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Houcine MILOUDI, Abdelber BENDAOUD, Mohamed MILOUDI, Abdelkader GOURBI, Helima SLIMANI

IRECOM Laboratory, University Djillali Liabes, Sidi-Bel-Abbes, Algeria

Common mode conducted electromagnetic interference


in inverter fed-AC Motor
Abstract. The increase of switching speed and frequency in power electronics converters has greatly improved their performances and
characteristics. These advantages are accompanied with the increased level of interference, so that EMI consideration is a major task for circuit
designers nowadays. In Adjustable Speed Drives (ASD), the (dv/dt) leading to conducted emissions at high frequencies which are propagated both
through Common Mode (CM) and Differential Mode (DM) in the system. The circulation of high frequency parasitic currents causes several
unexpected problems, such as premature deterioration of motor winding insulation and ball bearings. In this paper an inverter-fed AC motor drive is
analyzed in order to predict the path of conducted emissions into Common Mode (CM) configuration, showing that both propagation modes may
interfere. The equivalent circuit allows frequency-domain analysis to be performed with standard circuit simulators. The proposed circuit model
allows the prediction of the main common-mode HF current components.
Abstract. The increase of switching speed and frequency in power electronics converters has greatly improved their performances and
characteristics. These advantages are accompanied with the increased level of interference, so that EMI consideration is a major task for circuit
designers nowadays. In Adjustable Speed Drives (ASD), the (dv/dt) leading to conducted emissions at high frequencies which are propagated both
through Common Mode (CM) and Differential Mode (DM) in the system. The circulation of high frequency parasitic currents causes several
unexpected problems, such as premature deterioration of motor winding insulation and ball bearings. In this paper an inverter-fed AC motor drive is
analyzed in order to predict the path of conducted emissions into Common Mode (CM) configuration, showing that both propagation modes may
interfere. The equivalent circuit allows frequency-domain analysis to be performed with standard circuit simulators. The proposed circuit model
allows the prediction of the main common-mode HF current components.

Keywords: EMI, EMC, Common Mode, high frequency, induction motor, cable
Sowa kluczowe: in this line the Editor inserts Polish translation of keywords.

Introduction
Environmental electromagnetic pollution has been a
serious problem for electronic and electrical equipment for
years. Any electrical or electronic device is a potential noise
source to its environment. High-level electromagnetic
disturbances may cause electrical and electronic devices
and systems to malfunction in a common electromagnetic
environment [1, 11]. A piece of equipment is considered
electromagnetically compatible only if its effects are
tolerable to all other equipment operating in its environment.
To ensure this compatibility, electromagnetic compatibility
(EMC) becomes an important engineering discipline. In
order to achieve EMC, disturbances should be considered
from two distinct points of view: electromagnetic emission
(EME) and electromagnetic susceptibility (EMS) [1, 4].
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is a major concern in
inverter motor drive systems. The sources of EMI have
been commonly identified as high switching dv/dt and di/dt
rates interacting with inverter parasitic components [5]. The
conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) is classified
into two types of differential-mode (DM) and common-mode
(CM). Differential mode propagation takes place between
two conductors and common-mode propagation takes place
between a group of conductors and ground [1, 6].
The usual configuration of an inverter-fed motor drive is
shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Common-mode and differential-mode current paths in a


typical PWM drive

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In this paper, the EMI in inverter fed-AC motor


generation are discussed. The EMI sources of a hardswitching single-phase PWM inverter are identified with
separation of common-mode and differential-mode noises.
The modelling of the cables connecting an electronic power
converter to an ac-motor is necessary to calculate the
amplitude of the disturbances induced by the transistor
switchings,
Fundamentals of E.M.I
EMI, or electromagnetic interference, is undesirable
electromagnetic noise from a device or system that
interferes with the normal operation of the other devices or
systems. The motivation of studying EMI is to achieve
electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) for a certain device or
system [1, 2, 3].
Conducted EMI emission is often defined as undesirable
electromagnetic energy coupled out of an emitter or into a
receptor via any of its respective connecting wires or
cables, as shown in Figure 1-1. The source generates the
EMI noise, and a coupling path transfers the noise to a
receiver through cables or wires. There are three basic
ways to prevent interference:
Suppress the emission at its source.
Make the coupling path as inefficient as possible
Make the receptor less susceptible to the emissions.
With the continually increasing use of power converters,
the resulting electromagnetic inference (EMI) noise is a
concern for both power converter designers and
consumers. The EMI noise management of converters
should be done in order to comply with stringent
electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) regulations.
Conducted EMI is often defined as electromagnetic
energy undesirable coupled out of an emitter or into a
receptor via any of its respective connecting wires or
cables. There are three essential elements in EMI problem:
source, coupling path and receiver, as illustrated in Fig. 2. A
source (culprit) generates the emission, and a coupling path
(transfer), transfers the emission energy to a receiver
(victim) [1, 6, 10].

PRZEGLD ELEKTROTECHNICZNY (Electrical Review), ISSN 0033-2097, R. 86 NR 12/2010

Fig. 2. Essential elements of the EMI coupling problem

The sources of electromagnetic interference are both


natural and human-made. Natural sources could be sun
and stars, as well as phenomena such as atmospherics,
lightning, thunderstorms, and electrostatic discharge, while
the interference generated during the operation of a variety
of electrical, electronic, and electromechanical apparatus is
human-made [1, 6].
Common-Mode
Common-Mode (CM) noise flows via two supply lines in
the same direction and returns via the ground wire. The
magnitude of the common-mode noise on the two supply
lines are the same, while the magnitude of the common
mode noise returning via the ground wire is twice that of the
noise on one of the supply lines. [1, 6, 13].

Fig.3. Common-Mode

In this configuration it measures the vector sum of the


common and differential mode current. It can however also
be used to make separate common and differential mode
current measurements. Consider two current carrying
conductors supplying a device, say live and neutral. One of
the conductors carries the sum of the two noise
components, CM +DM, while the other carries the
difference, CM DM, as shown in Fig. 4.a [2, 6].

component is now considered as shown in Fig. 4. c, then


the resulting magnetic flux from the two conductors
summate resulting in a net flux induced by the common
mode component in the two conductors. This method is a
relatively simple and inexpensive method to see the
common mode components flowing in two conductors [2].
Emi For power electronics cnverters
EMI and EMC are important issues in a power
conversion system with switching devices being used. For
example, all AC pulse width modulation (PWM) drives can
cause EMI with adjacent sensitive equipment when large
quantities of drives are assembled in a concentrated area
[11]. The use of fast switching semiconductor devices in
power conversion systems causes more EMI/EMC issues
[12].
In modern switch mode power supplies and motor drive
systems, high switching speed semiconductor devices,
such as IGBTs and MOSFETs, are widely used. In recent
years, the fundamental approach to electronic power
processing has steadily moved toward high-frequency
synthesis, resulting in important improvements in converter
performance, size, weight and cost [2, 11]. However, high
switching frequencies require steep switching processes
with higher dv/dt and di/dt for lower switch power losses.
The increasing switching frequency causes electromagnetic
inference to rise simultaneously. This interference can
occur as radiated E- and H- field and as conducted
interference currents and voltages.
Common-mode noise is directly related to stray
capacitance. In this circuit when MOSFET turns on and off,
the drain of MOSFET and the Anode of diode will see a
large dv/dt. Since the MOSFET is mounted flat on the
board, the major common-mode capacitance comes from
the capacitance between the MOSFET drain and ground
plane, and that between the ground plane and the traces
connected with MOSFET drain.
Induction motor H.F model
Classical frequency models for the induction motor are
used. These equivalent schemes are generally based on
the physical representation phenomena. For example, the
following one represents the main elements of a motor
winding. One stator coil, is modelled by L, its inductance, R
and Re which defined respectively the copper losses and
the iron losses. The parasitic capacitor of the winding is
given by Cp. Crosstalk capacitance between stator
windings and the frame are represented by both capacitors
Cg1 and Cg2. These useful models are made of minimal
passive elements and give good results for phase ground
impedance estimation. Although their elements are simple
to extract with one measurement, the phase-phase
impedance estimation is more difficult to obtain. The value
of the Cg1 and Cg2 stray capacitances associated with ACmotor used is about 180 pF by phase. This capacitive
impedance represents the main common mode path
compared with the stray element of the IGBT power module
[3,9, 3]. The High frequency phase circuit (Z) show in Fig. 5.

Fig. 4. Common mode components flowing in two conductors

If only the differential mode component is considered


then the resulting magnetic flux induced by the two
conductors can be seen in Fig. 4. b. The induced magnetic
flux of each conductor flows in the opposite direction to the
other. The magnitudes of these fluxes will be the same as
the magnitude of differential mode as well as the common
mode current on each conductor is the same. As a result
the magnetic fluxes cancel and the net flux induced by the
differential mode component is zero. If the common mode

Fig. 5.High frequency phase circuit.

PRZEGLD ELEKTROTECHNICZNY (Electrical Review), ISSN 0033-2097, R. 86 NR 12/2010

273

R is stator and rotor phase resistance; L is phase leakage


inductance; Cp capacitance representing the turn to turn
distributed capacitive coupling; Cg1, Cg2 are capacitance
representing the winding to ground distributed capacitive
coupling. Rp is resistance representing eddy currents inside
the magnetic core and the frame.

(4)

FD ( P G )

1
2 L (C p

C g1 C g 2
C g1 C g 2

The simulation results shown in Fig. 8 confirm the


frequency response of the impedance ZPG.

Analysis of the motor impedance


In this study, we propose a modelling method of the 3phase motor in frequency domain [9].
Fig. 6 shows the Common Mode configuration AC
motor.

Fig.6. Common Mode configuration AC motor

with the Common Mode configuration, the impedance


ZCM measured between the three phase terminals
connected together and the motor neutral, with floating
ground terminal [3, 9, 16];
Fig. 7 shows the Common Mode monophased equivalent
circuit of an AC motor.

Fig. 7. Equivalent circuit Common Mode (ZCM) impedances

In the considered frequency range the phase resistance


R is much smaller then the reactance of the leakage
inductance L, in the following considerations the stator
resistance will be always neglected. The impedances ZPG
corresponding to the circuit of Fig. 1 can be easily
evaluated:
Z PG Z CM

(1)

(2)

L (C P C g 2 ) p 2
Z pG
6 C g 2 p( L ( C p

C g1 C g 2
C g1 C g 2

VCM p
I CM p

L
p 1
Rp
) p2

L
p 1)
Rp

Fig. 8. Simulation of the impedance of a motor (Common Mode)

The feeder, which constitutes a part of the load, can be


also modelled using lumped approach [13]. Thus, the ACmotor, the cable are gathered to obtained an equivalent
circuit. With the descriptions of these main stages the whole
converter can be represented.
Feeding Cable Model
In the usual utilization of an unshielded cable, the
common mode coupling within the cable is realized by the
capacitance between phases and the external shielding
braid.
In addition to the insulation material used in production
of the cables, the cable is also characterized by the
diameter of the copper wire, of the cable.
The electrical characteristics of the cables are defined
using the classical transmission line model. This model
incorporates a set of four parameters per unit length,
including a series inductance and resistance and a shunt
capacitance and conductance, also known as the RLCG
parameters of the cable. The series inductance represents
the total self-inductance of the two conductors, and the
shunt capacitance is due to the close proximity of the two
conductors. The series resistance is due to the finite
conductivity of the conductors, and the shunt conductance
is due to the dielectric loss in the material between the two
conductors.
Fig. 9 gives a graphic representation of a segment of pair
cable per unit length (dz).

Two characteristic frequencies are extracted from the


phase-ground impedance. The first one FN(PG) represents
the natural frequency of the ZPG numerator that minimizes
the impedance (Resonances of the common mode
impedance) . A similar frequency FD(PG) is obtained from
the denominator and defines the impedance resonance
(Resonances of the differential mode impedance).
(3)

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FN ( P G )

1
2 L (C p C g 2 )

Fig. 9. Representation of a segment of pair cable per unit length

PRZEGLD ELEKTROTECHNICZNY (Electrical Review), ISSN 0033-2097, R. 86 NR 12/2010

Associate the cable end induction motor


We studied and modelled separately the motor and an
unshielded energy cable. It evidently remains us to
associate the cable and induction motor to define the load.
This stage has therefore for goal to bring back the motor
impedance to the output of the Adjustable Speed Drives
through the cable (Fig. 10).

Fig.10. Associate the cable and induction motor

Common mode impedance characteristic


The disturbances in common mode on cables in HF
represent the main problem of the EMC.
As we showed him in the beginning of this article, the
motor constitutes a path privileged for common mode
currents. Impedance decreases then greatly for the
important lengths (Fig. 11).

Fig.11. Inverter-Cable-Motor
impedance characteristic

influence

in

Common

mode

The impedance characteristic of the converters load


(cable-induction motor) is significantly affected by the motor
cable (Fig. 11). The parasitic capacitance of the cable
moves the resonance frequencies towards to the lower
ranges. It is a key reason for appearance of serious overvoltage problems in ASD with long cable.
Conclusion
For the analysis of electromagnetic interference
produced by converters; it is necessary to use a precise
model of the different elements constituting the system. The
induction machine and the cable supply are one of the
paths of propagation common mode and differential mode.
In this article we proposed an analytic method to
modelling induction machines and the cables connecting
the converter to the machine for EMC-Analysis. The high
frequency model has been obtained by means of a
frequency domain. The proposed model can be used to
evaluate the high frequency leakage currents, which are the
cause of electromagnetic ' interference to electronic and

electric equipment. The next application of this work (for an


other paper) is Common Mode Conducted Electromagnetic
Interference in Inverter Fed-AC Motor.
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Authors:
- Mr. Miloudi Houcine, University of Djilali Liabes, IRECOM
Laboratory, Engineering Faculty, Sidi Bel Abbs, Algeria
E-mail: al_houssaine@yahoo.fr
Dr. Bendaoud Abdelber, University of Djilali Liabes, IRECOM
Laboratory, Engineering Faculty, Sidi Bel Abbs, Algeria
E-mail: babdelber22@yahoo.fr

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