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BEAMS:A beam is horizontal structural member which is subjected to vertical force
acting at right angles to its longitudinal axis, or it may be defined as a horizontal
structural member subjected to transverse loading.
REACTION:A body tends to deform when being stressed by external forces. During this
process, the body automatically offers a resistance to the applied force and
keeps itself in the state of rest. The resistance offered by the body against the
applied action is called the reaction.
Depending on their functions, the supports of beams are classified as :

Simple support,
Roller support,
Hinged support and
Fixed support.
Simple support:-

A simple support offers only a vertical reaction. Horizontal movement or

rotation of the member is not prevented at this support (Ex: Masonry walls)
2 Roller support:This is similar to simple support. It offers only a vertical reaction. Rollers
are provided in between the member and the support to facilitate free
horizontal movement of the member at the support. (Ex: Roller Bearings of
the support)
3 Hinged support:A hinged support will offer a vertical reaction and horizontal reation.Both
vertical and horizontal movements of the members are prevented at this
support. (Ex: Door shutter)
4 Fixed support:A fixed support offers a vertical reaction, horizontal reaction and a moment
reaction; called fixed end moment. The member is restrained against any
movement and rotation at this support.
(Ex: Built in end of beam)

TYPES OF BEAM:Beams are classified according to their support conditions and not on any
other parameter. There are six different methods of supporting a beam.
1. SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM:Simply supported beam is supported at the two ends which is the most
common type. Both ends can be simply supported or one end simply supported
and the other end be a hinged support, or on a roller support. Both supports can
be unstable. Similarly both ends cannot be on hinged support since the material
or beam will produce change in length which cannot be permitted. When the
beam is horizontal, the reaction at the support is vertical. Depending upon the
type of loading the reaction can be upward or downward (Ex: Park Benches).
2. CANTILEVER BEAM:Cantilever beam is fixed or build in one end, (it can be with the right end or
the left end) and the other end free. It can withstand both forces and moments
(Ex: Portico Beam)
3. OVER HANGING BEAM:When the beam extends beyond the support then it is known as an
overhanging beam. This type of overhang can be in one end or on both ends.
The above three types of beams are known as statically determinate
beams. The unknowns can be found out using the three equilibrium conditions.
V = 0, H = 0, and M = 0.
4. PROPPED CANTILEVER BEAM:When the cantilever beam is supported at its free end then it is called
propped cantilever beam. The introduction of an additional support at free end
induces one more reaction component. The fixed end will have three unknowns
(VA, HA and MA) which can solved by equilibrium equation (V = 0, H = 0, and
M = 0),due to the unsolved unknowns the beam becomes statically
5. CONTINUOUS BEAM:When a beam is supported by more than two supports then it is known as a
continuous beam. Due to additional support reactions, the continuous beams
are also statically indeterminate beams.

6. FIXED BEAM OR RESTRAINED BEAM:When both the ends of a beam is fixed or built - in then it is known as fixed
beam or restrained beam. For a single fixed end there are two reactions and one
moment (VA , HA and MA) for two fixed ends there are four reactions and two
moments (VA , VB ,HA, HB, MA and MB). Normally the beams are horizontal in
nature and three will not be any horizontal forces. In that vase H A = HB=0. Now
we have four unknown forces and only two equilibrium equations (V = 0, M =
0). The beam is statically indeterminate.
Since the above three type are statically indeterminate they cannot be solved
by using equilibrium equation. We have to use the physical properties namely
modulus of elasticity E and the second moment of area, l.
TYPES OF LOADING:The beam has to be subjected to a loading. There are four types of loads.
1. CONCENTRATED LOAD OR POINT LOAD:Concentrated or point load is a load acting on a small elemental area.
In practice a load cannot be assumed to act on a single point such as a
contact made by a sharp edge of the servicing needle. But when a load is
transferred through a roller or a sphere on to the beam the contact will be
through a point.
In all other cases the load is acting on a small restricted area of the beam.
The point load is generally vertical and acts over the beam. In special cases it
can be inclined horizontal and sometimes from below the beam.
2. UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD (UDL):If some magnitude of the load is distributed or spread over the length of the
beam then it is known as uniformly distributed load (UDL). It is the unit load per
meter run.
For the purpose of calculating moment an UDL can be considered as series
of continuous point load so closely placed such that their action cannot be
separated from each other and assumed to act at the middle point of the spread
3. NON-UNIFORM LOAD:Non-uniform load is one in which the magnitude varies along the length of
the beam. Variations can of different types like triangle variation, trapezoidal
variation, parabolic variation, etc. variation can also be in the form of a curve or
a graph.

The triangular load can be assumed to act through the centroid of the
triangle, the trapezoidal load can be considered as two loads rectangular and
triangular and the parabolic load can be assumed to act through the centroid of
the parabola. Any other varying load condition can be treated by integration.

4. COUPLE OR MOMENT:A couple is defined as the action of two parallel, equal opposite forces. The
magnitude of the couple is given as the product of the force and the
perpendicular distance between the two parallel forces. The units of the couple
will be in Nm (force x distance).
The point of application of the couple is important.
Moments may be clockwise or anti-clockwise.