of the hot surface is of 220 and the outside side surface of other slab is at 30, determne:
(a) Heat flow through the composite system
(b) The contact resistance and temperature drop in contact.
Assume that the conductivity of air is 0.032 W/m and that half of the contact (of the
contact area) is due to either metal.
Ans- 21.493 kW, 7.419 107 /, 0.0159

6. A mild steel tank of wall thickness 12 mm contains water at 95 . The thermal conductivity
of mild steel is 50 W/m, and the heat transfer coefficients for the inside and outside the
tank are 2850 and 10 W/m2, respectively. if the atmospheric temperature is 15,
calculate:
(a) The rate of heat loss per m2 of the tank surface area.
(b) The temperature of the outside surface of the tank.
Ans- 795.2 W/m2, 94.52
7. An electric hot plate is maintained at a temperature of 350, and is used to keep a solution
boiling at 95. The solution is contained in a cast-iron vessel of wall thickness 25 mm, which
is enamelled inside to a thickness of 0.8 mm. The heat transfer coefficient for the boiling
solution is 5.5 kW/m2K, and the thermal conductivities of the cast iron and enamel are 50
and 1.05 W/mK, respectively. Calculate:
(a) The overall heat transfer coefficient
(b) The rate of heat transfer per unit area..
Ans- 692.5 W/m2K, 176.6 kW/m2
8. A cold storage room has walls made of 220 mm of brick on the outside, 90 mm of plastic
foam, and finally 16 mm of wood on the inside. The outside and inside air temperatures are
25 and -3 respectively. if the inside and outside heat transfer coefficients are
respectively 30 and 11 W/m2, and the thermal conductivities of brick, foam and wood are
0.99, 0.022 and 0.17 W/m respectively, determine
(a) The rate of heat removal by refrigeration if the total wall area is 85 m2.
(b) The temperature of the inside surface of the brick.
Ans- 525.26 W, 23.06
9. A square plate heater (15 cm 15 cm) is inserted between two slabs. Slab A is 2 cm thick (k
= 50 W/mK) ad slab B is 1 cm thick (k=0.2 W/mK). The outside heat transfer coefficients on
side A and side B are 200 and 50 W/m2K respectively. the temperature of surrounding air is
25. If rating of heater is 1 kW, find:
(a) Maximum temperature in the system;
(b) Outer surface temperature of two slabs.
Draw an equivalent electrical circuit.
Ans- 247.8, 231.3, 88.6
10. A thick walled tube of stainless steel with 20 mm inner diameter and 40 mm outer diameter
is covered with a 30 mm layer of asbestos insulation (k = 0.2 W/mK). If the inside wall
temperature of the pipe is maintained at 600 and the outside insulation at 1000,
calculate the heat loss per metre of length.
Ans- -548.57 W/m
11. A steel pipe with 50 mm OD is covered with a 6.4 mm asbestos insulation [ k = 0.166 W/mK]
followed by a 25 mm layer of fibre-glass insulation [ K = 0.0485 W/mK]. The pipe wall
temperature is 393 K and the outside insulation temperature is 311 K. Calculate the
interface temperature between the asbestos and fibre-glass.
Ans- 111.60 C
12. A gas filled tube has 2 mm inside diameter and 25 cm length. The gas is heated by an
electrical wire of diameter 50 microns (0.05 mm) located along the axis of the tube. Current
and voltage drop across the heating element are 0.5 amps and 4 volts, respectively. If the

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measured wire and inside tube wall temperatures are 1750C and 1500C respectively, find the
thermal conductivity of the gas filling the tube.
Ans- K= 0.188 W/m 0C
A 240 mm steam main, 210 metres long is covered with 50 mm of high temperature
insulation (K= 0.092 W/m0C) and 40 mm of law temperature insulation ( K= 0.062 W/m0C).
The inner and outer surface temperature as measured are 3900 and 400 respectively.
Calculate
(a) The total heat loss per hour.
(b) The heat loss per m2 of pipe surface.
(c) The total heat loss per m2 of outer surface and
(d) The temperature between two layers of insulation.
Neglect heat conduction through pipe material.
Ans- Q= 231099.5 kj/h, 1449.55 Kj/h, 834.03 Kj/h, 205.80C
Heat is conducted through a tapered circular rod of 200 mm length. The ends A and B having
diameters 50 mm and 25 mm are maintained at 27 and 227 respectively. k (rod
material)= 40 W/mK. Find :
(a) Heat conducted through the rod.
(b) The temperature at the mid-point of the end.
Assume there is no temperature gradient at a particular cross-section and there is
no heat transfer through the peripheral surface.
Ans- 39.27 W, 160.33
A spherical shaped vessel of 1.4 m diameter is 90 mm thick. Find the rate of heat leakage, if
the temperature difference between the inner and outer surfaces is 220 . Thermal
conductivity of the material of the sphere is 0.083W/mK.
Ans- 1088.67 W
A spherical thin walled metallic container is used to store liquid N2 at -196. The container
has a diameter of 0.5 m and is covered with an evacuated reflective insulation composed of
silica powder. The insulation is 25 mm thick and its outer layer is exposed to air at 27. The
convective heat transfer coefficient on outer surface = 20 W/m2K. Latent heat of
evaporation of N2 = 2 105 J/kg, density of N2= 804 kg/m3.
K (silica powder) = 0.0017 W/mK
Find out the rate of heat transfer and rate of N2 boil-off.
Ans- 0.2358 kg/h
A spherical container having outer diameter 500 mm is insulated by 100 mm thick layer of
material with thermal conductivity k= 0.03 (1+0.006t) W/mK, where t is in . If the surface
temperature of sphere is -200 and temperature of outer surface is 30, determine the
heat flow in.
Ans- 37.17 W
A hollow cylinder with inner radius 30 mm and outer radius 50 mm is heated at the inner
surface at a rate of 105 /2 and dissipates heat by convection from the outer surface into a
fluid at temperature 100 C with a heat transfer coefficient of 400 W/2 K. There is no energy
generation, and the thermal conductivity of the solid is assumed to be constant at 15 W/mK.
Calculate the temperatures of the inside and outside surfaces of the cylinder.

Ans- . C, C