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Workshop

Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis in SAP2000


Manish Kumar
Post-doctoral Associate
Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering
University at Buffalo, State University of New York (SUNY)
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Outline

Nonlinearity
Modal analysis
Pushover analysis
Response spectrum analysis
Response history analysis

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Geometric nonlinearity

Source: wiki.csiamerica.com

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Geometric nonlinearity
P-Delta
Geometric stiffness
matrix formulated at
beginning
Computational efficient
Appropriate when
vertical loads do not vary
substantially during
analysis

P-Delta + large
deformations
Stiffness matrix updated
at each step
Computationally
expensive
Appropriate when
vertical loads vary
substantially during
analysis

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Geometric nonlinearity
Two ways to include P-Delta effects
Create static nonlinear case for each load
combination
Only for static analysis

Create initial P-Delta for anticipated gravity loads


Use modified stiffness from this for all analysis
Can be used for modal, static, and dynamic analysis

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Material nonlinearity
Concentrated yield
Appropriate for frame members
Assign at the member ends
Discretize members using hinge
overwrites to get better
convergence

Distributed plasticity
Computationally expensive
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Modal analysis
Eigen vectors
Ritz vectors
For dynamic analysis
More accurate

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Pushover analysis
Create the computational model

Define a nonlinear static load case

Run the analysis

Review results

Create SAP2000 model


Define hinge properties and assign it to frame elements
Define load pattern applied during pushover analysis

Define nonlinear static load case in the desired direction


Define nonlinear analysis option through "other parameters"

Run the analysis for modal, DL, LL, and pushover case

Review pushover curve


Review individual hinge results
Review sequence of hinge formation in the structure
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Time-history analysis
Modal

Direct integration

Linear & nonlinear

Modal nonlinear
analysis

Also called fast nonlinear


analysis (FNA)
Appropriate for limited
nonlinear in members at
concentrated locations
(e.g, structures with
dampers and baseisolators)

Linear & nonlinear


Appropriate to capture
large nonlinear response
of structures (e.g,
collapse simulation)

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9/12

Time-history analysis
Modal

Direct integration

Linear & nonlinear

Modal nonlinear
analysis

Also called fast nonlinear


analysis (FNA)
Appropriate for limited
nonlinear in members at
concentrated locations
(e.g, structures with
dampers and baseisolators)

Linear & nonlinear


Appropriate to capture
large nonlinear response
of structures (e.g,
collapse simulation)

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10/12

Local axis
Local axis 1 is always the longitudinal axis
The default orientation of the local 2 and
3 axes is determined by the relationship
between the local 1 axis and the global Z
axis:

The local 1-2 plane is taken to be vertical,


i.e., parallel to the Z axis
The local 2 axis is taken to have an
upward (+Z) sense unless the element is
vertical, in which case the local 2 axis is
taken to be horizontal along the global +X
direction
The local 3 axis is always horizontal, i.e.,
it lies in the X-Y plane
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Thank You!
Questions?
mkumar2@buffalo.edu
www.manishkumar.org

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