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# Elementary particles as elastic deformations in space-time: spinning Planck-spheres of temporal curvature coupled with Compton sized

theory with torsion” by Lazar, page 27: “Obviously, the dislocation acts as the source of an incompatible ‘gravitational’ distortion field and is its own source. Additionally, we can say that a screw dislocation is a topological string with cylindrical symmetry in threedimensional gravity.” Again, this article highlights the need for an integrated theory of elementary particles based on the elasticity of space-time. Conventional physicists may see the article as laden with speculation. This illustrates the need for a concise theory shown to be directly connected to physical reality. The fifth citation comes from “On geometric discretization of elasticity” by Arash Yavari, page 20: “A Discrete Theory of Elasticity”. This section of the text develops a new theory of elasticity “with no reference to the continuous theory”. It’s theoretically and practically very important because we need a rigorous connection between linear and nonlinear elasticity. We also need a theory that is computationally feasible. Yavari’s work provides the basis for this. Section Two – Derivation of Core Parameters: The simplistic theory is based on two quantities: Young’s elastic modulus of space and linear strain of space, extension. We identify them with the symbols Y 0 and X respectively. The following derivation comes from N and Ω, pages 20-22. Due to expansion of the Universe, space is under tension. When a particle mutually annihilates with its anti-counterpart, it's as if an ideal stretched string has been plucked – two photons / e-m waves are emitted in opposite directions. Of course, space has more qualities than just being under tension. It has permeability and permittivity. c2 = τ0/λ0 (1) p3 wave propagation rate squared is tension reduced by mass per unit length c2 = 1/μ0ε0 (2) p250 the speed of light squared is the inverse of permeability times permittivity => λ0 = τ0μ0ε0 (3) So, a mass is an element of space (per unit length) under tension (or internal pressure) subject to permeability and permittivity. Perceptive readers should notice (3) is a clever rewrite of E = mc2. But it's more than that – it shows that masses are a product of the three and only three qualities of space – elasticity, permeability, and permittivity: τ0 = Y(Δl/l) (4) p72 tension is linearly related to extension through Young's modulus under the elastic limit => λ0 = Y0μ0ε0(Δl/l) (5) (Page references are from Physics of Waves, Elmore and Heald, 1969, Dover.) .. Until now, we have not made the 'per unit length' explicit. Let's do that and assign the Plancklength: λ0/lP = Y0μ0ε0(Δl/l) (6) This is a place to start and we'll follow a similar convention when the need arises. Let's replace lambda with the standard notation and move lP to the other side: m0 = (Y0lP)μ0ε0(Δl/l) (7) Multiply by unity (where tP is the Planck-time):

m0 = (Y0lPtP)μ0ε0(Δl/ltP) (8) Now, the first factor on the RHS is 'where we want it' (units are in joule-seconds). And, the fact we had to 'contort' the extension by dividing it by the Planck-time should not prove insurmountable to deal with later. Finally, let's assume the first factor is equal to the magnitude of spin of electrons and protons, ħ/2: m0 = (ħ/2)μ0ε0(Δl/ltP) (9) By our last assumption, Y0 = ħ/2lPtP ≈ 6.0526*1043 N. To simplify and isolate the extension: m0 = (ħ/2c2)(Δl/l)(1/tP) (10) => (Δl/l) = (2c2tP/ħ)m0 = 2(tP/ħ)E0 (11) So, the linear strain of space due to internal stress is directly related to rest-energy through a Planck-measure. Later, if space allows (pun intended), we will show that (11) reduces to an even simpler form involving only two factors. If our assumptions hold, the numerical values for (11), for electrons and protons respectively, are approximately: 8.3700*10-23 and 1.5368*10-19. The values are dimensionless – per the definition of linear strain. The meaning is: 'locally', space is expanded (linearly) by the fractions above (assumed in each dimension). What exactly locally means – will have to be addressed later. The numerical value of Y0 is extremely high as expected. All this says is: space is extremely inelastic. The numerical values for ∆l/l will have to be investigated – perhaps as suggested in the previous paper. Section Three – Investigation of Core Equations: The following text is taken directly from chapter four of N and Ω. In this chapter, we take a deeper dive into the following table – in order to deepen our understanding of space-time and energy: m/(μ0ε0) = ħωm hν ≡ h/Tγ2 ((ħ/2)/tP)X ≡ (h/tP)C Y0lPX = Z0e2ωe ωe ≡ 10.905ωm X ≡ Δl/l = m/lPY0μ0ε0 = 2tPωm The purpose of this book is to show they are not just equations – that they have deep meaning about basic structures in our universe. Anyone can scribble down a list of equations, but it takes years of contemplation to truly understand the fabric of space-time from scratch. What was my inspiration? In junior high, a gym teacher mentioned to me that they thought elementary particles were confined photons. They said they could not prove it, but they were sure it was true. This planted a seed in my mind – itching to explain and understand. After years of paper research (at that time – no internet), I found

one man, published in Physics Essays, who seemed able to prove auto-confinement. Of course, he is dismissed and ignored by convention. Since then, I have given up trying to prove elementary particles are trapped photons. But over the years, in the process of trying to prove and understand, I have discovered deeper and more fundamental concepts/relations. Those are listed above. The first line is Einstein’s discovery written differently. Some years ago, it was discovered that the speed of light squared is equal to the inverse of space-permeability times spacem/(μ0ε0) = ħωm hν ≡ h/Tγ2 ((ħ/2)/tP)X ≡ (h/tP)C Y0lPX = Z0e2ωe ωe ≡ 10.905ωm X ≡ Δl/l = m/lPY0μ0ε0 = 2tPωm permittivity. And separately, that energy is equal to h-bar times omega, angular frequency. Everyone agrees that h-bar is the fundamental unit of angular momentum. But the physical meaning of omega – convention refuses to say. It’s simply the “amount of hbars”, a coefficient of h-bar, in particles – according to convention. So line one is basically a rewrite of mc2 = E. What does it show? It shows that the energy in mass is directly related to space-permeability and space-permittivity. Those two – are components of Z0, the impedance of space. Line two relates to Einstein’s special theory of relativity. It is a required definition to keep things consistent in that respect. If we divide both sides by h, Planck’s constant, we get frequency is identically equal to the inverse of period times gamma squared. Gamma comes from special relativity and is equal to the square-root of one minus speed over light-speed squared. It is a dimensionless fraction which typically amplifies rest values when we divide those rest values by it. Nu, frequency, is a relativistic quantity – which means it is amplified by speed. Period, T, is also a relativistic quantity. In fact, mass and angular frequency, from line one, are relativistic quantities. We normally write m = m0/γ, for instance, which means relativistic mass is rest mass divided by gamma. We omit the term ‘relativistic’ to avoid confusion, but it is strictly required to be precise in our statements. Frequency is angular frequency over 2π, but convention ascribes little or no meaning to frequency and period in this context. Normally, period is the inverse of frequency – and this is true for many many systems. But because time slows down for speedy crafts/particles, and because time slows down near strong gravity sources, we must rationally explain this somehow. The causal deterministic perspective asserts they are the same thing. In my theory, I explain them both as curved space-time. Convention assigns no deep meaning to special relativity. Convention typically explains time dilation with a

particle bouncing between plates: at rest, it has a fixed distance of travel, frequency, and period; at high speed, it has a longer travel path, lower frequency, and longer period. (The direction of travel is parallel to the plates.) But this conventional perspective sheds no light on the causal mechanism of time dilation. Convention avoids this ‘messy situation’ (having to define the relationship between frequency and period above) by not ascribing any physical meaning to omega, nu, and T. h and h-bar (h-bar is h/2π) are most certainly not relativistic quantities (they don’t change with speed). So if omega, nu, and T have any physical meaning, the ‘only room to move’ (the only quantities above that can be relativistic quantities) is in them. We know for a fact that mass increases, energy increases, and time slows down for speedy particles. We know for a fact that m/(μ0ε0) = ħωm hν ≡ h/Tγ2 ((ħ/2)/tP)X ≡ (h/tP)C Y0lPX = Z0e2ωe ωe ≡ 10.905ωm X ≡ Δl/l = m/lPY0μ0ε0 = 2tPωm h, h-bar, and charge don’t change for any speed. So again, if omega, nu, and T have any physical meaning, they must be relativistic quantities. I propose omega-m (m for mass) is the angular spin rate of the core of elementary particles. This is proposed to be a Planck-sphere with diameter of Planck-length. The following is a list of Planck dimensions: Planck-length = lP = 1.61608*10-35 m Planck-time = tP = 5.39067*10-44 s Planck-speed = c = lP/tP = 2.99792*108 m/s They are conventionally considered to be absolute in the sense: nothing can be shorter than Planck-length, no time can be shorter than Planck-time, and no speed can be greater than c, the speed of light. Anything shorter or faster is physically meaningless. h-bar/2 is the conventionally accepted value for spin of elementary particles. That’s why it appears in line three above. (Actually, once you define X and C, the rest become easy to derive.) I arrived at line three by listing and simplifying eight different ways to describe energy. The identity symbol is really between X and C. Once you divide both sides by h and multiply by tP, you find X ≡ 4πC. 4π is conventionally known as ‘a solid angle’. Temporal curvature, C, through a solid angle is linear extension of space. This is a definition. Linear extension is defined in line two of the lower box. It follows from the standard definitions of stress and strain in engineering. Y is the standard symbol for Young’s

modulus of elasticity. It is required for an elastic model of space. In practice, once Y is determined, X can be calculated (and vice versa). The ‘per unit length’ must be decided and once it is, the rest pretty much ‘flow’ from that decision; the choice of Y0 and ‘per unit length’ determine X here. Y is normally given in newtons. So, in deriving/defining Y0, I used that as a guide .. I feel like I’ve pretty much lost all of you except the engineers at this point. Let me insert my original derivation here. [Deleted for brevity – deleted text can be found above in section two of this paper.] That concludes my original derivation of Y0 and X. It may help to read it through several times noting the assumptions. I could ride the fence like convention and say there is nothing inside Planck-spheres except energy, but if we think about it very carefully – we are somewhat forced into a position of proposing/accepting that there is structure inside. This is what I have been avoiding for twenty-five years! :( Twenty-five years ago, it was suggested to me to employ Planck dimensions. And I believe I understood the danger at that time. That’s why I doggedly pursued a model with Compton dimensions. But it simply doesn’t work with an elastic model of space. Dimensions cannot be so large; force cannot be distributed over large areas because there is not enough energy in e.p.s to balance that. The only model that seems to work is a dual-sized model – Planck-size for mass and Compton size for charge. At this very moment of writing, it occurred to me – the possibility of torii within torii. Bergman and his staff at commonsensescience.org have developed a quasi-torus model of electro-dynamic flux. In the process of deriving the Planck-sphere model of mass, a step in that process was proposing an ultra-thin torus. But that torus has to be thinner than the Planck-length for that model to work. That’s why I rejected it. I must concede that it is possible e.p.s may be torii within torii. But there are two reasons why I don’t subscribe to that perspective right now: mass as ultra-thin torii requires extra assumptions about geometry – assumptions we cannot prove now. And, do you see Bergman’s staff willing to work with me? No. So what’s the point of me trying to integrate models when the other party refuses to collaborate? They are also currently dismissed by convention. I believe that model would require a similar onion-like structure within the inner torus. (Part of my model of the core is the proposal it is an onion-like spherical standing wave of temporal curvature.) Except that it would have to be torii within torii. Until this geometry can be proven to me and Bergman’s staff becomes willing to work with me, I will defer accepting this model. The simpler model is sphere within torus. m/(μ0ε0) = ħωm hν ≡ h/Tγ2 ((ħ/2)/tP)X ≡ (h/tP)C

Y0lPX = Z0e2ωe ωe ≡ 10.905ωm X ≡ Δl/l = m/lPY0μ0ε0 = 2tPωm I suppose we are ready to study the fourth line in the core equation table. Originally, there was not an equal sign. The approximation comes from my discovery ħ ≈ Z 0e2. For about fifteen years, I have stared at that ‘≈’ – trying to understand it. The factor that makes equality is 10.905 on the right side. But every time I would try to explain/understand it, required additional assumptions. In order to write and publish this book, I’m required to ‘take a stand’. To me, it’s better to take a stand and be wrong than ride the fence for eternity. At least you have a chance for progress. Riding the fence does not. m/(μ0ε0) = ħωm hν ≡ h/Tγ2 ((ħ/2)/tP)X ≡ (h/tP)C Y0lPX = Z0e2ωe ωe ≡ 10.905ωm X ≡ Δl/l = m/lPY0μ0ε0 = 2tPωm Can 10.905 be absorbed into any term on left or right? If on the left, we must modify definitions of elasticity or extension (and justify it). On the right, we basically only have two choices: Z0e2 and omega. If we choose the former, we are implicitly choosing some geometry. If we choose omega, we must understand the consequences and any associated assumptions. If electric flux is a spinning ring with outer dimension of Compton diameter (h = mcλC, where lambda-C is Compton wavelength), and if ωe = 10.905ωm, then tangential speed is 10.905c which is impossible – or is it? There are only two choices at this point: allow flux speeds greater than c or change dimensions. Since allowing speeds greater than c tends to throw a ‘monkey wrench’ into things, we’ll go with the latter. Let’s tentatively change the outer dimension of the flux ring to λC/10.905. That way, the tangential speed is exactly light-speed which agrees with the Bergman model. Why do I bother to conform my model to Bergman’s? Again, it’s because in all my searches, I have found only one complete deterministic model of elementary particles which seems to make any sense .. A member of the Faraday Group, of which I am the founder, worked on this model independently a decade or so earlier than Bergman’s seminal paper. But I won’t give his name here to help readers discover this for themselves.

rest has a fixed minimum amount of energy in the core. What could be more elegant than that? Convention’s resistance to positive change is like the inertia inside a baby – refusing to grow up .. One of my theories of personality is about ‘emotional inertia’. When something makes us angry, really angry, it takes time to cool down. When we love, truly love, it’s usually for a long time. Our emotions have a kind of inertia. Of course, I’ve watched my baby change from crying to laughing in a blink of an eye, but adults rarely do this. I believe the concept of inertia is important not just to physics and engineering .. It could be said that the field of physics is all the teachers, students, and researchers that care about physics. Their collective belief system is important to the field. Their resistance to change, their ‘philosophical inertia’, is important: if a new idea is wrong, take time to confirm it – and reject it; if a new idea is right, take time to confirm it – and accept it. The central problem with accepting my ideas is not the lack of math-lattice supporting them; it’s the fundamental disagreement in approach. Convention has accepted the random-wave model of matter. It uses reduction to break a problem into parts – then tries to solve them separately. Because of my training in systems, I have a holistic approach to solving problems. Sometimes, problems are so complex, you need the systems approach to solve them. In my book on systems, I define complexity to be “the property of a system with the following features: a generous frequency of distinct types of components, a non-trivial arrangement of those components – in order for the system to function nominally, and some quantitative evidence of a system-wide synergy.” Now strictly speaking, e.p.s are not complex structures, but their behavior inside atoms and molecules suggests we need the systems approach to understand them. Convention cannot accept my ideas because it cannot integrate them into the current framework – ideas clash. I’m not asking them to discard reduction – just amplify it with the systems approach. But I am asking them to take a hard long look at the random-wave concept, compare it to the elegance of temporal curvature, and decide. If they decide to keep random-wave, that’s their business – their problem. They will find more and more compelling evidence against it (such as exact atomic control – we can do it now). Uncertainty in physics is becoming a relic of the past (the uncertainty relations used to hold prime importance in physics). When I was in university, it was my conviction that problem solving is a matter of perspective: achieve the right perspective, the problem ‘solves itself’. What this means in practice is: reformulate the problem in a clever way and the solution usually becomes obvious. The book called Heuristics confirms this. It’s an excellent resource for problem solving. I haven’t finished reading it; it’s very ‘heavy’ mathematically. The first two or three chapters can be digested by science students; try it. After years of conventional problem solving, I’m convinced the systems approach is absolutely required for some types of problems: space systems engineering (in order to avoid the Shuttle type disasters), human systems engineering (on a global scale such as suggested by my book Humanity Thrive!), and ‘microscopic’ systems analysis. In the first two cases, we are designing systems. In the last case, we are trying to understand it.

Microscopic is in quotes because the systems we are trying to understand are much smaller than what’s viewable with a microscope. That’s part of the problem. We cannot view them directly. We can only infer properties from various kinds of experiments. The only technique that has any chance of viewing them directly is electron interferometry. And that technique is currently in dispute .. So, a chapter on the systems approach is advisable here. Salvatore Gerard Micheal, Faraday Group (altphy.org), 08/NOV/2008

Salvatore Gerard Micheal, Faraday Group (altphy.org), 10/NOV/2008 List of assumptions for EDST (elastic deformations in space-time) model of elementary particles (not necessarily ranked in order of importance): 1. the cores of e.p.s are Planck dimensions constrained objects 2. the cores are comprised of spherical standing waves of temporal curvature 3. internal energy density is balanced with external pressure; external pressure is caused by the extreme inelasticity of space, Y0 ≈ 1044 N / 1022 N 4. e.p.s are dual structures: twisted cores of temporal curvature coupled with Compton-sized spinning electric flux rings 5. the distributed nature of the flux rings causes self-interference phenomena 6. the geometry above and the two qualities of space-time, Y0 and Z0, are minimally sufficient to describe e.p.s and their interactions 7. the strong force and gravitation are essentially the same thing – caused by residual extension of curvature beyond the core 8. geometry explains instability such as with 8Be The purpose of developing EDST is two-fold: to extricate/excavate physics from its selfmade prison/tomb consisting of an agglomeration of arcane math, untestable concepts, illucid ideas, and a general avoidance of the scientific principle: propose, test, revise / start over – and – provide a view of nature that is consistent, elegant, and verifiable. The elegant nature of the model is exemplified by these two revelations: an explanation of inertia and view of matter. Inertia is simply the lack of relativistic energy to add or take away from a core at rest. View of matter: there are only two things in our universe: space-time and energy. Life is a functional arrangement of these two things. Immediate problems with the model: the dual-structure has dual-spin: ωe = 10.905ωm. How? Why? Is it a result of how we measure spin? The core equations of the theory were derived using the concepts of linear elasticity and the ‘ideal stretched string’. The value for Y0 above has two values because of that and assumption 3 above. Derive Y0 based on the former, you get the first value. Derive Y0 based on point 3, the second. Consequences of this are: extension/strain increases drastically from mere fractions to 1/6 – and –

abhorrent toward it. Largely, it’s due to the historical rejection of the aether which suspiciously has attributes similar to impedance. But I assure physicists: impedance and the aether are two very different things. Ask any practicing engineer. Now this is where it gets scary.. I occasionally take showers because I get pressure from family members (from the stink of my greasy body) and because it becomes acutely uncomfortable after an extended period (two days in a semi-tropical area is sufficient). During my shower today, I was considering a post to the ‘complexQM’ yahoo group. Alex is the wonderful moderator there. My post was about the possibility of time being complex (as in complex numbers). I happen to Love complex analysis because it has such engineering potential and because it simply is Fun. :) But today a demon was born in the shower.. It was frightening.. I had the graciousness to smile at his birth. He’s a very clever demon. The ‘demon’ is this: since I was able to unify gravitation with strong force via temporal curvature, the idea suggested itself: what about impedance? It doesn’t really matter where you assign impedance, as long as you assign it somewhere.. Impedance is a fact of our existence/universe. The fact gravitation and strong force can be modeled exclusively by distributed temporal curvature suggests impedance could similarly be maintained. Impedance is the summary characteristic of ‘electromagnetic’ media/materials (including space). It includes permeability and permittivity (magnetic and electric components respectively). In phasor analysis (frequency analysis in electric circuits), there is a ‘real part’ and an ‘imaginary part’ (the so-called ‘imaginary part’ is just as real as the ‘real part’ – we call the real part resistive and the imaginary part reactive). It simplifies frequency domain analysis of electric circuits. Don’t let this terminology confuse you or distract you from the point of this essay. These concepts are used daily by engineers as part of circuit analysis and design. Again, it doesn’t matter where you assign impedance – as long as it is somewhere embedded in the model of our universe. We know that our universe is fundamentally Euclidean (the simplest dimensional structure). Einstein ‘changed all that’ based on his general relativity. He assumed (wrongly) that space-time must curve to explain gravitation. His wrong assumption was: all of space-time must curve in gravitation. I have since ‘built on’ and simultaneously dismissed his theory.. My ideas are based on his incorrect assumptions, true. But I have learned that Occam’s Razor has more usefulness than simply a ‘utility knife’. ;) If you can follow that, you understand that my ideas are not truthfully based on Einstein’s.. They are a correction of them. The ‘scary demon’ is this: time can curve; time can hold energy; and time may have impedance. Time may be the summary characteristic that unifies theoretical physics. Very scary but maybe true.. [The previous was sent as an email with subject: a new demon is born: the impedance of time to various recipients including NPA, complexQM, Astrosciences, and extropy-chat.]

The Case for Complex Time It’s not my pleasure to continually ‘stomp on’ the Standard Model .. People ask for it with arrogance, ego, and continual dismissal of my ideas.. Let’s examine the case for complex time (time based on imaginary numbers). “Imaginary time is a concept derived from quantum mechanics and is essential in connecting quantum mechanics with statistical mechanics.” from Wikipedia’s imaginary time. It continues: “Imaginary time is also used in cosmology .. The concept is useful in cosmology because it can help smooth out gravitational singularities in models of the universe..” “To make sense of this mathematically we have to use Minkowski space-time rather than Euclidean space. In Minkowski space-time, time appears as an imaginary form of space and enters the equation as ict where i equals the square root of minus one and we have to multiply temporal separations t, by c, lightspeed, the enormous ratio of space to time to put them both on the same scale. Then by a simple extension of Pythagorean geometry the separation between any two points in space-time appears as the square root of the spatial separation squared plus the square of ict. As a result, large spatial separations with small temporal separations appear as slightly reduced real spatial separations, whilst large temporal separations with small spatial separations appear as imaginary 'distances'. This seems a reasonable formulation when you consider that you cannot walk 'to' next Tuesday.” from http://specularium.org Now, the article above continues to ‘make a case’ for three time dimensions – not just one or two. This becomes a ‘little’ mind boggling and I suggest employing Occam’s Razor before ‘things get outa hand’. The whole purpose of extending time to include impedance is the fact ‘space has impedance’. Impedance is represented by a complex number and so has two coefficients (one for real and one for imaginary components). In addition, complex numbers are sometimes more conveniently represented in polar form which is: reiθ where r is magnitude and θ is the angle in the complex plane. The Euler identity shows the relationships between polar and rectangular forms. Now again, ‘the impedance of space’ is assumed to be isotropic. But when differing impedances are encountered in different media, it affects energy propagation. Of course, if there is a boundary involved, boundary effects propagate. I do not pretend to be able to explicitly describe how optics relates to impedance, but I assure you – it can be done deterministically. There is no need for virtual particles, virtual exchange, and any such nonsense. Also, non-locality is not required. This may be an ‘intrinsic feature’ of complex time. That needs to be worked out. So I am approaching complex time from ‘the other way’ (the rational reasonable engineering approach toward unification). I am not approaching it as a requirement to bridge quantum with statistical mechanics and solve problems in cosmology. I see it as a way to encode impedance in the structure of space-time. It’s a convenient and elegant unification approach. The implications still need to be ‘worked out’. As suggested above and in an article cited above, there may be convenient implications that produce observed phenomena such as:

contains QPT implies VP: quantum field theory contains quantum perturbation theory implies virtual particles. (Source: Wikipedia, Virtual particle.) So the burden becomes: provide viable alternatives to VP and NL. Quantum chemistry provides a practical alternative: density functional theory. When implemented on computers, this approach satisfies both deficits. Multi-state systems and atom-atom interaction can be simulated with arbitrarily high precision. My proposal is that density functions represent space-time-averages of electron distributions. As was the problem from QM inception, we cannot observe individual electrons because any observation disturbs them. Also, individual electrons possess unknowable characteristics that can affect behavior. I propose an alternative to the SM electron: a non-local entity capable of sensing its ‘life-path’ environment. Viable alternative: a stable mini-dynamical system with an extended component that appears to cause self-interference. Also, symmetrical decay processes appear to exhibit non-locality. This is a fully deterministic and local theory without the need for virtual particles. The Case for an Engineering Approach Toward Unification 10/FEB/2009 Engineers must be practical otherwise customers will not buy their products and services. We are trained to be practical both by universities and experience. Our equations and models might not be the most elegant, but they work. They have to work from necessity. As physics is the core science, so systems theory is our core discipline. Systems integrates concepts across disciplines from electrical to pneumatic to mechanical. Control and linear systems theory play important roles in this. But so does the principle called the systems approach. It is essentially a set of four perspectives which may have to be invoked iteratively, recursively, or both: boundary, feasibility, reliability, and maintenance. It is a holistic principle, but it is more. It recognizes that brute reduction does not always work alone. It is an attempt to discover the synthesis in systems which produces more than the sum of the parts. It is an engineering attempt to utilize our creativity, intuition, insight, and inspiration to develop robust designs. Typically, engineers and technicians work for physicists in creating machines such as the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). Incidentally, that machine may be the most expensive from human history. We appreciate the work and confidence you have in us. And in reality, we find the following essay most distasteful in practice. We regret to say that you may be ‘running a rabbit’ (chasing something that may not exist). The Higgs boson may not exist. In addition, the application of reduction so ubiquitously, such as with forces

and virtual exchange, has caused physics to become sidetracked and lost in a forest of misapplied concepts and assumptions. Specifically, the concepts of virtual exchange, virtual particles, and non-locality have dragged the physics community down a path of confusion, wastefulness, and downright delusion. We, as engineers, don’t know what a magnetic field is – but we certainly know how one behaves – and we certainly know it is not made of virtual photons. The magnetic field is real. To us, there is no such thing as virtual anything. The concept is an intellectual crutch for ignorance. To state otherwise is deception. We agree it may be a clever intellectual crutch, but a crutch is a crutch. Again, we are forced to be practical. We use the concept of impedance to denote the summary characteristic of media that determines its permeability and permittivity. It is not artificial. It is a practical concern. We cannot design RF circuits without considering impedance. Impedance is a fact of our practice and practicality. Further, we recognize a factor called the impedance of space, denoted Z0. This is a kind of base value, substrate, or baseline for all others. All permeabilities are gauged with respect to the permeability of space. All permittivities are gauged with respect to the permittivity of space. Therefore, all impedances are gauged with respect to the impedance of space. The impedance of space holds prime importance in engineering. It is a basic quality of space with the same importance as dimensionality. To insist otherwise is to deny reality. We recognize that Occam’s Razor is a fundamental principle in science. Nature does not have to obey it, but we should. It states that: all things being equal, the theory with the least number of assumptions (the simplest theory) tends to be the correct one. It is the intellectual knife of science to cut away ‘fatty theories’ (fat being the theories with excessive assumptions). We employ it in this essay. Let us restate the basic/core assumptions of convention (the Standard Model): quantum self-interference is caused by non-locality multi-state atoms/nuclei are exactly that forces are caused by virtual exchange of force carrying particles Let us state some plausible alternative assumptions more in line with engineering principles and determinism: quantum self-interference is caused by extended portions of the standing waves comprising elementary particles multi-state atoms/nuclei are actually different representations (distinct instances) of possible equivalent energy states there are two distinct forces in our universe: electromagnetic and another ‘mediated’ by temporal curvature Before we compare assumptions, allow me to discuss temporal curvature. Please allow me to copy-paste a section from a previous paper that was ‘less formal’ about the same subjects. What is my explanation of the ‘weak force’? To me, there are three things that define a

nucleus: vibration, rotation, and geometry/arrangement. What tends to rip/push apart a nucleus: electrostatic repulsion between protons. The only reason protons can ‘live’ near each other in such close proximity are because of the ‘adhesive force’ from neutrons and the three nuclear characteristics listed above. We don’t know when an unstable nucleus formed; we don’t know its geometry; we don’t know its rotation or vibration; we know nothing about internal characteristics of any particular nucleus. Therefore, it could decay at seemingly random intervals determined by: when it was formed and the three unknowable nuclear characteristics. To me, the ‘weak force’ is not a force – it is simply electrostatic repulsion combined with the four unknowable nuclear characteristics. So, in a sense, I have just unified electromagnetism (in my own way) with the ‘weak force’. Step one .. Now we will unify the ‘strong force’ with gravity. I contend the strong force is not mediated by gluons. That’s an unnecessary artifice. The strong force is what I call: ‘near field’ temporal curvature. And gravitation is ‘far field’ temporal curvature. In the process of investigating ‘my model’ of elementary particles, I have discovered that gravitation can be modeled and described by ‘distributed temporal curvature’. We don’t actually need space-curvature to explain gravity. So this is why I said GR was a step in the right direction. The bottom line here is that distributed curvature ONLY IN TIME is sufficient to FULLY DESCRIBE gravitation. Again, virtual exchange of particles is not required. It’s unnecessary. Temporal curvature is minimally sufficient to explain ‘strong force’ and gravitation. Of course, you need a function (math description) to describe the exact radial curvature with respect to a proton/electron. Many conventionalists would balk at this point: “That’s artificial! That’s more assumptions!”, but I contend – less than theirs. At this point, we have unified ‘electro-weak’ and ‘strong-gravity’. Can we go further? I contend they are fundamentally different and so – we cannot. Electro-weak is based on electromagnetism. Strong-gravity is based on temporal curvature. They are fundamentally different things. Is there some energy level where they appear the same? That’s like saying: you’re juggling apples and oranges – the faster you juggle them – the more they appear like a blur of apples and oranges. But that does not change the fact they are DISTINCT and very DIFFERENT fruit. As far as requirements to ‘stretch the imagination’, isn’t 5 better than 11 dimensions? One universe vs many? Temporal curvature and photons vs 5 virtual particles? Instances of equal-energy states vs multi-state systems? Extended waves vs non-local particles? The latter requires you to stretch and Stretch and STRETCH your imagination beyond rationality. The problem with ‘physics of today’ is not just reduction and fantasy – but ‘back patting’ and reward for promulgating the status quo. As long as you reinforce convention, your ‘research’ will be rewarded with either money, accolades, or status (or all 3). That’s why I will never be funded, praised, or recognized for proclaiming the truth – I threaten the illegitimacy of conventional physics. That ends my copy-paste from the previous paper. Of course, there are deeper assumptions hidden within both sets of three above. The paragraph just above attempts to address those. Convention knows better than I the full account of assumptions and

parameters associated with the Standard Model. The assumptions and general specifications of parameters associated with this engineering model are listed above. There is one however that is not: hyper-time. It is the quality of space-time which must exist for this model to be real. This engineering model of our universe is assumed to be sufficient to describe elementary particles and their interactions. It is based on: 3 dimensional Euclidean space, the impedance of space, temporal curvature, and hyper-time (which allows temporal curvature). If this model is correct, we live in an exceedingly simple and elegant universe where elementary particles are dual manifestations of energy residing in an extended ‘electromagnetic wave packet’ and localized temporal curvature. We, the undersigned, representing the engineering community, challenge the physics community to an ‘intellectual duel’: develop a simpler, more concise, more elegant, and more realistic model of our universe. We appreciate the business and confidence associated with projects such as the LHC, but we feel resources are better spent on projects more aligned with reality and needs of humanity. Letter to David de Hilster: Dear David, I want to support your cause, but at the moment – I have no job, no income, and no assets. :( I was about to fill out the non-disclosure agreement but .. I have no funds to allocate/promise. :( But :) I DID write a special essay that relates directly to your documentary. I will include it with this cover letter. My language gets ‘foul’ at certain points so prepare yourself. I do not mince words – I’m so TIRED of doing that.. I’m so tired of ‘tiptoeing around egos’ for what??? Do they care about my feelings??? I agree with your basic premise – to show how idiotic conventional physics has become. But, I have some important points I disagree with here (in this cover). True, Einstein is ‘the star’ / the messiah / the savior / the 2nd Newton of modern physics and so I understand why you ‘go after him’. But.. I personally think his ideas have merit (especially GR and SR – as you will see in my essay). There are reasons I support some of his ideas. They are steps toward a rational and deterministic unification in physics. I know it makes good ‘airplay’ to go after Einstein but the real culprits are: Feynman and the Standard Model (which I ‘go after’ in my essay). I understand ‘going after’ the Standard Model does not get much attention (like going after Einstein) .. It is rather boring compared to ‘bringing down the star of physics’. But it has benefits (as you will see if you read the essay). Going after the Standard Model includes going after things like the LHC which is probably the most expensive single machine humanity has ever built. But it is a FRAUD.

Long ago, I actually supported construction on the LHC. I supported it because ‘physics is physics’ and I supported any research into physics. But later – I found out the true purpose of the machine and realized – the money could be better spent elsewhere.. Hell, they could have built two or three fusion prototypes for the price-tag of the LHC. :( So where are we now? What will they DO with the LHC after they DON’T discover the Higgs??? Weapon? Try in vain to find some short-lived particles??? What a freaking waste. :( I LOVE discovery. I LOVE investment in science/future. But.. The LHC seems more like convention trying to justify idiotic theories – more than anything else. :( It breaks my heart how many lives / brilliant minds / dollar-resources were WASTED on it.. Please God – help us spend our dollars more wisely in the future. Please help us reveal Truth. Hyper-time Machine Consciousness and the Systems Approach salvatore gerard micheal Preface What do time, consciousness, and the systems approach have in common? Is this essay about some unified theory of consciousness and physics? NO. And I do not endorse such theories. This essay, as my previous publications, relies on the core (and presently neglected) concept in science called Occam’s Razor. That is basically an intellectual knife with the purpose to cut away theories with excessive assumptions. But you need more than Occam’s Razor to ‘do’ good science. It requires creativity, inspiration, and insight. Now, we may never understand these qualities, but thank God – we have them. And yes – I believe in God. I do so NOT out of insecurity or need – but because I happen to see the ‘signature of God everywhere’ I look. Am I projecting this ‘wishful thinking’ onto our universe? I don’t think so. It’s there. You just need to know where to look and HOW to look. But this essay is not about God’s signature; this essay is about using Occam’s Razor, human creativity, inspiration, insight, and the systems approach to ATTACK two problems we have faced for about 100 years. Those two fascinating problems are: machine consciousness and ‘four forces unification’ in physics. Many will proclaim me insane or fringe because I threaten their livelihood or ego or both. But I do more than that: I proclaim ‘modern physicists’ are FRAUDS. And ‘computer scientists’ are no better: EGOMANIACS. If you say “Those are fightin’ words”, you’d be absolutely correct. I challenge both physicists and computer scientists to an ‘intellectual duel’. I challenge both of them to produce a simpler, more elegant, more concise, more explanatory, more realistic, and more ‘common sensical’ theory of consciousness and force-unification. Again, my ideas are not based on fringe or insane concepts – THEY ARE BASED ON SOUND, TRIED AND TRUE, ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES. What is the systems approach? I will teach you. Open this paper. Let us begin.

My Qualifications No, I do not have a PhD in physics. No, I do not have a doctorate in computer science. But what I DO have is more valuable than both: mentors. Who were my mentors? Many: Rudy Rucker, Socrates, Da Vinci,.. Need I go on? Do I claim those people were actually my personal mentors? Obviously a gnat could comprehend this: NO. I happen to have some formal education which makes me more than qualified to comprehend the enormity of ‘my two chosen’ problems: BS in probability and statistics with dual major in psychology, approximately half an MS in systems science, and many graduate coursework in other engineering areas. I have taken and passed coursework on quantum chemistry – so I understand the principles and concepts behind modern quantum mechanics. I also understand the inadequacies and ‘concepts clash’ of various parts of the Standard Model (this is the conventional hodge-podge of theories, ‘experimental evidence’, ideas, concepts, and math that comprise the accepted paradigm in physics). A note about ‘the messenger’ (me): I’m not God, I don’t claim to have God’s vision, I’m not the reincarnation of Einstein (although he was another mentor of mine), I’m not some egomaniac touting impossible theories or ideas,.. My name is Sam Micheal. My parents are retired teachers. But that does not define them – JUST AS MY QUALIFICATIONS DO NOT DEFINE/LIMIT ME. The best of ‘me’ is not me: my son’s name is Arthur, my wife’s name is Yui,.. They are the light of my life. They give me reason to live. They are so full of life and joy. If you met them, I would have to fight you for them – for you would want them. I have never met two more enchanting people than Arthur and Yui. I wrote a poem the other day based on a scene in Babylon AD. Some of you might say “It’s not a poem.” or “He’s stupid.” Well, this is what I say to that: FUCK YOU. You want to denigrate/dismiss/demoralize me? You don’t exist. You are God’s nightmare. And when God wakes up, you will disappear like a fart in the wind. I am the tiger staring back at you from inside the cage. To you – I’m a curiosity. To me – you are food. You see me panting – my breath stinging the air. Remove these bars; we will see who is king of the jungle. Foolish child – it is you who is inside a cage. Everything you do is a cage for your mind and spirit. The cage is inverted yet you cannot see it. It is you who is inside the cage; open it; free yourself. I’m not TRYING to be profound. I’m not TRYING to be anything. I’m being very LITERAL in the ‘poem’. We live in a cage. The cage is our ASSUMPTIONS. The only way to break free – is to ATTACK OUR OWN ASSUMPTIONS. This is true for both problems. I’m sorry to have to be so ‘point blank’ but .. I have had to deal with SUCH ego and INSECURITY in my discussions with professors, educators, ‘researchers’, ‘dissidents’,

GENIUS. I CANNOT DISPUTE THAT. But.. All he really did was devise math frameworks to DEVELOP or ‘flesh out’ those three assumptions above. HE DID NOT PROVE THEM CORRECT. THIS IS CRITICAL TO UNDERSTAND. Now in this essay, I cannot prove his logic was inconsistent – or even that the assumptions above are mutually inconsistent. They are likely mutually consistent. Feynman’s logic is likely flawless .. Pondering 1 and 2 above for a moment shows me they are interdependent on the concept of non-locality. But three is somewhat independent of the others and is ‘caused’ by our rabid tenacity / ‘death grip’ on reduction. (Or, we could think of it as an indestructible ball-and-chain/yoke.) Reduction is so much a part of modern science – it permeates it and ‘infuses’ it with ‘life’ and ‘vigor’. Really it is death and stagnation. Our only salvation is the systems approach. The systems approach is more than holism. It is a combination/recursion/iteration of four perspectives: boundary, feasibility, reliability, and maintenance. I will not teach you the full-blown systems approach now. I will save that for later. What we need to investigate now are those three assumptions above. Let’s start with number 3: forces are caused by virtual exchange of force carrying particles. What does it mean? What does it imply? It means the Standard Model supposes gravity is caused by gravitons, strong force is caused by gluons, electromagnetic force is caused by photons, and weak force is .. ‘the W and Z bosons’. Fairly recently, the last two were theoretically united into ‘electro-weak’ so convention no longer has to unite four forces – now it is three. But again, this does not PROVE their assumptions are correct; all it does is theoretically unify their concepts to a degree. It should be clear that ‘my ideas’ do not propose ‘free energy’, extra energy, alternate energy, or any other form of silliness frequently advocated today. This is not a scam to get you to invest your hard earned dollars into it. This is about honesty, integrity, simplicity, and realism. Now of course, I must propose alternatives to the three assumptions above. If I don’t (if all I do is criticize), then I’m not worth the salts in my body. Let me try: 1. quantum self-interference is caused by extended portions of the standing waves comprising elementary particles 2. multi-state atoms/nuclei are actually different representations (distinct instances) of possible equivalent energy states 3. there are two distinct forces in our universe: electromagnetic and another ‘mediated’ by temporal curvature Deep within those assumptions is another: space-time ‘rests’ in another dimension which allows temporal curvature. So we have 5 dimensions in our universe. Two are unseen: time and hyper-time. Just remember, you saw it here first. ;)

Before we discuss the other assumptions of convention, let me make a few predictions based on ‘my theory’: we will never detect the Higgs because it doesn’t exist – and – we will never detect gravitons because they don’t exist. Photons are packets of electromagnetic energy. In engineering, we identify them with the TEW (transverse electromagnetic wave). They have spin, helicity, direction, and two components: electric and magnetic. They have differing speed through different media. Each media has different characteristics: permittivity and permeability. Together they form impedance. EVEN SPACE HAS IMPEDANCE. We call it Z0. THIS IS NOT ROCKET SCIENCE. IT IS PART OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING. Don’t throw up; don’t pass out; don’t stop reading. Please. Implicit in this discussion is that space has impedance. It is an inherent characteristic of space. Space is not just 3 dimensions. Now, and this is VERY important: THIS IS NOT AN ETHER THEORY. This Is Not An Ether Theory. This is not an ether theory. Many will say “Sam, it is equivalent to an ether theory – so it is!” Wrong. Just because I was trained as an engineer and borrow some concepts from engineering, does not make it an ether theory! :( This is not an ether theory! :( This is an engineering theory of matter! Does it make me arrogant to propose? After all, I’m not a PhD. I’m not even a physicist. : ( Here we return to the ego thing. Physicists cannot endure being ‘told what to think’ by anyone ‘outside’ physics. But it has been proven time and time again: progress, in the modern world, is made by synthesis or SHIFT OF PERSPECTIVE. One or both. Physics is STUCK. Everyone recognizes this: physicists, non-physicists, alternative physicists, engineers,.. Everyone. Do we stand in place ‘spinning our wheels’??? What a waste.. Let’s make some progress! :) Let’s put our assumptions aside for a ‘moment’. :) Let’s consider the implications of some viable alternative assumptions! :) My bottom line here; my final point is: resources: human and Earth. Do we REALLY want to waste resources/lives/brilliant minds on: looking for the ‘God particle’ when it does not even exist!?!? What a WASTE! :( If they don’t find the ‘God particle’, what can they use the LHC for??? A weapon? EVEN MORE WASTE! :( The LHC is a perfect example of modern physics and the folly of modern man. They most certainly won’t find the Higgs, but they will find something. Then they will say “See! We found something important!” and attempt to justify the BILLIONS spent on the machine. It’s insane! Just insane! A bunch of egomaniacs puffed up by their own illusions of their self-importance – spending BILLIONS OF DOLLARS on a thing that won’t find its intended purpose! :( It just boggles my mind – the level of idiocy and arrogance we are capable of.. :( Enough ranting and raving .. I think I have made my points. Convention has made certain clever/idiotic assumptions. The nature of assumptions is that you cannot prove/disprove them (they must be taken on faith). It’s like the existence of God: God exists or does not exist – there is no ‘in between’. You believe or you don’t believe. You can say ‘maybe’, but it is riding the fence – no progress was ever made by riding the fence. If you were wrong, you graciously admit it and move on. If you were right, you graciously admit it

My previous letter was not attacking Dr. Hawking in any way. It was not trying to accuse him of being atheist or anything silly like that. I have a couple of analogies that I'd like to express: 1. imagine you are trying to fly but cannot - you are tethered to the earth, you keep beating your wings in vain, you cannot escape the tether 2. imagine a baby desperately clinging to its mother's breast, it suckles and cannot conceive of anything else - mom is the baby's universe 3. imagine a baby inside its mom; mom is in fact the baby's universe at that time; there is no way out; there is no 'outside'; there is only warm 'inside mom'; further a cord connects baby to mom Three different analogies for the same thing: Standard Model assumptions. We cannot escape our assumptions while we think in terms of the Standard Model. Unfortunately, unification will only come from 'outside' the Standard Model (outside Standard Model assumptions). This is the only way to proceed. I just had this conversation with my 82 year old mother. Dr. Hawking could be the one who 'transforms physics' if he only opened his mind to me. If he let go the Standard Model assumptions just for 'a moment'. I will explain. My ideas are based on engineering principles. In Germany, there is a gentleman researcher Markus Lazar. He has developed the formalisms of my model. I have developed the concepts (independently of Dr. Lazar). I was lucky to find him. He has not corresponded with me at length. He has not confirmed our unknown 'collaboration'. But, both of us have some interesting points: elementary particle duality such that they are elastic deformations in space-time as well as vortices of electromagnetic energy. This is one view - the engineering view. Since then, I have worked on the space required for such a 'thing'. I have ended up with a 5D space which was the simplest form I could invent which still preserved the essence of our models. It is a 3D Euclidean space plus fully complex time (encoding local impedance) plus temporal curvature (light speed normalized): Mi = (x, y, z, Zt, C) where Z is a complex number representing impedance at point (x, y, z) and C is the temporal curvature at the same. I named it Mi = Micheal space in honor of my father, W. Jean Micheal. There is now a contested Wikipedia page: Micheal_space which is 'headed for deletion'. I'm a member of NPA (natural philosophy alliance) and I'm sure Dr. Hawking is familiar

with it. Because I don't have the skills of Dr. Hawking or Dr. Feynman, I have not been able to determine all the theoretical consequences of the model. I have proposed some simulations and experimental investigations (stated on the Wiki page). I have also not worked on the structure (as compared to Minkowski space) since that is not my area of expertise (my area is systems science and probability). Should I list out Standard Model assumptions compared to 'my' assumptions? Perhaps so.. Let us restate the basic/core assumptions of convention (the Standard Model): 1. quantum self-interference is caused by non-locality 2. multi-state atoms/nuclei are exactly that 3. forces are caused by virtual exchange of force carrying particles Let us state some plausible alternative assumptions more in line with engineering principles and determinism: 1. quantum self-interference is caused by extended portions of the standing waves comprising elementary particles 2. multi-state atoms/nuclei are actually different representations (distinct instances) of possible equivalent energy states 3. there are two distinct forces in our universe: electromagnetic and another ‘mediated’ by temporal curvature Now, .. That's enough for now.. I do not want to burden you or Dr. Hawking with 'my ideas'. I think that's about as simply as I can 'state my case'. Please consider it. Please allow Dr. Hawking to consider my ideas. Sincerely, Sam Micheal

mH = 0 qH = 0 sH = 0 vH = 0  Higgs d.n.e. (mass of Higgs = 0) (charge of Higgs = 0) (spin of Higgs = 0) (speed of Higgs = 0) (implies both ways) Higgs does not exist salvatore gerard micheal Physicists are deep and creative thinkers. They are excellent applied mathematicians. They have successfully identified sections of physics theory which correspond to structures in pure math (such as Abelian groups). But these factors do not suggest, in and of themselves, that the assumptions of the Standard Model are correct. Further, they do not give credence to implications of those assumptions. The faulty assumptions of the Standard Model create a literal house-of-cards where the slightest breeze knocks them all down. Some have compared me to a “gaseous expulsion from the lower rectum”. But I suggest those naysayers are tantamount to the same thing. I suggest they also compare to a nightmare in the mind of God. What happens when God wakes up? ;) Ridicule, ego, and flaming aside, I have been unjustly dismissed by convention for the simple fact I buck

convention. I question their allocation of funds (research projects). In particular, I question the validity of the LHC (large hadron collider). The LHC will look for ‘signatures of Higgs’ (directly and proposed decay products of Higgs). They will find something. But I assure you: it will not be Higgs. The reason is the faulty assumptions of the Standard Model. Let’s list them out: quantum self-interference is caused by non-locality multi-state atoms/nuclei are exactly that forces are caused by virtual exchange of force carrying particles In previous essays, I have discussed the meaning of them. We don’t need to rehash that here. Recently, I have developed a special space called Micheal space, in honor of my father W. Jean Micheal, which seems to incorporate critical engineering concepts for a valid alternative to Standard Model assumptions. Those are briefly discussed on the Wikipedia page Micheal_space. Now, in reality, assumptions 1 and 2 above are not unreasonable considering Micheal space. There is a deterministic view of them not unreasonable and not contradictory with observation. I don’t waste much time arguing about those two assumptions. The assumption I take issue with is number 3: that is based on over application of reduction and ‘boson theory’. It is assumption number 3 which implies Higgs. It is assumption number 3 which I categorically state is unequivocally WRONG. As developed in my previous essays and publications, gravitation can be reduced to distributed temporal curvature. Similarly, so can the so-called strong force. They are essentially one and the same. The critical engineering concept mentioned above is called impedance. But that need not be associated exclusively with space. Just as gravitation can be theoretically (and possibly more concisely and realistically) ‘assigned to time’, so can impedance. Space need not curve (or impede) to explain gravitation (or e-m propagation). It is time which may impede and curve (exclusively). This is the essence of Micheal space. Let me copy-paste a section from the Wikipedia page: while impedance has a tendency to lengthen the period between electromagnetic events, curvature has a tendency to lengthen the period between mechanical events. This is the essence of the theory. It is equivalent to Feynman’s statement about understanding nonlocality and QM. Some time ago, Feynman stated that if we could understand non-locality (for instance as exemplified by double-slit phenomena), we would understand quantum mechanics. He also stated something critical about our search for a unified theory (something like): we must look in the corners we have neglected in order to find valid cogent seminal ideas for unification. Micheal space deserves a serious look.

Time and Space [singing] "Ti-i-i-ime is on my side, yes it is!" No longer is it "space-time" anymore.. Einstein was wrong. It's more like "time and space". Space is 'merely' the domain where electromagnetic and mechanical events 'play out'. Time appears to be the central feature of our Universe. Further, there is an extra dimension called hyper-time which allows time to curve. So, time is much more complex than we previously imagined. (Pun intended.) Minkowski space asserts time has an imaginary aspect. Minkowski also asserts our Universe is Minkowski-like. But the model is incomplete. It does not include a critical feature from engineering: impedance. Now, just as curvature need not necessarily apply to space, impedance need not be associated with space either: both may be associated exclusively with time. This actually is the simpler model and if we adhere to Occam's Razor, we should choose the latter. But I refuse to 'blame' Einstein or assert his ignorance; rather, I propose he was 'on the right track'. There is mounting evidence Feynman was wrong about virtual particles, but I refuse to celebrate that fact. Feynman invented Feynman diagrams which are the modern shorthand for interactions. But there is something important here: just because they work - does not make them accurate models of reality (specifically, the concept of virtual particles). The tool works, but that does not make it an accurate depiction. Confoundingly, there is actually some evidence curvature is quantized (see N and Ω), but again, that does not imply virtual particles nor virtual exchange. Everything in my experience, intuition, gut feeling, and holistic take on the subject impels me to reject virtual particles - especially when applied to gravitation, strong force, and curvature. The function describing curvature is smooth not full of discontinuities. Similarly, I assume space (and time) is not granular but smooth. Several dissidents propose granular spacetime but I find the concept revolting. Granular space-time is just like virtual particles anathema.

Unfortunately, the model described above does not 'tie everything together'. There is no unification between curvature and impedance other than an energy equation I derived. Other parameters relate them and this by no means implies unification. Unless we could PROVE electromagnetism was a kind of curvature, we are stuck at having two distinct forces in our universe: electromagnetism (associated with time-impedance) and temporal curvature. Admittedly, the model 'unifies' them through time, but this is not the same as previous conventional attempts at 'four force unification'. So, Micheal space does well at 'setting the stage' for most (if not all) interactions. As an example, the Faraday effect requires the presence of a magnetic field. Micheal space allows it via temporal impedance. Can the same be said for Minkowski space? Minkowski appears to be dramatically deficient when considering events in space-time. So, space-time may be a misnomer just as Einstein may have been wrong (about SR and GR), but that does not mean we should celebrate it. It just means he was missing something (like Feynman and the rest). I cannot blame them for a historical revulsion of the aether and anything aether-like. I cannot blame Feynman for rationally extending reduction and virtual bosons to something so eminently practical as Feynman diagrams. The only ones I can blame are the ones who ignore this essay - those that do not take it seriously. The ones who cover their ears or eyes are the only ones we should blame from now on. We now have an accurate model of our Universe. Let's put it to work. salvatore gerard micheal, 22/FEB/2009

Dark Matter Solved It is a bit scary when you're in the shower and a 'demon' rears its 'ugly' head revealing itself. It's even scarier when you have to teach Stephen Hawking something about physics. The 'demon' I refer to is the truth about space-time. And, that I can teach Stephen something about physics has nothing to do with 'smarts' but everything to do with perspective and assumptions. As things go, I got an email yesterday about 'one of my ideas' (an experiment to verify elementary particles retain some kind of disturbance energy temporarily), but the author was writing to me about using the same setup to verify space-time has some kind of resonant structure 'built in' which should be observable. Of course, this got me thinking and I was able to calculate the mass of the neutrino in a few steps after 'I saw the light'. Before I delve into that, let me remark that I think Christian Scientists are 'right on' when they say one synonym of God is Truth. You'll see why as I develop this essay. A bit more about that. I'm not religious but I do have faith. Faith in the best of us, faith in God, faith in Love, faith in Truth,.. These words are capitalized because they are archetypes of the meme. They are the 'penultimate' of each concept. And I change the meaning of that word (which I frequently do with warning) to mean Ultimate. Since God is Infinite, we have no hope of understanding It without some kind of communion with It. Get my Drift? ;) (As you note, I make frequent use of single quote marks to adjust the meaning of a phrase or word but that's usually clear by context. The reason smarts is in quotes above is because I don't consider myself that smart - just well informed.;) Jokes and witticisms aside, I ascribe all my developments to prayer, discipline, and perspective. I confess: I do pray for insight - just as I pray people can understand these words and ideas and that the Truth spreads. There is no joke in this paragraph; it is straight from my heart.

Enuf about faith, let's deal with the discovery (which truly belongs to God - one final plug for It;). Okay, so I got this email about that experiment and I looked at my recent booklet called N and Omega (freely available on scribd.com). There's a section about temporal curvature near the end where I needed some numbers I had previously calculated curvature for proton and electron. Then, as I was bleary eyed and had woken up and could not sleep in the wee hours of the morning (after several hours of writing letters to dissident physicists), and I double checked and triple checked my calculations to make sure I was not going to announce a mistake, I arrived at precisely one sixth of one1000th of the mass of an electron. For those who are curious how I actually arrived at this number, please refer to the booklet. Suffice it to say I noticed a pattern in the numbers. Then I extrapolated down to the proposed mass of the neutrino. That's about it: perspective, prayer, and discipline. (And of course, thanks to the author of that one email: John Heath.) Now John does not endorse any of 'my ideas'; he simply finds them intriguing. This is another plug for friendly collaboration. Normally, I write "I" de-capitalized because it assumes a kind of arrogance in the structure (my father is of the same philosophy on this topic). But if i did that in this essay, it might confuse and distract you, so i avoided it. Again, i owe my perspectives to God. If you can understand and appreciate that, you Understand Humility. I sincerely Hate bringing religion into a scientific discussion but i wanted to make it clear who was the discoverer in this case. Not me: God. And there could be no clearer case of God discovering Itself. You see, when you deal with the Truth, it's difficult to separate it from God. That is the 'horrid' truth of our existence. Appreciate that gift/grace/benevolence. So you can see some of my mother coming out in my words (she's a devout Catholic). And, as the saying goes: "the sum is not merely the sum of the parts" (i'm more than a 'product' of my parents). There is some synthesis going on which i am respectful and cognizant of. I thank God for both my parents: W. Jean Micheal (who Micheal space is truly named after) and Julia F. Micheal - the heart of the family. And to prove a point (as promised to John), i will sign this essay with a different name to emphasize i don't want credit for the developments: sam iam (i DO eat green eggs and ham;) ps - next up on the agenda: (and this one in particular requires the Discipline of God) attributes of hyper-time, magnetic moments of the three elementary particles, and identifying the actual make-up of a magnetic field. please say your prayers for me; i will need them. pps - i'm not sure if dark energy is on the agenda; the need for that construct/idea is debatable

hyper-time and dark energy properties of hyper-time? at this point i can only guess.. there is the pattern of numbers (temporal curvature associated with elementary particles): 1/9*10^-27 6/9*10^-24 11/9*10^-20 and associated magnetic moments: mu-nu mu-e mu-p now remember, those magnetic moments have within them - how convention measures and calculates magnetic moment. there is something called 'the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron' (plz familiarize yourself with it before progressing). also, remember curvature number one above is calculated based on the latter two numbers (curvature number one corresponds to the mass of a neutrino). and perhaps it should be 1/9*10^-28 - you tell me. :) it all depends on if the coefficients are 'tied' to the base-10 power or not.. 'tied', then above. not 'tied', then below. again, there should be some rationale which we can explore below.. so.. what are the properties of hyper-time? we know it is at least CxR^+ but that in itself does not restrict us in any way.. (there are no 'modes' specifically implied by CxR^+ .) modes here refers to something / some property of hyper-time that produces the pattern above .. 'modes' can refer to some statistical distribution .. it can also refer to states of a dynamical system .. or perhaps settings on your home stereo.. ;)

factors of 10000 for each .. or perhaps the exponents start to increase again .. this is obviously all speculation.. pps - let's suppose for the sake of argument, the pattern is: -19/9*10^-20 -14/9*10^-24 -9/9*10^-28 -4/9*10^-32 1/9*10^-28 6/9*10^-24 11/9*10^-20 is that enuf to tip the scales for dark energy? or is it too much? if so, where does it reside in our universe??? it would seem to fit the picture that most of the 'matter' in our universe is this so-called 'dark energy' .. we would then have seven stable particles in our universe: three with negative mass comparable to neutrino, electron, and proton .. hey, let's give them names (why not? convention does it.. ;): nega-neutrino? nega-electron? negaproton? i know .. so unimaginative :( but it's better than sam, paul, and phil (the names of the three brothers in my family;) .. how about arthur instead of nega-neutrino? (after my son) .. well, let's stop with the names and get on with the physics.. ;) list of stable particles in our universe: nega-proton nega-electron nega-neutrino photon neutrino electron proton and remember the masses of the 'nega' particles are not quite exactly negative of our 'conventional' particles.. and where they reside is a HUGE question.. do they fly about at the speed of light? or faster? are they 'gravitationally bound' to the rest of the matter in our universe???

Brief History of Iam Space for NPA members sg micheal, 27/FEB/2009 previous to 94: developed a model of elementary particles comprised of one wavelength of one photon (TEW) with topology: ring - twist and fold. Incentives: can explain spin, antimatter, and handedness. Problems: cannot explain the seeming preponderance of matter, charge, why one wavelength, auto/self-confinement, specific topology, magnetic moments, and why only 3 stable e.p.s. 94: discovery of h-bar ≈ Z0e2 relation. Incentive: shows relationship between spin and charge. Problem: why approximate? Imported concept of impedance from engineering to physics (space). 04: imported concept of elasticity from engineering to physics (space). Conceptually developed the idea. 07: developed precise definition of elasticity in terms of linear strain (all taken from engineering). Applied it to space. Discovered linear uncertainty relation between energy and position. 08: discovered relationship between impedance and elasticity (as applied to space). Discovered 'core equations' relating various forms of energy in elementary particles. Attempt at explaining approximate relation above. Development of 'elastic deformations'-'flux vortex' dual model of e.p.s. Discovery of Markus Lazar, German resident who formally developed a similar model. Developed temporal curvature approach toward gravity and strong force. 09: Invented Micheal space (an extension of Minkowski space) to accommodate impedance and elasticity as qualities of time - not space (using Occam's Razor as a

guide). Made Micheal space more precise: (x, y, z, Zit, EtP/h). Calculated mass/curvature of neutrino. Discovered pattern in curvature set. Extended Micheal space to allow negative curvatures: nega-particles (negative energy comprising/explaining dark energy). Implications: dark matter (neutrinos), dark energy (largely nega-protons, negative energy particles corresponding to (but not exactly the same mass magnitude as) protons), and slightly negative energy photons. Problems: the why of 7 stable elementary particles (presumably a property of hyper-time), magnetic moments, charge, and neutrality. Renamed Micheal space Iam space.

The Origin and Ultimate Fate of our Universe sg micheal, 28/FEB/2009 The simple and accurate answer to both of those questions right now is: we don't know. For your entertainment and total confusion, look up 'dark energy' and 'dark matter' on Wikipedia. Supposedly, according to convention, our Universe is made up of 74% dark energy and 26% dark plus normal matter. What dark energy is, convention does not know. What dark matter is, convention does not know as well. There is total confusion and disagreement about the nature of both. But.. As destiny would have it, this 'little simpleton' suggests an answer to both. (I promised my mother not to keep denigrating myself but .. it's irresistible considering how I have been dismissed my whole life by convention. Incidentally, I'm a very active member of NPA, the Natural Philosophy Alliance, which is a consortium of 'dissident scientists'.) Recently, I have developed an extension of Minkowski space renamed Iam space which incorporates the engineering concepts of impedance and elasticity specifically in the time domain. As I love to say, I have used Occam's Razor as an artist's spatula rather than a utility knife. ;) So.. what is Iam space? Please consult other papers at scribd.com/sam_micheal My proposal for the origin of our Universe? I have no idea. ;) I think that's best to say.. Was it two brane-universes colliding? Was it a Big Bang? Was it the rebound from a Big Crunch? Was it always there? We simply do not know. The ultimate fate of our Universe? Now that I have an opinion on: spread out 'cold death'. What else is there? If our Universe is currently accelerating in expansion, there is no reasonable mechanism to stop it. Our Universe may be unique. It would take an edict from God to stop it. ;) That is the ONLY mechanism that could. Okay, here is my simpleton explanation of how the Universe began. According to

Stephen Hawking, infinite information density is not allowed in normal space-time. Before god became God, there must have been a creature that could become God (unless God always Was). But I believe that is silly to assume. What is more reasonable is that some creature existed that had the capability to become God. I call that creature god. Now, we all know God is Infinite. But Stephen Hawking says infinite information density is not allowed in normal space-time.. So.. when god said "I Am", he/she/it Became God and our Universe was born. ;) Very silly and simplistic, I know, but.. Can you offer a better explanation? And since infinite information density cannot exist in any specific location in our Universe, God must exist everywhere! :) God must Be ubiquitous! :) We must be inside the Mind of God; there is no other answer! :) What a trip.. ;) Okay, I stop preaching and start talking science.. There are implications of Iam space. One is that there seems to be 7 stable elementary particles: nega-proton, nega-electron, nega-neutrino, photon, neutrino, electron, and proton - all ranging from extreme negative energy to positive. This equates with temporal curvature. And the curvature coefficients are not symmetric: -19/9, -14/9, -9/9, -4/9, 1/9, 6/9, and 11/9 respectively. The magnitudes vary by factors of 10000: 10^-20, 10^-24, 10^-28, 10^-32, 10^-28, 10^-24, and 10^-20 (these are assumed to have symmetry about the photon). The coefficients were calculated from the two known values for protons and electrons. The same for the magnitudes. At first, I made a table of strictly decreasing magnitudes but this did not seem to make sense. Symmetry about the photon seems to fit reality better. Let me explain why.. When we construct the list/table of curvature values as above, we end up with some interesting consequences. Apparently, there are two ways to calculate resulting proportions of dark energy and dark matter. One is assuming equal distribution of all types of particles (equal in number). The other is what I call a 'balanced distribution' where we simply drop the magnitudes. Let me present all 3 schemes: convention, equal number, and balanced distribution. DE(%) DM+NM(%) Convention: 74 26 Equal Number: 63 37 Balanced Distribution: 72 28 Not bad for an idiotic 'raving mad' simpleton, right? ;) Now you see why I try to push NPA to make a judgment about me.. I'm either insane/delusional/totally wrong .. or .. I'm divinely inspired. ;) Which is it? Only you and future history will decide. :) In the 'equal number' scheme, nega-protons and protons dominate. You end up with 19/30 for the proportion of dark energy. In the balanced scheme, you end up with 46/64 and no particles dominate.

Of course, there is the whole beautiful question about: why 5/9? Why 10000? (for the differences between coefficients and magnitudes) Now if I could answer that, I would be one of three things: God, Satan, or dead (fully One with God). Since I cannot answer that question, it's safe to say I'm none of those things. ;) You see, even 'pseudo scientists' can have a sense of humor.. One of my points with all these essays is that we need to stop labeling ppl that. Stop denigrating dissidents and calling us "fringe" or "stupid" or "quacks".. It's not right; it's not fair. Convention has just spent 7 BILLION dollars equivalent on the LHC. Will they find Higgs? I doubt it.. Further, I estimate they will spend another 7 plus 5 on maintenance and operation. That totals about 20 BILLION dollars invested in non-existent particles. :( That's not including all the lives and students' time wasted on wrong concepts.. Who is insane? Convention or me? Only you and time will decide..

About Time (some letters to NPA about time) sg micheal, 03/MAR/2009 Subject: [NPA_Dissidents] a first step in theory of time Hello Roger, I thought that time was a straightforward concept with which we have no problem. Now I am not sure at all. 1. Newton assumed a natural flow of time forward and never thought about it seriously. Under assumption he defined traveling in space as a continuous function from time to space. 2. If we assume space time symmetry, then it must be possible to consider traveling through time. Then Newton's basic assumption of the natural flow of time must be definable as traveling through time. But how can we do that? I do not know how to define natural evolution of time as a mathematical function from time to time. The problem is that time is continum and so there is no such thing as next time. dear dr. kanda, employing Occam's Razor, this f(t) you speak of can be constructed thusly: (t, f(t)) as a traditional ordered pair. i rename f(t)=C=EtP/h where C=temporal-curvature, E=energy-at(x,y,z), tP=Planck's (time) constant, h=Planck's constant notice that f(t) does not actually contain t :) which is good (thank God) .. it's a measure of energy density at (x,y,z) now E is obviously the 'stickler' meaning it is critical to determining f(t)=C if there is 'normal matter' there, we simply take the energy equivalent of the particle there..

if something else is there (such as the interior of a neutron star), we have difficulty.. but i believe that is not insurmountable you may point out "sam, time is in there via Planck's time constant", but.. i contend that constant is actually a constant and not variable.. of course, we must rigorously define 'these accepted facts' (of Planck's constants) quite apart from the theory .. i have tentatively accepted conventional definitions for right now (until i come up with something better) .. so for now, i see f(t)=g(E) so.. (t, g(E)) becomes the ordered pair (of course, the energy, E, at (x,y,z) is normally a function of time (what particle is where at any given time), but.. i believe this does not cause a tautology or recursive problem .. this is my faith in the method - of course - based on faith - there is always an element of faith in science) (perhaps this is where Feynman's self-interaction comes in? C is not that great for normal matter (calculate it) so it is not a huge leap of faith to assume matter is not self-affected greatly by time displacements .. of course it is .. but only minutely .. perhaps this will be the basis for a 'new quantum mechanics' based on temporal curvature .. who knows..) about my statement above regarding faith - we employ it every day: Godel's theorem - we assume logic is consistent and incomplete - not the other way around so my assumption about temporal curvature being the basis for a new QM is this: temporal curvature is a self-interacting phenomenon just like Feynman's virtual particles, but.. just like virtual particles, the self-interacting phenomenon is recursively orders of magnitude diminishing.. the reason Feynman's scenario works is because it is a particulate version of temporal curvature (for anybody interested in Feynman's ideas, plz read QED, available in any bookstore) 3. As we have no idea how to define traveling forward in time naturally, how in the world can we consider traveling backward in time. Best regards, Dr. Kanda Subject: time reversal reverse time sounds like a reversed light sphere it sounds plausible to me phil -----------------------------------------------

time reversal is only possible/plausible with negative temporal curvature at first, i dismissed this as pure fantasy but.. IF we accept the need for dark energy, then it MAY exist but ONLY because of dark energy (which i question question question) i recently proposed an explanation of dark energy (based on negative temporal curvature: nega-particles) but this may be my mistake of allowing convention to brainwash me into accepting their fantasy about our Universe :( at this moment, i cannot know.. all i know is many things convention says about our Universe is WRONG (that is obvious from recent posts) so, chances are - they're also wrong about dark energy.. so.. my proposal may just be a good idea twisted/contorted into something ugly (based on conventional pressures) i truly believe i have been 'lucky' (i would say divinely inspired) to find this concept of temporal curvature it will replace Feynman's ideas in QM but don't give me credit.. anyways .. i'm still trying to understand if my tentative concept of photons having very slight negative curvature 'makes any sense in the big picture'.. (if this picture of photons 'proves to make sense', then there may be indeed nega-particles and dark energy..) sam Subject: Feynman vs Sam 1st let me say Feynman was a Brilliant man sam is just so so ;) my wife knows nothing about physics and i was trying to explain some things to her (about how i 'waste' my time here) i compared an elephant with physics we can look at the elephant many ways if we're a vet, we can even look inside it but.. what i was trying to say is this: looking at the elephant in many different ways only gives us different perspectives of the same thing now let's compare Feynman and me of course, my son Arthur has much energy we can compare Arthur to a proton Feynman would say Arthur gives me \$ and i give him \$ (virtual exchange)

but.. i contend there is no \$ (and indeed \$ is purely fictitious in our world) the reason there is attraction to Arthur is simply because he has so much energy his energy affects his 'flow of time' (as proposed in a previous letter) and of course, this 'flow of time' affects time (but only minuscule) and recursion is limited another way to say is temporal curvature affects time but only in a limiting sense so they are mathematically equivalent but conceptually completely different indeed, there is no such thing as money (it is a virtual concept in our minds) we waste too much time pursuing it just as we waste too much time pursuing virtual particles in the lab let's pursue things of value let's pursue things that are real let's pursue temporal curvature ;) sam the deep and 'scary' insight is that energy is temporal curvature if accepted and confirmed, this will be the next QM and perhaps TOE

Two Ignored Letters to NPA sg micheal, 15/MAR/2009 Subject: nature of photon if we borrow the TEW (transverse electromagnetic wave) from engineering and call that a photon, something is lacking (two things) that it responds to gravity is lacking its particulate nature (in some circumstances) is lacking so if we start with TEW (as many don't like), we must modify the picture to accommodate above just because many don't like starting with TEW doesn't make it wrong .. it's a practical/engineering approach engineers are oblivious to the question: what happens to the energy when both components are gone??? they don't care.. by all accounts, the energy is gone, the photon should disappear.. ahah! wrong! :) there is momentum which keeps it going! :) just because the photon is massless, does not imply it lacks momentum. we can calculate a photon's momentum, based on frequency.

now this is what makes a radiometer turn! :) (i wish convention would just 'get over' that) (is it so inconceivable a radiometer turns from photon impact/absorption???) this still does not explain 'where the energy goes' when both vectors are zero. gee, i wonder what we can do .. ;) (this is a bit sarcastic - obviously) let's take another thing from engineering called the Poynting vector which indicates power flow! :) now, if we consider the Poynting vector, we must assume (we are forced) the power flow must go somewhere! :) this is wonderful! :) nature itself has given us a hint about the nature of photons! :) where does the energy go.. where does it go! ;) let's see .. hm .. photons interact with gravity .. and .. things cannot interact without 'common ground' .. hm .. i wonder .. ;) gee, photons must interact with gravity because they produce weak gravitational fields out-of-phase with their e-m fields! :) gee - i'm a 'genius'! ;) hehe.. no, i just borrowed two concepts from engineering: TEW and Poynting the rest just 'flowed' ;) okay .. so .. now if we can accept TEWs are photons and Poynting indicates weak gravitational fields .. then .. where does this particulate nature come from??? good question.. let me think about it.. ;) well, when a photon is absorbed, we cannot know the phase of its existence (how much energy is in weak gravitational field and how much in e-m vectors). that is an unfortunate fact of life.

but - total energy never changes! :) that is the beauty of the model above! :) it simply changes form continuously! :) so, when a photon is absorbed (its 'particulate nature'), the energy translated is always the same - regardless of phase at time of absorption! :) wow! we just 'solved the nature of the photon' in just a few lines of logic! :) Dr. Kanda, plz plz plz don't automatically dismiss every dissident about our 'theories of photons' plz. it should be clear above is well thought out and based on sound and practical engineering principles. this is not 'mere speculation' as many would like you to believe (from conventional physics and engineering). and here is the beauty of above.. it relies on impedance! 8) wow! 8) impedance, the quality of space/time which determines the period between electromagnetic events! 8) if that is not a holistic theory of e-m/photons, what is??? is there something wrong with my brain or .. perhaps something wrong with others' brains??? 8} sam --------------------------------------------------------Subject: nature of proton and electron if we can accept that model of photons, we can actually move forward with protons and electrons too! :) qualities of electrons/protons: 1. mass 2. charge 3. spin 4. magnetic moment 5. chirality 6. maximum speed based on impedance of media qualities of photons: 1. speed based on impedance of media 2. momentum 3. spin

4. helicity my original picture of protons/electrons was one twist-and-fold of one wavelength of TEW: spin of protons/electrons = spin-of-photons/2 but.. convention totally ignored me because of all the unknowns associated :( (these are listed in a previous post) and because i'm nobody :( ... i admit - it is difficult to tie all those properties listed above together .. to somehow make sense of all those properties.. especially charge - charge is what is called a speed/energy-invariant property. no matter what the speed of an electron is, its charge remains the same. this is called charge invariance and was one of my first posts (article entries) on Wikipedia (look it up). i wrote that article ;) so.. i know something about it.. (or rather - i know what we don't know about charge invariance) 8| how can we tie all those properties together .. hm (no sarcasm here) .. what is the common ground between the two categories? look above.. impedance. impedance is the common ground between them and that is where i started! 8) (how many years ago..) ... after many years of contemplation and mistakes :) (be Proud of your mistakes!:) i arrive at Iam space Iam space is named after 'the creator' (my idea of the creator) .. you don't have to

believe in god to accept Iam space.. that is very important. it is simply a name .. it's better than Micheal space for sure! 8) Iam space is: (x,y,z,Zit,C) which is Euclid + Time, here Time is a complex vector: where Z is the impedance of media at (x,y,z) and C takes on one of seven values: -19/9*10^-20 -14/9*10^-24 -9/9*10^-28 -4/9*10^-32 1/9*10^-28 6/9*10^-24 11/9*10^-20 why seven values? why the pattern? ask the next generation of geniuses. the 'bizarre' fact is the set of last two values: for electron and proton. that is what led me to propose the rest.. so.. is it any wonder i propose we take the following as tentative TOE? Joe + Ingvar - f(nu)>>c + Iam space = TOE? is there something wrong with this proposal? can we try it? sam i-like-green-eggs-and-ham

A Semi-Classical View of an Electron in Hydrogen Orbit Salvatore Gerard Micheal, Natural Philosophy Alliance, 21/MAR/2009 Many within NPA won’t understand or appreciate this model because of a lack of interest or appreciation of engineering perspectives. Most conventional physicists will dismiss it for standard reasons which don’t need to be rehashed here. This general neglect is unfortunate because here we have an idea that has been ‘lurking in the wings’ for many years but dismissed for various reasons by various groups and individuals because of their own delusional rationalizations. This idea has the potential to resolve, once and for all, the electron orbital question and more. Not only is this a model of hydrogen but implicit is a model of all atoms and molecules. In addition, implicit in the model is a nuclear model and model of improperly named space-time (better called Time and space). A wonderfully intelligent computer scientist turned her attention toward physics in the last years of her life; her name was Caroline H. Thompson. Her work in physics culminated with the result that, in layman’s terms, locality is not dead. Her work basically indicated that non-locality is not the exclusive and ultimate truth of our existence. Please study her research if you doubt my words. Over the years, I have developed my own view of time and space culminating in a construct I refer to as Iam space (with obvious spiritual connotations). Essentially, I have borrowed concepts from engineering, importing them into my study of physics, and adapting them to the study of elementary particles. When I say elementary particles, I’m very restrictive in my phrasing: I mean only proton, electron, neutrino, and photon. These are the only truly stable particles and no direct evidence indicates otherwise. When we smash beams of particles together in the ‘heart’ of a synchrotron, such as the LHC or Tevatron, what are we doing? We are creating short-lived particles and trying to understand speculated constituents. Quark theory and QED (quantum electrodynamics) are amazingly successful at predicting the outcome of these experiments. But that in itself does not make the Standard Model correct or even desirable. Many conventional

physicists have expressed their displeasure with the Standard Model calling it ugly or other appropriate colorful adjective. Unfortunately, machines such as the LHC are very expensive toys for the elites of convention to play with. Unfortunately, the public ‘paying the bill’ has been led astray by jargon and fancy theories which appear comprehensive and rational but are actually delusional and ego-reinforcing for the aforementioned elites. This essay is not about the history of how we have been led astray. It is about this model that has been around for many years disregarded and dismissed by convention and more recently – even so-called dissident groups such as NPA. The model occurred to me after studying models of orbital electrons created by: Bruce Harvey, David Bergman, and Markus Lazar. Whatever their affiliations or religious beliefs, these are practical men. They essentially employ engineering perspectives in their approach toward the atom. They inspired me. So if any accolades are forthcoming, it is they who should receive. (It should be noted that David Bergman is not the originator of his ring model of atomic structure just as John Koza is not the originator of genetic programming. However, they are both good examples of academics popularizing neglected useful concepts. In this respect, they both deserve mention.) One more final remark and I will dive into the model with you. Richard Feynman was perhaps the greatest physicist of all time. He did more for quantum mechanics, the Standard Model, and physics in general than any other human in history. I am like a flickering candle next to his enduring beacon. I’m very serious here. This man deserves our ultimate praise and respect. However (and I’m sure you anticipated this), he was restricted by conventional motif. He simply could not think outside the box; his brilliance was confined. His particulate theory was so successful because it is a self-interacting theory mirroring a more accurate picture of reality: Time and space. This is the core of the model and deserves some explanation. In this view, space is somewhat secondary and is simply a ‘playground’ for electromagnetic/mechanical events. Space is strictly Euclidean and has no properties other than dimensionality. Space is flat and no speculation is offered regarding any proposed ‘containing space’ such as a hyper-Mobius loop or hyper-sphere. Time, on the other hand, is perhaps the most important quality of our Universe. Time may be complex (in the sense of Minkowski). But it may have more features than convention supposes. It may contain the quality typically called ‘impedance of space’ (or simply impedance). It may also possess elasticity. Combining these two qualities mathematically is somewhat straightforward if we adopt engineering approaches. The simplest construct embodying both qualities is Iam space: (x,y,z,Zit,C) where (x,y,z) is a point in Euclidean space, Zit is the factor encoding the impedance of media at (x,y,z), and C represents temporal curvature at (x,y,z). These are developed and explained in other papers and booklets available at scribd.com/sam_micheal For simplicity, let c=1. This is fairly standard in the study of elementary particles. I won’t go further in simplification because I need to show how the fundamental constants

display themselves within the atom. Bohr was right about the size of hydrogen. And this essay is not about why. Simply, I’m not God; I didn’t design the Universe; I don’t know why the ‘fundamental constants’ are exactly the values they are. But I can tell you how the constants fit together ‘in the big picture’ such as the relationship between elasticity and impedance (the ‘core equation’ in N and Omega). In hydrogen, the electron is spinning at speed 1. It has angular momentum h-bar/2. Think of it as a donut or torus. The Compton diameter comes into play and directly relates hbar/2 and mass (which is actually temporal curvature). As Lazar has pointed out, there is a one-to-one correspondence between regularized vortex and screw dislocation (toroidal surface charge = temporal elastic deformation (different manifestations of the same energy)). There is an insidious spin-factor which relates the two. This model is complex and presumed dynamic but preferable to the hideous Standard Model. So the electron-donut is an example of the only perfect ‘perpetual motion machine’ in the Universe. As it moves, it ‘reinvents’ itself. It’s like a smoke ring you can blow (if you’re a smoker). Or a bubble-ring you can blow (if you’re a diver). Except for the fact the ring never changes size nor dissipates. I propose the speed of ‘donut turning’ (point on inner torus surface moves to point on outer torus surface) is alpha, the fine structure constant. This is also the orbital speed. This has no relationship to spin whatsoever and is arbitrary. (And so a beam of electrons can have any speed desired less than 1.) The so-called ‘speed of light’ is dependent on media impedance = permeability = 1/permittivity. Here, mass = energy and curvature wrt Planck-time = energy wrt Planck’s constant. So Planck is fundamental. The donut orbiting a proton may have a slightly distorted shape and be larger on the outside than on the inside (however, a beam of electrons should be symmetrical). This may be a way of testing the theory wrt donut shape. Of course, there is interaction between magnetic moments. Of course, there is spin-orbit ‘interaction’ (hyperfine splitting). But this paper is not about those concerns. This essay is about a deterministic and fully local view of an electron in hydrogen orbit. It is proposed an electron exists in definite position, shape, and geometry wrt to central proton. That much heavier (greater temporal distortion) particle has the same basic shape as an electron but different geometry (size) or perhaps similar size with different wave number inside a Planck-sphere – these are issues that need resolving. So the theory needs resolution – not fleshing out. These issues are presented more fully in N and Omega. They say electrons behave as point-masses but protons do not. This says nothing about the charge distribution of each. Bergman proposes some interesting models of atomic structures but .. I hesitate to adopt his view for several reasons: he has no desire to integrate theories with me, he’s a creationist and bound by those values, and I cannot commit to a theory which may contradict mine on certain levels. There is also the issue of: if proton and electron have same (but opposite) charge (and by all accounts, we

presume they do), then why do they have differing mass? If I state above that energy in surface charge = energy in temporal distortion, why is it different for electrons and protons? This is something that I attempt to address in N and Omega, but without satisfactory resolution. This does not mean the basis for the theory is wrong. It simply means I have missed something critical in my analysis of the situation. That is another ‘beautiful’ aspect of the theory: a brilliant theorist with clever insights may complete this theory ‘in one whack’. I present it to the public not only asking for consideration but also assistance. My ‘flickering candle’ may be getting brighter (with your help).