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Stephanie Goldsberry
Mr. White
English 12 AP
31 October 2016
Annotated Bibliography
Source #1:
1. Alland, George. "Algebra Teaching Tips." Education World, 2011.
Web. 30 Sept. 2016. <>.
2. The purpose of the article is to provide educators with tips on teaching algebra to a
general audience.
3. The author uses his experience in teaching introductory algebra to college students to
detail simple tricks in teaching the basic concepts of solving equations, combining like
terms, factoring polynomials, systems of equations, and finding the Least Common
Multiple of rational expressions.
4. The article is intended for teachers, professors, and other educators.
5. Though I may not be teaching each of the concepts explored in the article, I will certainly
be incorporating at least one or two into my lessons, and the authors tips will be useful.
6. No special features are apparent.
7. A defect lies in the articles lack of sophistication in diction and sentence structure. Also,
the author is biased toward his personal algebra instruction methods and only notes his
experience, not research, to prove their success.

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Source #2:
1. The Education Alliance. Closing the Achievement Gap: Best Practices in Teaching
Mathematics. Publication. Charleston, WV: Education Alliance, 2006. Grambling State
University. Web. 30 Sept. 2016. <
2. The publication is aimed at recommending effective practices in teaching mathematics to
educators and administrators.
3. The article is an overview of recent literature in mathematics instruction from national
education organizations and education trade journals. The findings in publications from
organizations such as the U.S. Department of Education, the American Mathematical
Society, Education Week, and Sylvan Learning, Inc. are reported, followed by a list of
recommended practices compiled from the publications.
4. The publication is intended for teachers, professors, and other educators.
5. The article directly answers my research guiding question by providing an ample supply
of tools and techniques, with research to prove their success, that I could use in
effectively teaching three algebra lessons.
6. A complete list of references to the credible sources cited is given.
7. Possible defects are no specific author listed and several mistyped words.
Source #3:
1. Posamentier, Alfred. "9 Strategies for Motivating Students in
Mathematics." Edutopia, 01 Nov. 2013. Web. 30 Sept. 2016.

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2. The purpose of the article is to provide techniques for teachers to motivate high school
students in mathematics classes.
3. The author presents nine techniques, based on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, for
motivating high school students in mathematics. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are
defined and the nine techniques are listed, followed by explanations and examples of how
to use the techniques.
4. The article is intended for teachers of high school mathematics courses.
5. I can implement some of the techniques in my algebra lessons to keep the class interested
and awake, so that they will better be able to absorb the concepts I teach.
6. No special features are apparent.
7. The author does not present any evidence to show the effectiveness of the techniques he
Source #4:
1. Slavin, Robert E., Cynthia Lake, and Cynthia Groff. "Educator's Guide: What Works in
Teaching Math?" The Best Evidence Encyclopedia (2010): 1-20. Jan. 2010. Web. 30 Sept.
2. The purpose of the guide is to provide alternative methods of mathematics instruction
proven to be effective to assist educators in making informed decisions.
3. Evidence of the effectiveness of alternative methods of mathematics instruction is
collected from Effective Programs in Elementary Mathematics: A Best-Evidence
Synthesis and Effective Programs in Middle and High School Mathematics: A Best-

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Evidence Synthesis, two research reviews conducted by Johns Hopkins Universitys
Center for Research and Reform in Education. From 189 studies, key findings are
reported in three categories, mathematics curricula, computer-assisted instruction, and
instructional process programs. Conclusions regarding what programs are effective are
drawn from the findings.
4. The guide is intended for teachers, professors, and other educators.
5. Though the guide centers on specific programs that I may not have access to when I teach
my algebra lessons, I can implement the reasoning behind successful programs in more
basic methods of instruction.
6. One special feature is the tables that detail each program studied with the name, the type,
the reasoning behind it, and its effectiveness.
7. Potential bias lies in the opinions expressed in the guide, since they are those of the
authors, who are independent of the Institute of Education Services.
Source #5:
1. Star, Jon R., Pia Caronongan, Anne M. Foegen, Joshua Furgeson, Betsy Keating,
Matthew R. Larson, Julia Lyskawa, William G. McCallum, Jane Porath, and Rose Mary
Zbiek. Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle and High School
Students. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional
Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, 2015. Iowa
State University Digital Repository. Web. 29 Sept. 2016.

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2. The purpose of the practice guide is to provides educators with precise, research-based
recommendations that confront the challenges of teaching algebra to students in the sixth
through the twelfth grades.
3. Three instructional recommendations, which are to teach solved problems, algebraic
structure, and multiple solution strategies, are given that can be combined with existing
standards, each recommendation accompanied by evidence of success with following it
and examples to demonstrate the concepts. Within each recommendation are step-by-step
plans on how to carry it out and sample discussion questions and problems, all organized
in tables.
4. The practice guide is intended for teachers, professors, and other educators.
5. I can easily implement the recommendations, step-by-step plans, and examples into the
three lessons I will teach. The supporting research is the best available on the most
effective strategies of teaching algebra, which directly answers my research guiding
6. One special feature is the research used to support the recommendations, which was
synthesized from a search of literature related to algebra instruction published from 1993
to 2013 that yielded 2,800 citations. Also, the research is illustrated with graphics, and the
step-by-step plans and sample discussion questions and problems are organized into
7. There does not appear to be any defect, weakness, or bias, given that the guide was
published by the Institute of Education Services, the non-partisan statistics, research, and
evaluation division of the U.S. Department of Education.