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uountaDle and uncountable nouns (1)

A noun can be countable

t-f:::f j!::: sentences need alan, Correct the sentences

dLf alreaay
correct, put'RIGH

or uncountable. Comoare:


o I eat a b.'.lana every

o I like bananas.




o I eac ricc evcry

o I likc iicc.


Banana is a countable noun.

A countable noun can be
or plural (bananas).


Rice is anuncourrlablc n<>ur-t.

An uncountablc noun has only one form

singular (banana)


Countable nouns a,e things we can count. So

we can say 'one banana', 'two bananas' crc.

Uncountable nouns are things we cannot

count. We cannot say 'one rice', ,two riccs'



which are wrons. If tbe santcnce:s

of nouns usually counrable:

There's a beach near here.

o Ann was singing a song.
o Have you got a ten-pound note?
o It wasn't your faul.. It rvas an accident.
o There are no baneries in rhe radio.
o We haven'r got enough cups.

Can you smcll paint?

10 Ve need petrol. I hope we come to perrol ,rrrion ronn.

11 I wonder if you can help me. I have problem.

12 John has got inrerview for job romorrow.

Examples of nouns usually uncounrable:
o There's sand in my shoes.
o Ann was listening ro (some) music.
o Have you got any money?
c It wasn'r your fault. It was bad Iuck.
o There is no elecrricity in this house.
o We haven't got enough water.

wear jeweJtery bur yestcrday


:'.tlllis very good game.

think vollcyball
14 Ii::"i::ll,l

,h. ,u", *.rfr"e


contplete the sentences using one of the

follou,ing words. (Jse aJan where tlecessary.

eeeide*s biscuit blood coat

ffi{rsi question



It wasn't your fault. It was

Listen! Can you hear


ctricity k.y



.. e.n aeaidenp,.


You can use a./an with singular countable




an umbrclla

a piece

You cannot use singular countable nouns

done (wirhout a/thdmy etc.):

o I want a banana. (not'l want banana')

There's been an accident. (zof ,There's



You can use plural countable nouns alone:

o I like bananas. (= bananas in general)
o Accidenis can be prevented.
Sce also Unit 74.

You can use some and any



and few

o We didn'r rake many photographs.

o I have a few jobs ro do.

Ccntable and uncountabte





Can you hear music?

Unit 74.

complete the sentences using one of the

follouing words. sometimes the worrl nccds

plural (-s). Use

a/an if ,iersory.

countr5r day friend rneat letter patience people

queue space utnbrella

You can use some and any with

un;ountable nouns:
o 'We listened to somc music.
o Did you buy any apple juice?

with plural countable


a game of rennis etc.

See also

fural countable nouns:

o We sang some songs.
o Did you buy any apples?


You can use uncountable nouns alone

(without the/mylsomc etc. ):
o I eat rice every day.
o There's blood on your shirt.

been accicjent')

You cannot normally use a,/an rvith

uncountable nouns. Wc do not say .a saltd'
or''a nlusic'. llut you can oftcn usc a...of:
a bowl of rice
a drop of warer

We use much and little with uncountable

o We didn't do much shopping.
o I have a little work to do.

some and any _,





Countable and uncountable nouns (2)

Marry nouns carr l.r. r'scd as courrrairlc ()r uncountlrblc noutrs, usually wirir

Which of the underlined parts of tbese sentences is correct?

1 'Did you hcar *eise / a noise just now?' 'No, I didn't hcar anything.' ('a i.oisc' is correctl
) a If you wanr ro know the news, you can read papstJ_a+apct.
b I want to write some letters but I haven't got a oaper / any paper to write on.
3 a I thougirt there was somcl>ody in the irousc because there was light / a light on insidc.
b t,ight / A liglrt conrcs fronr thc surr.
4 a I was in a hurrl' this nrorning. I didn't have time / a rime for breakfast.
b 'Did you enjoy your holiday?' 'Yes, we had wonderful time / a wonderful time.'


nrcirn i lrg,. ( )otnpa rc:


nid you hcar a noisc jrrst rrorv?

o I carr't w<lrk hcrc. TIrcrc's too nruclr
noisc. (rrol 'to<t nrtrny ltoiscs')
o I rrccd somc papcr to writc orr.
(= materlal for writing on)
. You've got vcry lcrrg hair. (2,'/ 'lrairs')
(= all the hair on your head)
o You can't sit here. There isn't room.

(= a ixrticular lrorsc)
o I l,ought a paper to read,
(= a newspaper)

o Thcre's

hair in nry soupl

(= one single hair)

You can stay with us. There is a spare

room. (= a roolll in a housc)

o They offered me the job because I had

lot of experience . (not' experiences')
o I can't wait. I haven't got time.

some interesting experiences rvhile

I was away. (= things that happened to me)
Enjoy your holiday. Have a good time!

Coffeeltea/bccr/juice etc. (drinks) are normally uncountable:

I don't drink coffee very often.
But they can be countable when you are thinking of a cup / a glass etc. So you can
o (irr a restatrrtrrt)Two coffccs arrcl an ()rangc juicc, plcnsc.

Ccnnplcte the sentenccs using tltese words. Sometint(syou need tbe plural (-s).

chair cxpcricncc cxpcricncc furniturc hair inf-rmation

iob I%SoS permission progress work
1 I didn't have much - just two srrrall bags.
2 They'll tell you all you want to know. They'll give you plenty of ..

There are some nouns that are usually uncounrable in English bur often countable in other
languages. For example:

accommodation bchaviour





luggagc progress

information news



3 Thcrc



These chairs are

It was a good


1 Your friends have just arrived at the station. You can't

see any suitcases or bags.

You ask rhem: Have ...Jetf .^
You go into the tourist office. You want ro know about places to see in the town. You say:
I'd like
You are a stude', ;; ;;;;;i. ;;" ;";; y;;' ;;;;i..;;;;;i;.
"u"';;hi;h .....................?
to take. You say: Can you give me
You want to watch the news on TV but you don't know what time it is on. You ask your

You are standing at the top of a mountain. You can see a very long way. It's lovely. You say:



(1)- Efffi


isn't it?

You look out of the window. The weather is horrible: cold, wet and windy. You say to your

friend: What
Countable and uncountable


What do you say in these situations? Complete the sentences using one of the words from
Section C.

I lJncountable
| . I'- looking for work. (not'a work')
| . \Yh"t beautiful scenery!

| . Ir', nice weather today.

| . W. had a lotof luggage.
I o This furniture is mine.
| . t, was good advice.

10 I don't think Ann will get the job. She hasn't got enough
11 Rita has done many interesting things. She should write a book about her

Compare these co'-:ntable and uncountable nouns:

o I'm looking for a job.

o What a beautiful view!
o lt's a nice day today.
o \We had a lot of bags and


6 Carla's English is better than it was. She's made

7 George is unemployed. He's looking for a ....,......
8 George is unemployed. He's looking for..............
9 If you want to leave work early, you have to ask for...............

These nouns are usually uncountable, so

i) you cannot use a/an with them (you cannot say 'a bread', 'an advice' etc.) and
ii) they are not normally plural (we do not say'breads','advices'etc.):
o I'm going to buy some bread . or ...a loaf of bread. (not 'a bread')
r Enjoy your holiday! I hope you have good weather. (not 'a good weather')
o r07here are you going to put all your furniturc? (nor'furnitures')
News is uncountable, not plural:
o The news was very depressing. (nof'the news were')


is r<lonr for cvcryboJy to sit r{own. Thcre are plenty of

4 We have no
. not even a bed or a table.
5 'What does Alan look like?' ' He's got a long beard and very short


Travel (noun)means 'travelling in general'. You cannot say 'a travel' to mean a journey or
e We had a very good journey. (not'a good travel')

was very hcipful. Shc gave us some verv useful addce I advices.
had ver)' good weather / a very good weather while we were on holiday.
were very unfortunate. We had bad luck / a bad luck.
8 Ir's very difficult to find a work / iob ar rhe moment.
9 Our travel / iourney from London to Istanbul by train was very tiring.
10 When the fire alarm rang, there was total chaos / a total chaos.
11 I had to buy a / some bread because I wanted to make some sandwiches.
12 Bad ncws don't / docsn't make people hrppy.
13 Your hair is / Your hairs are too long. You should have it / them cut.
14 Nobody was hurt in the accident but the damage / the damages to the car was / were quite
5 Sue
6 V'e

(= space)

o I had





Countable nouns with alan and some

Countable nouns crln be singular or plural:
thc cvcning
a dog a child
dogs sonrc children the cvcnings




an unrbrclla
t\ /o unrbrcllas

What are thcse tbings? Try and fintl ortt i/'\,ott d<trt't know.
1 an anr? .l.t_'.q. an i.neeC!,
7 F,arthi Mars? Vcntrs? .f upitcr?

2 anrs? bccs? . Lh.e!relnge.c.!p-,

3 a cauliflowcr?

1 chess?
5 a violin?

Bcforc singulrtr ctltrutrrblc lror.lns yoLr crln ttsc ahnl

o Goodb)'c! Flavc a nicc cvcning.
o Do yolr nccd an umbrella?
You canlot use sirrgular col.ntalrlc rrouns x!,.rrtc (u'irlrout a/thc/my ctc.):
3 She ncvcr \vcars ahat. (not 'She ncvcr rvcars hat')
o Bc crrrcful of the dog. (not 'Bc carcful of dog')
o Whirt a bcautiful dry!
6 I'r'e got a lieadache.
We rrse a/an... to srry rvhat kind <;f rhirrg or pcrson s(,ruct;unll/sotttclrocl1,
o A dog is irrr animal.
o I'rrr an optimist.
r Tinr's farher is a doctor.
e Are )/ou a good driver?

Jill is a really nice person.

o Whirt a lovely dress!
We say that somebody has a long nose

/ a nice f.ace I a strong heart erc.;

o Jack has got a long nose. (zlol'the long nose')
In sentences like these, we use plural nouns alone (not with'some'):
r D<lB,s nrc' irninrals.
o Most of' nry fricnds arc studcnts.
o Jill's parents are rcally nice people,
o Vhat arvful shoes!
o Jack has got blue eyes. (noi'che blue eyes')
Remember ro use a,/an when you say what some body's job
o Sandra is a nurse. (nor 'Sandra is nurse')
o Would I'ou like to be an English teacher?


You can use some with plural countable nouns. We use some in two ways:

i) Some = a number of / a few of / a pair of:

.l've seen some good films recently. (not'l've seen good films')
o Some friends of mine are coming to stay at the weekend.
o I need some new sunglasses. (= a new pair of sunglasses)
Do not use some when you are talking about things in general (see also Unit 74):
o I love bananas. (aof'some bananas')
o My aunt is a writer. She writes books. (nof'some books')
Sometimes you can make sentences with or without some (with no difference in meaning):
o There are (some) eggs in the frioge if you're hungry.


Some = some



but not all

o Some children learn very quickly. (but not all children)

e Some police officers in Britain carry guns, but most of them don't.


8 a tr,lip?
9 rIc I{hinc? rlrc Nilc? rhc Mississippi;


10 a pigeon? an cagle?

rr crorv?

a skyscrapcr?

\Ybo were thcsc pcoplc?

I 1 Bcethovcrr ? Le wag a Qemp.epp.t,
l-i \larilyn Monroc?
l2 Shakespearc?
|6 Elvis Prcslel,? .fohrr [.cnnorr?
I3 Albert Eirrstein?
14 Washingt<;n? [-incoln?.John Kennc.dy? l7 \'an Gogh? l{cnoir? (iaugrrirr?

l0.Z Read abottt rubat tbese pugle do artd sa)t tL,l)(tt thcir jobs arc. Cboosc ortc of thcst, jolts
driving instructor intcrpretcr journalist ff:trrs pilot

agcnt waiter
I Srella looks after patients in hospiral. ..?he'.q a..nyl9e,...
2 George works in a resraurant. He brings the food ro the rables. He
3 Mary arranges pcople's holidays for them. She
4 Ron works for an airline. He flies aeroplanes.

5 Linda teaches people how to drive.

5 Davc fits and rcpairs wiltcr pipcs,

Jcnny writcs articlcs for a newspapcr.

John translates what people are saying from one language into another, so that thcy can
understand each other.

70.3 Put in alan or some where necessar),. If no word is necessary, leaue tbe space empty (-).
1 I've seen ...9,Q1'!-tg. . good films recenrly.
2 What's wrong with you? Have you gor . a headache?
3 I know a lot of people. Most of rhem are
-... srudents.
4 When I was ,.. . ..... .. child, I used to be very
5 Would you like to be .
6 Do you collect . ....... .. . .. stamps?
7 tVhat
... . beautiful garden!
8 . . .. ...... birds, for example the penguin, cannot fly.
9 I've been walking for three hours. I've gor
sore feet.
10 I don't feel very well rhis morning. I've gor
.. sore throat.
11 lt's a pity we haven't got....
. camera. I'd like to take
. .. photograph of rhar

Those are
..... nice shoes. Where diC you get rhem?
13 I'm going shopping. I wanr to buy
.... new shoes.
14 You need
...,,.. visa to visir
. counrries. but not all of thcm.
l5 Jane is
teacher. Hcr parents were
....... teachers too.
16 Do you enjoy going to ... ........... .. concerrs?
17 \7hen we got to rhe ciry centre,
shops were srill open but most of them were


Countable and uncountable


' @[l

A,/an and the

- [fitr

Some and

any lfl]iriri

I don't believe him. He's

. ......

He's always




Nanand the

Study this cxrrn-rplc:

I had a sirrrdwich and an applc ior



srurtlrviclr rr,,rsn't vcrv gootl lrrrt


ll l( (

'a srrndrliclr', 'an applc' becausc

.f <lhlr sirys
this is the first rirre lrc talks rbour thcnr.


olrrr rrorv srrys'thc srrrrtlrviclr'.'thc irpplc'


Oonrparc a iurd thc in thesc e xanrplcs:

o A tttlttt itn.l a \vonrlln n'crc sittirru oPPosite rnc.'fhc nrlrll \\'il\,.\rrrcricrrn lrrrt lthink tlrc
\\'olnllrr rVirs British.
.s \\/ltctt \rv'e \vcrc on holiclrry, rvc strryecl ,rt,r lrotcl. Sornctinrcs \\'c hrrc.l orrr cvcn,ng nrcal at
tlrc lrotcl ltrrcl s<trlctit)lcs \\,c \\,cnt t() n rcstlrrrr:lllt.
Wc usc thc rvhcrr \\'c rlrc rlrinkirrg of orrc plrrricLr l.rr thing. (.onrprrrc irlan irncl tlrc:
s Totrr sat dorvn on ir chair. (pcrlraps orrc oi nrany'chirirs in rhc roolrr)
Torr sat dorvn on the clrrir ncarcst thc door. (a pirrticuler chrrir')
o ^t\rrrr is looking f or a lob. (rrot n partrcular job)
l)irl Arrn gc( thc job slrc irpplicrl for? (:r prrrticrrlrrr job)
o Ilrtvc )'()r.r ll()t ir cat'? (n()t rl Plrrticrrlirt'crrr')
I clcrrncd thc car ycstcrdrry. (= ln), cru-)
F<rr a scc.rlso Units 70 arrdT2i\.

Wc ttsc thc rvlrcrt it is clcar irr tlrc siturrti<lrr wlriclr thirrg or pcrson \\'r r)rciln. l;or cxunrplc, irr a
roonl wc talk about'the light / thc floor / the cciling/ the door / the carpct'crc.:
o Can you turn off rhe light, plcasc? (= thg light in this room)
o I ro<lk a rari to the starion. (= the starion in that rown)
o I'd like to speak ro the manager, please. (= the ntanager of rhis shop erc.)
In thc sanrc way, wc say (go to) thc bank, thc post officc:
o I must go to the bank to get some money and then I'm going to thc post office to get
solne stamps. (The speaker is usually thinking of a particular bank or posr office.)
A/so: the doctor, the dentist:
o Carol isn't very well. She's gone to the doctor. (= her usual doctor)

o I hare going

11,3 Put in alan or the

Wc say'once a week / three times aday I t1.20 a k,lo'etc.:

o 'How often do you go to the cincma?' 'About once a month.'
o 'How much are those potatoes?' 'f,1.20 a kilo.'
o She works eight hours a day, six days a week.

in these sentences where necessdry.

1 !0ould you like


2 How often do you go to dentist? ...... .

3 Could you close door, please? .... .....
4 I'm sorry. I didn't mean to do that. It was mistake.
5 Excuse me, where is bus station, please?
5 I've got problem. Can you help me?
7 I'm just going to post office. I won'r be long.

There w.ere no chairs. so we had to sit on floor.

Have you finisheo with book I lent you?
10 My sister has just got job in bank in Manchester...................
11 We live in small flat near city centre.
12 There's small supermarket at end of srreet I live in.

Compare a:
o Is there a bank near here?
o M)' sister is a den:ist.

o Susarr works in the citl centre. (not ''u'r city ccntre ')
. My brother is in the army. (not'in army')

or the.

This morning I bought .?,. newspapcr and
newspape r ls lu m\'
. magitztne.
bag but I don't know whcre I put ..
accident this nrorning.
car crashed intr.
clri r cr r.:
2 I sarv
,. cilr wflsn't hurt brrt ,,.,. citr',,,lrs birclly (lantilgcd.
blrrc orrc arrd .. . ,. grcy onc.
3 'flrcrc ill'c tw() crrrs pnrkccl outsiclc:
bckrrrgs to nty rrciglrbours; I clon't klrorv ',vh<r
owncr of
. grcy onc is.
q My friends livc irr
old house in
small village. There is
beautiful gardcr
house. I rvould like ro have
gardcn like that.
beh i nd

in aJan or the.
n2 Put
I a This housc is vcry nicc. [Jas it gor
b lt's a bcaLrtiful day. [-cr's sit in
c I like living in this housc bur it's a pity thar
garden is so small.
2 a Can you reconrmend ...... go<ld restaurant?
vcry lticc rcstaLlritttt.
b Wc h.tcl clirrrrcr in
c Wc hed dirrncr in ,
utosr expcnsivc rcstrlurant in torvrr.
Frenclr n:1me but in fact she's English, not French.
3 a She has
name or that man we met vesterday?
b What's
c Wc stirl,sd at.l vcry nice hotel - Ican't rcnrcnrbcr
. ,, ilante n()w.
airport ncar wlrcrc I livc,
4 a Thcrc istt't
ncaicst:rirport is 70 nrjlcs awa)'.
lr orrr plirrrc wirs dclrryccl. Wc had to wirit irr
rirport for thrcc lrours.
c L,xcusc nrc, plcasc. Can you tcll nrc how to gct to
5a 'Are you going away next week?' 'No, . .,.,,. weck after next.'
b I'm going away for
week in Scptcmbcr.
c (icrrrgc has t pnrt-tirrrc job. llc wo,'ks tlrrcc rnontirrgs ... wcck.

ro the dentist.

[)on't forget thc:

Put in alan

bccitrrsc Kltrcrt knrlrvs rvlriclr srtrrrlwiclr rrrrcl

w'lriclr applc hc l,'-'iuls - l/.rc sirnclwiclr rrrrd
tltc applc hc hrrcl ior lrr, rch.






Answer these questiot's about yourself. rilhere possible, use tbe structure in Section
week / three times a day etc,).

1 How often do you go ro the cinema?

D /once!p.ul..!.l.mcg.a.year,...

2 How much dces itcost ro hire a car in your counrry?,...

3 How often do you go away on holiday?
4 What's the speed limit in rowns in your country?
5 How much sleep do you need?
often do you go out in the evening? .. ...... .......
I/ Io*
How much television do you watch (on average)? .................







The (1 )


We usc the... rvhen there is only ouc of sonrething:

o What is thc longcst rivcr irr thc rvr>rld? (thcrc is <lrrly orrc lorrgcst r-ivcr)
o Thc cltrrlt gocs rorrrrd thc srrn ltrrtl thc rlroolr gocs rorrrrtl rhc crrrrlr.
o I'rlt goin14 rr\v:l)' rlr thc .,rcl of tlris rnonth.
Don't forget thc:
o l)rrris is tlrc crrpitrrl of l'-rlncc. (rrol'l)aris is cirprtal of,..')

Put irt thc r;r a/an uthcrc nccessdry. lf no tuortl is ttcccssar\,, lcat,c thc sltace emptl'f\.
1 A: Wlrcrc clicl y<lrr hlvc. .- lunch? tr: \\ c wcnt ro e rcs.ituritnt.
nicc holidrrr,? tr: \'cs, it rvrrs
bcst lrolitlrry I'vt'r'vcr lr;rtl
2 rt: I)icl yorr ltrrvc
,,nci of rhis strcct.
ltcarcst shop? n:
onc ar
3 ,c: Wlrcrc's .,
raclio? B: N<1. In iirct Ihavclr't gor
4 n: Do \'lou ()ftcn listcn to,.
sprrcc? tj: Ycs I'rl lovc to llo to
5 ,r: Woulcl yotr likc to travcl irr
cinema verv often?
5 ,\: Do yolr go to
B: No, not very oftcn. But I,vatch a lot of iilnts r,.n


But we use a./an to srry rvlr:rt kind of rhing sonrerhing is (see Unit 70C). Cornpare thc and a:
c The su'. is a star. (= one ct many stars)
o The hotel rvc staved at \\'its a very nice hote l.

7 A: It was

say: thc skv tlrc scir thc ground thc country thc cnvirorrnrcnt:
3 $/e l<>okcd upar all the srars in the sky. (not 'in sky')
o Would r'ou rather live in a towu or in the country?
e We nrust do nrore to protect thc environment. (= tl^.c nitiurrrI rr'orlcl ar<ltutcj trs)

(s'irhout'thc') wheu wc nrean'space in thc rrnivr'rsc':

" Therc itrc nrillions oi stilrs in spacc. (not'in the spacc')
but o I tried to park ntv citr bur thc spacc t<to snrall.


N<ltc that wc sav spacc


use the before same (the same):

r Your pullover is the same colour as nrine.





These tu,o photographs are the same. (not'are same')

say: (go to) thc cinema, the theatre

I often go to the cincma bur I haven't been to the thcatre fclr ages.
Vhen we sity the eincma /:hc thcatre, wc clo not rrcccssirrily mcan onc [)rrrticr.rlirr cincrn.r rlr
rhea trc.

We usually sa)'the radio, but television (ivithout'the'):

o I often listen to the radio.
o We heard the news on thc radio.
o I often rvatch telcvision.
o We watchcd thc ncrvs on tclcvision.
but o Can y()u tunl off thc tclcvision, plcasc? (= thc tclcvision set)
Compare a:
o There isn't a theatre in this town.
o I'm going to buy a new radio /television (set).

Breakfast lunch

\Ve do not normally use the with rhe names of meals (breakfast, lunch etc.):
o What did you have for breakfast?
e We had lunch in a very nice restaurant.
o What time is dinner?
But we use a if there is an adjectil'e before breakfast, lunch etc.:
o We had a very nice lunch. (not'we had very nice lunch')

Platform 5 Room 126 erc.

We do nol use 'the' before noun + number, For example, we say:
o Our train leaves from Platform 5. (not 'the Platform 5')
o (in a shop)Have you gor rhcsc shoes in size 43? (not'the sizc 43')
In the same way, we say: Room 125 (in a hotel) page 29 (of a book) Section A erc.

A and


' @l

The (2), (3) and

(4) '


The with names

' EEEil


nicc day yesterda.,, \vasn't it?

B: Ycs, it wirs beautiful. We wcnr for a rvalk by

,\: Whar clid you havc for
brcakfesr rltis rnorrring?
tr: N<lthing. I rrcvcr cirt
,l: Clarr you tcll rnc whcrc
Roorl 2i is. plcasc?
second flo<lr.
8: It's on ,
,\: Wc spcnt all our nronc)'bccirusc rr,c stavccl ar
rt'lost cxpcnsivc hotcl in trlrvrr.
tr: Why dicln't you stay at
cheirpcr horcl?

Put itt thc tt,bcrc ncccssdr)'. l[1<n don't rtceLl thc, lcauc tlta spaL'c ctnpt\t (-).
1 I haven't been to .1h9,... cinema for ages.
2 llay down on ............. ground and looked up
3 Sheila spends most of her free time rr'atching ............. television.
4 ............. television was on but nobodr, \vils \\'Atching it.
dinner yet?
5 Have you had
6 Mary and I arrived at ............. same tinre.
7 You'll find ............. information you need ar
top of
pagc 15.

n,3 Pul itt tltc <.rr a/an wbcrc ,tcccssary, lf




for alan and

tbe santr:ttt'e is alrcady corrccl, put'Rl(;u't'. (lf' ttcct,sstrt',


1 Sun is srar. . .T.he egn ie.e..q\erl

2 T-inr livcs irr srnall villagc in counrry.
3 Moon gocs round cartl'l cvery 27 days.
4 What is highest mountain irr world?
5 I'm fed up with doing same thing every da1',
5 It was very hot day. It was hottest day of year..
7 I don't usually have lunch but I always eat good breakfast.
8 If you Iive in foreign country, you should rry and learn language...
9 We missed our train because we were waiting on wrong platform. We were on Plarforrl

instead of Platform


Complete the sentences using one of the

b'reaft{ast cinema


dinner gate



IJse the





1 I didn't have time for ....Vlee.f;ta.9?... this morning because I was in a hurry.
2 'l'm going to. ...,
this evening.' 'Are you? What film arc you going ro sce I'
3 There was no wind, so .. .. ., .........
was very calm.
4 'Are you going out this cvening?' 'Ycs, aftcr
5 Thc cxrtntinrrtion papcr wasn't too difficult [lut Ic<luldn't answcr
5 Oh,
..... is opcn. I must have forgotten to shut it.
7 (airport announcement) 'Flight BA123 to Vienna is now boarding at


The (2) (School / the school)


(ionrrll:l'c school artcl thc sclto<ll:

(,ornltlctc lltc st'rtlcttccs using a ltrcltosiltttrt (tolatlin etc.l + onc of thc ftilktwirtg rutrds:
un lvcrsrty
rverc iniured irr the accidcrrt and rvere take n !o.hoeVilal,
In llritain, childrcn fronr thc agc of fivc hirvc to g<:
Mrrk didn'r go out last rright. Hc stayccl
I'll havc to Iturry. Idon't want to bc latc
There is a lot of traffic in the morning rvhen everybody is going
Cathy's nrother has just had an opcration. Shc is still
Wherr Julia leaves school, she wants to study cconomics
Bill never gcts up before 9 o'clock. Ir's 8.30 no\v, so he is still
If vou cunlnrit :r se ri<lus crirnc, you could be scnt

1 Trr"r people


AI l5( )N


Alison is tcn ycars old. F.very day shc gocs to

school. She's at school nou,. School
bcgins ar 9 and finishcs at 3.
Alis(rrr's nrotlrcr is rrot a pupil. Shc is not

We sa1'a chilcl goes to school or is school

(as a pupil). Wc irrc not ncccssilrily thirrkrrtg
of a particLrlar school. Wc irrc thinking <tf
school rls ir llcrlcral idca.



school', she docslt't 'g() to school'. But if she

wanrs to scc Alisorr's tcachcr, sltc goes to thc

Contpletc tbc setrtcttces witb tbc word giuerr(school etc.). Use the whcre necessary.

school (= Alisorr's school, rt 1'rrtrtictrlar school).


a Evcrl' tcflr pitrcnts are invitcd fO !.hp schggl ro ntect the tc.rchcrs.
b Why arcn't 1,oLrr childrcn at ?a.ha?.l todal'? Arc thcy ill?
c When he rvas youlrger, Ted harect
start in the mornings in your country.
d What timc docs
c ,\: How clo 1'our children gct h<>nrc frorr

\\/c d<> tr<tt ttsc thc rvhctr rvc

Wc usc prison, hospital. urrivcrsity, arrd church in a sinrilar
thirrking oi rhc gcncrirl iclcrr oi thcsc placcs ltrtcl rvlr;rt thcy rrrc ttsccl for. Ootttparc:

| . K.','r [.r.thcr is irr prisorr {irr robbcry. I o

II' rU. is r rrrisoncr. Wc rrrc not thinkiltu
a pelrticular prison.)
;;;::iJ;;; i;', rvcek Hc was
i . j;.1'h;;

'- | r r t
in |hospital
FIc's srill
takcrr .o hospital.
no\v. \ils a
I leave school, I rvant to go to
univcrs ity.
Mrs Kclly gocs to church cvcrl' Surtclay.
(to a rcligious servicc)


ll: No, tlrcl'wnlk.


has llonc to the hospital to visit Jack.

Shc's at thc hos.pital rrow. (as a visitor)


Excuse me, rvhere is the univcrsity,

please? (= the university buildings)
Thc workrllcrl wcnt to thc church to
repair the roof. (not for a religious service)

With most other places, you need the. For exarnple, the cinema, the bank, the station.

See Units

Bed work

We say: 'go to bed / bc in bcd' ctc. (nol 'the bcd'):
o This morning
o lt's tirr-rc to go to bcd rrow.
but . I sat down on the bed. (a particular piece of furniture)

I had breakfast in


'go to work / he at work / start work,'finish work' etc. (not 'the work'):
o $7hat time do you usually finish work?
o Ann didn't go to work yesterday.
'go home / come home / arrive home / be
. Ir's late . Let's go home.

lrut o


home' etc.:

o Will

you be at home tomorrow afternoon?

/ be at sca' (without 'thc') when the meaning is 'golbe on a voyage':

is a seaman. Hc spcnds nlost of his life at sca.
o It can bc clangcrotts to swiln in thc sca.
I'cl likc to livc ncar thc sca.

a Kcith

, ....,,. to meet their childrcn.

a In your counrry, do many people go to
b If you walrt to gct a degree, yolr normally'hnvr t<l studl,at
is the biggest in the countr)'.
c This is only a small town but
a Nora works as a cleaner at ,..,..
b liZhen Ann rvas ill. we all went to .
to visit her.
c My brother has always been very healthy. He's never been rn
d Peter was injured in an accident and was kept in
for a few davs.



71C and 72D.

We say 'go

isn't vcry far.

f Wlrlt sort of joll docsJcnny wilnt t() d,r rr,lrclr shc lcavcs
g Therc werc some people waiting outsrdc

Kcrr wcnt to tlrc pris<ln to visit lris brothcr.

as a visiror, l.lot 11s a prisottcr.)



tn" 'EEEEEEEI Prepositions

American English 'f,@ffi

('at school/ in hospital'etc.)



.... every Sundar'.

John's mother is a regular churchgoer. She goes to
John himself doesn't go to
c John went to
., . to take some photographs of the building.
a In many places people are in
.. because of their political opinions.
b The other day the fire brigade were called to ,...............
to put out a fire.
c The judge decided to fine the man f500 instead of sending him to ................
a I like to read in ............
. . . before I go to sleep.
b lt's nice to travel around but there's no place like.,...
c Shall we meet after...........
... . tomorrow evenrng?
d If I'm feeling tired, I go to .......
. early.
e Vhat time do you usually start
in thc morning?
f The econonric situation is very bad. Many pcoplc arc out of ..............

a There's a nice view from the window. You can see

b It was a long voyage. We were at.........

I love swimming in



for four weeks.


ne (J) (untturen / the cirildren)

when we are ralki,rg about things or people in general, we do rot

o I'm afraid of dogs. (not,thedogs')


(dogs = dogs in general, nor a particular group of dogs)

o Doctors arc paid more than teachcrs.
o Do you collect stamps?
o Crime is a problem in most big cities. (rtot,rhe crime,)
o Life has changed a lot in rhe rasr 30
),ears. (not'therife,)
o Do you often listen to classicat music? (not,the classical
o Do yor. like Chinesc food / French cheese / Swiss

I ..!.lonlL!.ike.h.o.|w.e-aIher.yery..mve.h..


' My



also Unir g74).

o I often listen to music.


o All cars have wheels.



Sugar isn't very good for you.


o Do English people work hard?


(= English people in general)

is srill a general idea)

The (1) and (2)

-' lIEElq

C,onplete tbe sentences usittg one


Particular people cr tbings (wirh the )

o We took the children ro rhe zoo.
(= a particular group, perhaps rhe
speaker's orvn children)
o The film wasn't very good but I liked the
music. (= the nrusic in the film)
o All the cars in rhis car park belong r<;
people who s'ork here.
o Can you pass thc sugar, plcasc?
(= rhe sugar on rhe rable)
o Do the English people you know work
hard? (= only rhe English people you
knorv, nor English pcoplc irr gcncral)

Particular people or things (with the)

o I like the people I work with. (=

particular group of people )

of the {ollowing. Usc the where neccssor\t.


(the) history
paticnce (rhe) people
is .be.?ke|hel)..


1 My favourite sport

The difference between 'something in general, and ,somerhing in particular'

particular, is
i nor always very
clear. Compare these senrences:

In general (without ,the')

o I like working with people.
(= people in general)
o I like working with people who are
lively. (not all people, but ,people who
are lively' is still a general ideaj
o Do you like coffee?
(= coffee in general)
o Do you like strong black coffee?
(not all coffee, bur .srrong black coffee,


We use the when we mean parricular things or people. Compare:

In general (without .the')
o Children learn a lot from playing.
(= children in general)

hot wcarhcr

o My favourite sport is footbalUs!<iing/athletics. (not'the football

/ rhc skiirrg,

favourite subjecr ar schoor *", hirrory/physics/Engrish.

We say'_m-ost people / most books / most cars'erc. (not'the mosr...,
o Most people like George. (not.rhe mosr pcople,)


{tis exercise yoil haue to write uhether you like ctr dislike these tbings:
fast food rcstaurants
rock music
of these thing; and bcgin your sentcnces u,itb onc of tbe se :
Cltoose FOUR
I don'r nrind...
llike... / I don't likc...
l love. '. / I hate".


..T.h.e.intetma:Vl.en.. we


hotels (rhe) mcat

water (rhc) grass

(rhc) lics
(rhe ) spidcrs

werc given wasn'r corrc*.

3 Many people are afraid of

A vegetar:an is somebody who doesn't e.rr

5 The test wasn't very difficulr. I answered all

5 Do you kno."






wirhour difficulrr.

who live nexr door?

..... is the study of rhc pasr.

George always tells the rruth. He never rells
Wecouldn't find anywhcre ro stay in the town. AII ....
rverc full.
in thc pool didn't look very clean, so wc didrr't go f<;r r srvirl.

ll Don't sit orr

12 You need ...

Choosc the correct

form, with or without thc.

I'm afraid of dogs / tlte-tlcgs. ('clogs' is crrrcct)
Can you pass grlt/ the salt, plcase? ('the salr' is correct)
3 Apples / The apeles are good for you.
4 Look at apples / the apples on rhar rree! They're very big.
5 Women / The women live longer than men / the men.
6 I don't drink tea / the tea. I don'r like it.


o Did you like the coffee we had afrer our

meal last night? (= particular coffee)



The + adjecrive (rhe young / rhe Englsh erc.)



The (4) (The giraf te lthe telephone / the piano etc.;

the + adjective)

the questions. Choose the rigbt answer from the box. Don't forget the. Use a dictiona;

o -['hc giraffe is the tallest of all anirnals.

o The bicycle is an -.xcellent means of transport.
o When was the tclephone invenrcd?
o The dollar is rhe currcncy (= moncy) of tlrc United Statcs.


o Can you play the guitar?

o Th" piano is my favourire instruntcnt.
Co'rparc a:
o I'd likc to have a guirar.
o We saw a giraffe at the zoo.
Note thitt \\'c Llsc man (- hurrran bcirrgs in gcncral / tlrc humarr racc) with<lut'thc':
o Whrrt d<l you kuorv alrout the origins of man? (rol.the marn')


thc cldcrly

uncnrploycd thc homclcss

the dead
= foung people, the rich = rich people ctc.:

The young
Fr-- - -- -t:
I .l
| |
' I
.r Do
1ou think thc rich should pay morc raxct to hclp tlrc poor?
c The homclcss need nrore help from the govcrnmcnt.


rabi.rit cheetah


giraffe kartgaroo

parrot robin



telephonc wheel
telescope laser
helicopter typewritcr


!0hich of thc arrinrals is tallest? . Lhe glraffp.

Which anirnal can run fastesti ..
c Which of these animals is found in Australia? .......
A Which of these birds has a long neck?
b Which of these birds cannot fly? . . ....
Which bird flics at night?
a Which of these invcntions is oldest?
b Which one is most recent?
Which onc is cspccially important for astronomy?
What is thc currcncy of India? ..
b What is the currency of Portugal? .. . ..
What is the currency of your country?

. . ....



Put in the or a uhere necessar)t.


the sentence is alreadl,complete leaue an empty space (-).

l' Whcn was . thg. tclcphone invenred?

musical instrument?
2 Can you play
.. .. violin in an orchestra.
3 Jill plays
piano in the corner of the room.
4 There was .,
.. . piano?
5 Crn vou play
6 Our society is bascd on ................... family.

The + nationality
You can use the with some ;rationality adjectives to mean 'the people of that counrry'. For

injured poor rich sick unemployed yount

C.omplete these sentences using the + one

of tbese adjectiues:

o The French are famous for rheir food. 1= the people of France)
o V/hy do the English think they are so wonderful? (= the people of England)

1 have the future in their hands.

2 Ambulances arrived at the scene of the accident and took
3 Life is all right if you have a job, but rhings are not so easy for ..............









rhe Welsh

Note that the French / the English etc. are plural in meaning. You cannot say 'a French / a^
English'. You have to say 'a Frenchm an / in Englishwoman, etc.
You can also use the + nationaliry words ending in -ese (the Chinese / the Sutlanese etc.):
o The Lhinese invented printing.
These words can also be singular (a
Japanese, a Sudanese).
A/so: thc Swiss / a Swiss (plural or singular)
with <lthcr nationalitics, thc plural nourr cnds i' -s. l;or cxanrplc:
an Italian
a Mexican
a Scot
a Turk
(the ) Italians (the) Mexicans (the) Scots (the) Turks
A,/an and ttre


4 Julia


Tln +


- @Efl



2 Germany?
3 France?
4 Russia

J China?

to hospiral.

has been a nurse all her life. She has spent her life caring for ..............

"" "lo

::'Jr"Tu fr::.T',:'




:: :::o


What do you call the people of these countries?


7 England?

The (1), (2) and (3) -.


7 Martin comes from ..,................ large family.

8 When was ........ .. ....... paper first made?
9 .................. conlputcr has changed the way we live.

In the same way you can s:ly:


These expressions are alwal's phral in meaning. You cannor say'a young'or'an unemployed'.
You nrust Sa1, '" young man', 'an uncmpioycd woman'etc.
Note irlso that wcsay'thc poor' (not'rhc poors'),'thc young'(nc,rf ,the youngs') ctc.


escudo rupfe

(without a r,oun) to talk about groups of pcoplc, cspccially,:

the disabled



The + adjectit,e
usc thc + adjcctivc



In thcsc cxantplcs, the... docs not nlean onc particular thing. The giraffc = onc parricular typeo,
aninral, not one particular giraffe. We rrse the (+ a singularcounrable noun) in ihis *"y,o,rlk',
about a type of animal, machine crc.
In the same \vay we use the for musical illstrume nts:



Stud1, tlrcsc scntcnccs:




and your country?

one person (alan...)

a Canadlan

the people in general



r\tames wttn and without

the (1)

We do not use 'the' rvitit names of people ('Ann', 'Ann Taylor' etc.). In the same way, we do
normally use 'rhc wirh names of places. For example:


Africa (not'the Atrica'), Europe, louth Americ;.,

states, regiotts ctc.

France (not'the France'), Japan, Switzerland

Texas, Cornrvall, Tuscany, Ccntral lluropc
Corsica, Sicily, IJcnrruda
Cairo, New York, Madrid
Everest, Et"a, Kiliman jaro

Ctttes, t<,twns etc.


But we use the in names with 'Republic', ,Kingdont', .States' etc.:

the united Stares of America (the USA) rhe Unired Kingdom (the UK)
the Dominican Republic

We visited Canada and the United States.

Vhen we use Mr/Mrs/Captain/Doctor etc. + a nanla, we do rrol use 'the '. So we say:
Mr Johnson / Doctor Johnson / Captain Johnson / President Johnson erc. (not'the...')
Uncle Robert / Aunt Jane lsaint Carherine / princess Anne etc. (not.the...')

o \(e called the doctor. but 'We called Doctor Johnson. (not'the Docror Johnson')
We use mount (= mountain) and lake in rhe same way (without.the,):
Mount Everest (nor'the...') Mount Etna Lake Superior Lake Constance
o They live near the lake. but They live near Lake Constance. (without'rhe')
We use thc with thc nrmcs of occans, scas, rivcrs ancl canals (scc also tJlir 77lj):
the Atlantic (Ocean) the Mecriterranean (Sea)
the Red Sea
the Indian Ocean
the Channel (between France and Britain) the Suez Canal
the (River) Amazon
thc (Rivcr) Thanrcs
the Nilc
thc l{hrnc
We use the with pluralnames of people and places:

groups of



Taylors (= the Taylor family), the Johnsons

Netherlands, rhe Philippines, rhe Unired Stares
Canaries / the Canary Islands, the Bahamas, the Brirish Isles
Rocky Mounrains / the Rockies, the And:s, the Alps

The highest mounrain in the Alps is Mont Blanc. (not'the Mont Blanc')

Norttr/northern erc.



the north (of France)

the south-east (of Spain)


northern France (without ,rhe,)

sourh-easrern Spain
o Sweden is in northern Europe; Spain is in the south.
A/so: the Middle
the Far East
You can also use north/south etc. + a place namc (without .the'):
North America West
South-East Spain



Note that on maps, the is not usually included in the name.

Names with and without the (2)


- @il

inthe where necassqry. Leaue a space (-) if the sentence is already complete.
Who is ...:-... DoctorJohnscr? (Tbe sentence is complete w,thtut the.)
ill, so I we nt to
...., doctor.
2 I was
.... President is the most i-owerful person in ......... ... Unired States.
., President Kennedy was assassinared in 1953.
Wilst,ns? Thcy'rc a vcry lticc couplc.
you know
5 D9
I'rofcss<lr llr<lwn's phol.'-'nuntbcr?


, ..

Sone of these sentefices arc -'orrect, but sonre need the (perhaps more than once). Cctrrect thc
seflteilces where necessary. Put 'RICHl'' if the sentcncc is already correct.

1 Everest was first climbcd in 1953. Kl9!:1I

2 Milan is in north of Italy. .. .r.he llo-ft.h..sf llafy
3 Africa is much larger than Europe. ..
4 Last year I visited Mexico and Unired States.
5 South of England is wrr,nc:- rhan north.
6 Portugal is in westcrn Europc.
7 France and Ilritain are scparated by Channcl.
8 Jim has travelled a lot in Middle East. ,,.
9 Chicago is on [-rke Michigan.
l0 Thc irighcst rrtountain in Africa is Kilimanyaro (5,895 ntcrrcs).
l1 Ne.:r year we are going skiing in Swiss Alps.
l2 United Kingdoni c(,nsists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
13 Seychelles are a group of islands in Indian Ocean.
14 River Volga flows into Caspian Sea......... ..

gcogralthy rluestions. Cboose thc right answcr from tna of thc boxcs attd turitt:
if neccssary. Y<;u do not necd all the names in thc boxcs, I)se an atlas if necessary.

Here are some






occans and seas


riuers and canals






lrrdiarr ()ccrtrt
Black Sea

A rrclcs

Austra li:r


North America
South America

United States



la yas







Suez Canal

Panama Canal

Red Sea

I r0(hat do you have to cross to travel from Europc to Arnerica? .The


2 Where is Argentina? ..........

Which is the longest river in Africa?

which country is Stockholm the capital?
5 Of which country is Washington rhe capiral?
6 What is the name of the mountain range in the west of North America?
7 What is the name of the sea between Africa and Europc?
8 Which is the srn'rllest continent in ihe world?
9 What is th: name of the ocean befween America and Asia?
t0 What is the name of the occan bctwecn Africa rnd Ausrralia?... . ....

4 Of

ll Vhich river flows through t.ondon?

t2 Which river flows through Vienna, Budapest and Belgrade?
13 Of which country is Bangkok the capital?
t4 lVhat joins the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans?
15 tDfhich is the lpngest river in South America?




Names with and without the (2)

irlantcs witbout'thc'
Wc do not use'thc'with nantcs of rnost streets/roads/squares/parks etc.:
Union Street (zol 'rhc...') Fifth Avcnue Piccadilly Circus Hyde Park
Blackro.k Road
Broad'.'ay 'l imes Square warerloo Bridge
Malry ltattrcs (cspccially n.lnlcs of irnportant buildings and institrrri<lns) ar! two words:
Kcnncdy Airport Canrbridgc Univcrsiry
The first word is usually thc name of a person ('Kennedy') or a place ('Cambridge'). \7e do not
usually use'the' with names like these. Some more examples:
Victoria Station (nof 'rhe...')
Edinburgh Castle
London Zoo
Westminster nbbey
Buckingham Palace Canterbury Cathedral
But we say 'the Vhite House', 'the Royal Palace', because 'white' and 'royal' are not names like
'Kennedy' and 'Cambridge'. This is only a general rtrle and there are exceptions.

the maP to anstuer the questions in the wa1, shoun. Write tbe name of the place and the
your sentences, t,se the if necessary.
Wgreet ;t rs ttt' On rrralts wc do not normally use the. ln

Is thcre a cincma near

Is there a sLlpcrmarket near
Is thcre a hotel near
ls thcrc a clrrrrch ncar


Most other names (of places, buildings etc.) have names with the:

thc +


etc, +

Hilton I


National I
Sahara I
Arlantic I




thc Washington Post. the FinancialTimes

the European Union, the BBC (= the British Broadcasting
Sometimes we leave our rhe noun: the Hilton (Hotel), the Sahara (Desert)
Sometimes the name is only the + noun: the Vatican (in Rome), the Sun (British neuspaper)

Names with ...of... usually have the. For example:

the P rnk of England
the Tower of London
the Museum of Modern Art
the Houses of Parliament the Great rVall of China
the Tropic of Capricorn
the Gulf of Mexico
the University of London (but the London University)

Many shops, restaurants, hocels, banks etc. are named after the people who started them. Thesc
names end in -'s or -s. We do not use 'the' with these names:
Lloyds Sank (not the Llov:ls Bank) McDonalds Jack's Guest House Harrods (shop)
Churches are often named after saints;
St Jcrhn's Church (not rhe Sr John's Church)
St Paul's Cathedral
Nantcs of cornpanics, airlincs ctc. are usually without 'the':
Fiat (not the Fiat) Sony Kodak British Airways IBM

Names with and withoul the (1)


ls thcrc a pub
ls there a museum
Is there a bank
Is there a park
Is thcrc a rcstaurant


Thcsc placcs usually havc nanrcs with thc:

h o t e I s / r e s t aur a n t s /p ub s
the Sration Hotel, the Bombay Restaurant, the Red Lion (pub)
thc Palace Theatre, the Odeon Cinema
tirc British Muscum, thc Tatc Gallcry
othcr buildings
thc Empirc Statc Building, thc F'estival Hall, thc W'hitc Housc
the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, the Suez Canal

organisatiorzs ( but
also Section D)











ncar here?
near here?
near here?
near here?


ncar here?


the Odeon in gaines Streel,



Vhere are tbese strccts and buildings? Choose from the box to contplete the sentences. Use the
uhere necessarY.







Eiffcl Towcr

Cathcdral Tff{dla"+qflflre



in New York.
in Washington.
in Athens.
in Venice.

Aoose tlte correct form, utith or without the.

1 Have you ever been to B+i+fuh*4useum / the British Museum. (the... is conect)
2 Hyde Park / The Hyde Park is a very large park in central London.
3 Another park in central London is St James's Park / the St James's Park.
4 Grand Hotel / The Grand Hotel is in Baker Street / the Baker Street.
5 We flew to New York from Gatwick Airport / the Gatwick Airport near London.

Frank is a student at Liverpool University / the Liverpool University.

7 If you're looking for a good clothes shop, I would recommend Harrison's / the Harrison's.
8 If you're looking for a good pub, I would recommend Ship Inn / the Ship Inn.
9 Statue of Liberty / The Statue of Liberty is at the entrance to New York harbour / the Nerv
York harbour.
10 You should go to Science Museum / the Science Museum. It's very interesting.
11 John works for IBM / thc IBM now. He used to work for British Telecom / the British

12 '\(/hich cinema are you going ro this evening?' 'Classic / The Classic.'
13 I'd like to go to China and sce Great Vall / the Grear Vall.
14 \flhich newspapcr shall I
15 This book is published b



wc rlsc


ltlural rroun fr-lr,,,lc thing that has tu)o parts.l;or cxanrprlc:


trousc rs

pyyamas (/op

also iean

and bottom)

glasses (or
spectacles )

These words are plural, so they ta"le a plural v"rb:

o My rrousers are too long, (not'is too long')
You can also usc a pair of + thcse rvords:
o Those are nice jeans. or That's a nice pair of jeans. Qtot'a nice jeans')
r I need some new glasses. or I need a new pair of glasses.
Somc r.toutrs crtd in -ics but are not usually plural. For example: athlctics gymnastics
mathematics (or maths) physics electronics economics politics
o Gymnastics is my favourire sporr.
News is not plural (see Unit 69C):
o What tirnc is the ncws on tclcvisi<>n? (not'arc thc ncws')
S.rtrc w.rcls crrcli.g i. -s ci'r bc sirrgtrl.r.r plurrl. I-'or cxarlplc:
a means of transport many means of transport
a television series
two television series
species a species of bird
200 species of bird

singular nouns are often used with a plural verb. For examplc:

government staff

team family

These nouns are all groups

audience committee company firm

of people. 'We often think of them as a number of people (='they'),

not as one thing (= 'it'). So we often use a plural verb:

o The government (= they) want to increase taxes.
o The staff at the school (= they) are not hrppy with their new working conditions.
In the same way, we often use a plural verb after the name of a sports team or a company:
o Scotland are playing France next week (in a football match).

Shell have increased the price of petrol.

A singular verb (The government wants... /shell has... etc.) is also possible.
We always use a plural verb with police:
o The police have arrested a friend of mine. (not'The police has')
o Do you think the police are well-paid?
Note that a person in the police is 'a policeman / a policewoman / a police officer' (not'a po
'0/e do not often use the plural of person ('persons'). We normally use people (a olural word):
He's a nice person.
They are nice people.
o Many people don't have enough to eat. (zof'doesn't have')


We think of a sum of money, a period of time, a distance etc. as one thing. So we use a singulaf

o Twenty thousand pounds (= it) was stolen in the robbery. (not,were stolen')
o Three years (= it) is a long time to be without a job. (nof 'Three years are...')
o Six miles is a long way to walk every day.
American English





Singular and plural

'gpmplete the scntenccs using a word

t'rom Scctions

A or B. Sometimes you nced a or somc.

cycs arcrt't vcry good. I need ..s!a9epp ...

plant is . .?. ., very rare ..s.Wa-i9.9:...
r Footballcrs don't \\/car trouscrs when thcy plr..y. They wear.

,1 Mf

of trlrrrsp<lrt.

r t''

5 Thc bicyclc nrtd thc car arc

6 I rvant to cut this piece of material. I need
7 Ann is going to write
8 There are a l<>t of American TV .... .
9 While we were out walking, we saw 25 different


of transport.

... shown on British television.

of bird.

In eacb cxarnplc thc uords on the left are connectcd uith an actiuity (for example, a sport or an
ocndenric subject). Write the name of the actiuitl,. Each time the beginning of the word is giuen.

I calculatc algebra equatron

2 government electton mlnlster

3 finance trade industry

4 running jumping throwing
5 light heat gravrty

6 exercrses somersault parallel bars

7 comptttcr silicorr chip viclco gantcs




Choose tbc correct fr-trm of the uert, singular or plural. In one sentence either the singular or
plural uerb is Possible.
1 Gymnastics is/a+e my favourite spcrt. ('is' is correct)
2 Thc trousers you bought for me doesn't/don't fit me.
3 The police want/wants to interview two men about the robbery last week.
4 Physics was/were my best subject at school.
5 Can I borrow your scissors? Mine isn't/aren't sharp enough.
6 Fortunately the news wasn't/weren't as bad as we expected,
7 Where does/do your family live?
8 Three days isn't/aren't long enough for a good holiday.
9 I can't find my binoculars. Do you know where it is / they are?
10 Do you think the people is/are h"ppy with the government?
11 Does/Do the police know how the accident happened?
12 I don't like very hot weather. Thirty degrees is/are too warm for me.
Most of these sentences are urong. Correct them utbere necessary; put'RIGHT'
already cor"ect.

1 The government wanr to

increase raxes. . .KlcH.T- (iwenbel.!.e-alpp..a-Qrrc4r)...

2 Susan was wearing a black jeans. .........

3 Brazil are playing Italy in a football match next Wednesday.
4 I like Martin and Jill. They're very nice persons.
5 I need more money than that Ten pounds xr rrot enough.
5 I'm going to buy a new pyjama.
7 The committee haven't made a decision yet. ......
8 Many people has given up smoking.....
9 There was a police standing at the corner of the



if the sentence is

....:...... ........


Has the police arrived yet? .............

This scissors is not very sharp.

rl f lruuu ur mtne My own nouse 0n my own lby

A friend of minc / a friencl of Tom's erc.
say'a friend of mine/yours/his/hers/ours/theirs' (not 'a fricnd of me/you/him'etc.)
o I'mgoingr<>awcddi,tgonSaturday.Afriendof mine isgctringnrarricd. (not'afriend



o \ile wenr on holiday u'ith somc fricnds of ours. (lol

o Michael had an argumenr with a nci;hbour of his.

o It was a good


'sonrc fricncls of us')



scntcttccs usittg lbc slructu ra itt Section A (a lr.cncl of lttinc c/r:.7.

l'r wr!!rng to- e triend

to one of :ny friends.
yrlur relari<>ns. W crncta
{ls Henry borrowcd <lnc 'rf my books. [{e nry
,:!t Ann invitccl sonrc of hcr friends t<l hcr flat. Arrn

am writing

!(e mer onc



'5 We had dinncr with one of our neighbor''.

on holiday with two of my frie ndsS
6 I went
man one of your friends?
one of Jane's friends at the party.
8 1 met

idea of yours ro go swimming rhis afternoon.

the Sdn) rva/ we say'a friend of Tom's','a friend of my sister's'etc.:

o It was a good idea of Tom's to go swimming.
o That woman over thcre is a friend of mv sistcr's.

Cnnpletc tbe sentcnces using my own lyour own c/c. + ()u('of tbe fctllotuittg:
parlirrnrcnt f-otlrlt tclcvisiort

busincss iclcas rnoncy privatc jct

My own... / your own... etc.

We use my/your/h:s/hcr/its,'our/their before own:
my own house your own car her own room
You cannot say'an own...'('an own house'r'an own car'etc.).

I I don't want to share a roont. I want

2 I don't rvatch rclevision with the rest of the fanrrly. I'vc got

My own... /your own...

In m)' ro()lTl'

(etc.) = somerhing that is only mine/yours (erc.), not sharcd or

o I don't wanr to share a room with anybody. I wanr my own room.
o Vera and George would like to have their own house. (not 'an own house')
o lt's a pir1, that the flat hasn'r got its own entrance.
o It's my own fault that I've got no money. I buy roo many things I don't need.
o \7hy do you want to borrow my car? Why can't you use your own?(- your own car)

doesn't necd to borrow fronr me. She's gor

Julia is fcd up wirh working for othcr pcople. She wants to start
Henr1, is extremely rich. Hc's got
You carr give him advice but he won't listcn. He's got
The Islc of Man is an island off the coast of Britain. It is not complcrely indcpcndent but rt



C,omplete the sentences using my

own / your own etc.

1 Why do you want to borrow my car? Why can't yctu

2 Horv can you blarnc nrc? Ir's not my fault. It's
3 Hc's always using nry idcas. Why can't hc usc
4 Please don't r','orry about my problems. You'r'e got
5 I can'r make her decisions for her. She must make

. \l9.9 yo-Ur. 7W.n 9?l?

my own /y<>ur

C.omplete the sentenccs usitrg

On my own / by myself
On my own and by myself both mean 'alone'. We


!7e don't often buy bread


myself / yourself (singularl

himself / herself / itself
ourselves / yourselves (plural) / themselves

o jack was sitting on his own / by himself in a corner of the caf6.

Learner drivers are nor allowed to drive on their own / by themselves.



* q6g

lc. Obortse orte oI tbcsa t,trIts:

from a bakery. \U

tbe sentences using on my own / by myself etc.


Myeelf/yourself etc.



Brian never goes to the hairdresser. He usually . avW,...

Mary doesn't often buy clothes. She usually . ..
Paul is a singer. He sings songs written by other people but he also

o I like living on my own / by myself.

o Did yuu go on holiday on your own / by yourself?

bakc 9r*c makc

Did you go on holiday on ...V.Ql{!l.QIVI?..

I'm glad I live with other people. I wouldn't like to live on .......
The box was too heavy for me to lift bv.........
'Who was Tom with when vou saw him?' 'Nubody. He was b,,
Very young children should not go swimming hy...............
I don't think she knows many people. When I see her, she is always by ....
I don't like srrawberries with cream. I like them on
Do you like working with other people or do you prefer working by .....
!fle had no help decorating the flat. tVe did it completely on ..........
I went out with Sally because she didn't want to go out on ...............





Myse lflyourse lflthemselves etc.

Conplete each sentence using myself/yourceif eic.

Slrr.l y

lr blamc burn e*t

tlris t'x:rrrrnlc:

Cicorgc cLrt hinrsclf whcn hc wrrs shaving thrs morning.


Wc trsc nrysclf/yoursclf/hirnsclf crc. (rcflt,sitta ltrortotrns)

wlrcn tlrc sttltjccl and o/;iccl lrrc tlrc sallrc:

G.-g.-l .u, Jhfrr.lf I.


Thc reflexive pronouns are:

yoursclf (one personl
h i ms el f/herscl f/i tsel f
plural: ourselves yourselves (tnore than one person) themselves
o I don't want you ro pay for me. I'll pay for myself. (not'l'll pay for me')
o Julia had a great holiday. She enjoyed herself very much.
o Do you somerirnes talk to yourself? (said to one person)
o If you wilnt more to eat, help yourselves. (said to more than one person)




It's not our fault.'You can't blame us.

It's oLrr owlr fault. We blame oursclvcs.
N<rtt' tlrlrt \\'c d<> nol trsc nrysclf/yoursclf ctc. aftcr'brinly'takc solncthilrg with...':
o lt rnight rain. I'll takc an urnbrclla with me. (not'with mysclf')

Study the difference berween -selves and each other:

o Tom and Ann stood in front of the mirror and looked at
themselves. (= Tom and Ann looked at Tom and Ann\
but o Tom looked at Ann; Ann looked at Tom. Thev looked at





Wc also use myself/yourself etc. in anorher way. For example:

. 'Who repaired your bicycle for you?' 'Nobody. I repaired it myself.'
'I repaired it myself = [ repaired it, not anybody else. Here, myself is used to emphasisel(=it

makes it stronger). Some more examples:

. I'm not going to do it for you. You can cio it yourself. (= you, not me)
o Lct's paint the house ourselves. Ir will be much cheaper.
o Thc film itself wasn't vcry good but I liked the music.
. I don't think Sue will get the job. Suc herself doesn't think she'llger it. (or Sue doesn't
think she'll get it herself.)
By myself / by yoursolf elc.

* [ffiU


.. better.

Comltlcte thcse scntences. Usc mysclf/yourcelf etc. only where necessary. Use one of these uerbs
(in the correct form): concentrate defend dry feel meet relax ehare wash
decided to grow a heard because he was fed up with


much better today.

2 I wasn't vcry wcll ycsterday but I ..........,
with a towel.
3 Shc climbed out of the swimming pool and
4 t tried to study but I just couldn't
5 If somebody attacks )'ou, you need to be able to ...............
6 I'm going out with Chris this evening. $7e're
7 You're always rushing around. \7hy don't you sit down and ............

There was no water, so we couldn't

Complete the sentences utith -selves or each other.

1 How long

have you and Billknown


2 If people work too hard, they can make .........

3 I need you and you need me. We need .....,.....


.......... presents

5 Some people are very selfish. They only think of ...............

6 Nora and I don't see
..... very often
7 We couldn't get back into the house. We had locked


at Christmas.

these days.

8 They've had an argument. They're not speaking to ............

9 We'd never met before, so we introduced

......... our.

at the moment.



Complete tbe ansuers to the questions using myselflyou rselflitself etc.




.' lllt7Fn

: nry posltt()n.

Julia had a great holiday. She enioyed ..h.eree.lf,...

my fault. You can't blanre .........
Vhat I did was very wrong. I'm ashamed of
We've got a problem. I hope you can help
'Can I take another biscuit?' 'Of course. Help..........
... ... in case you need it.
Take somc money with
Don't worry about Tom and me.'We can look after ...........
. .. in.
I gave them a key to our house so that they could let .........
When thcy come to visit us, they always bring their dog with ......

4 .ln Britain friends of.en

instead of each other:

How long have you and Bill known one another? (or...known each other)
Sue and Ann don'r like each other. (or...don't like one another)

Get (dressed/marrled etc.)


in myself/yoursclf/ourselves etc. or rnelyoulus etc.

1 Martin



2 lt's not


We do not use myself etc. after concentrate/f.eeUrelaxlmeet:

o You rnust try and concenftate. (not'concentrate yourself')
o 'Do you feel ncrvous?' 'Yes, I can't relax.'
. \What time shall we meet? (nof 'meet ourselves', tt o/ 'meet us')
normally use wash/shave/dress utithoal myself etc.:
. He got up, washed, shaved and dressed, (not 'washed himself' etc.)
But we say 'l dried myselP.


Gcorgc ..9.v!.him?elf . while he was shaving this morning.

Bill fell down some steps but fortunately he didn't
It isn't h'-'r fatrlt. Slr. rcally sh<luldn't...
Plcnsc try arrrl rrrttlcrstitttcl lrow I fccl.
They had a grcat timc. They really ..........
Be careful! That pan is very hot. Don't
Sometimes I can't say e\actly what I mean. I wish I could


singular: rnysclf


cnioy cxprcss hurt

one of tbese uerbs (in the correct form):

Who repaired the bicycle for you?

Did Brian have his hair cut by a hairdresser?
Do you want me to post that letter for you?
Vho told you that Linda was getting married?
Can you phone John for me?

No, he cut


uome and any



In general we use some (a/so somebody/someone/sorrrething) in po:itive

anybody etc.) in negative sentences (but

see also Secrions


Y We bought some flowers.

. He's busy. He's got sornc work to do.
o There's somcbody ar the door.
. I'm hungry. I want somethinj ro ear.

Cpnplete tlte sentences with some or any.

I We didn't buy ...?11Y.. flowcrs.
friends of mine.
2 This evening I'm going our with
. . good films recently?' 'No, I haven't bccn ro thc cirrema
3 'Have you seen
for ages''
rrorcy, s. I had t, l>'rr,w .
4 I didn't havc ...
. milk in my coffce, pleasc?
5 Can I havc
6 I was too tired to do ... .
'f You can cash these travellcr's cheques ar ..
. informatio'. a[,.rut Dlaccs ()f irtrcrcst in thc towrr?
8 Can you givc nre
. train you likc.
9 With the spccial t()urist train tickct, you can rravcl on
words you don't undersrand, use a dictionary,
10 If there are

sentenccs a,rd any (a/so

C and D):


r We didn't buy any flowers.

o Hc's la::y. IJe ncvcr docs any work.
o Theru isn't anybody at thc door.
o I'm not hungry. I don't wanr anything



We use any in rhe following sentences because the meaning is negativc:

. She wenr out without any money. (shc didn't takc any nroncy wirh hcr.)
o He refused ro ear anything. (He didn't ear anyrhing.)
o Hardly anybody passed the examinarion. (= almost nobody passcd)


In most questions we use any:

o 'Have you got any luggage?' 'No, I haven'r.

'Has anybody secn my


'Yes, it's undcr the table

Complete the sentences


But we use some in ques;ions when we expect Che answer 'yes':

o What's wrong? Have you got something in your eye? (lt seems rhat you have gor
som;thing in your eye and I expect you ro answer'yes'.)
lVe use some in questions wnen we offer or ask for rhings:
o Would you like something ro ear?
. Can I have some sugar, plcasc?

\Jfe also use any with the meaning'it doesn't matter which':
. You can catch any bus. They all go to the centre. (= it doesn't mafter which bus you catch!
o 'Sing a song.' '\iflhich song shalll sing?' 'Any song. I don't mind.' (= it doesn'r ma
which song)
. Come and see me any time you want.


'Let's go out somewhere.' '\Jflhere shallwe


Somebody/someone/anybody/anyone are singular words:

o Someone is here to see you.
But we often use they/them/their after these words:
. Someone has forgotten their umbrella. (= his or her umbrella)
o If anybody vyanrs to leave early, they can. (= he or she can)










Sally was upset about

and refused to talk to
This machine is very easy to use.
.. . can learn to use it in a very short rime.
There was hardly
.....,,., on the beach. Ir was almosr deserted.
'l)o you livc.... .......
. ncarJim?' 'No, hc livcs in anothcr part of tt)wr).'
Wc slept in a park because we didn't have ...........
. to sray.
'Where shall we go orr holiday?' 'Let's go
warm and sunny.'
They stay at home all the time. They never seem to go
I'm going out now. If . . .............
.... phcnes while I'm out, can you tell thcrn I'll bc beck
ar 1 1.30?
Why are you looking under the bed? Have you lost ............
who saw the accident should contact the police.
Sue is very secretive. She never tells ...
. (2 words)

Compl ete the sentences. Use any (+ noun) or anybodylanythinglanywhcre.

'Anywhere. I don't mind.'

We left the door unlocked. Anybody could have come in.

Compare something and anything:
o A: I'rn hungry. I want something to eat.
s: \Uqhat would vou like?
,rr: I don't r.ind. Anything. (= something, but it doesr,'t matter what)



We often use any after if:

. If there are any lettcrs for mc, can you scnd thcnr on to rhis nddrcss?
o If anyone has any questions, I'il be pleased ro answer thenr.
o Ler me know if you need anything.
The following sentences have the idea of ift
o I'm sorry for any trouble I've caused. (= if I have caused any troublc)
. Anyone who wants to do the exam must give me their names today. (= if there is anyone)

with some- or any- + -body/-thing/-where.

I was too surprised to say . enyg.hir.1g,

at thc door. Can ),or.r go ancl scc who ir is?
. . mind if I open the u'rndow?
I wasn't feeling hungry, so I didn't eat . . ..
You must be hungry. Would you like ..
... ro ear?
coming and I don'r want
Quick, let's go! There's


Which bus do I have to catch?

Which day shall I come?
What do you want to eat?

...4ny..b.qe,... They

Whatever you
Where shall I sit?

What sorr of job are you looking for?

tVhat time shall I phone tomorrow?
Who shall I invite to the party?

rVhich newspaper shall I buy?

all go to rhe centre.

I don't mind.


It's up to you. You can sit


I don't mind.



ill";, -i.;.
in the shop.

No/non elany


No nonc nothing





You can use thcse rregative words at the beginning of a sentence or alone:
. No cars are allowed in the city centre.
o Nonc <;f thit nr()ncy is nrinc.
o 'What did you say?' 'Nothing.'
. Nobody (or No onc) came to visit nrc while I was in hospital.
. 'Where arc you going?' ' I'm staying here.'



q u c st t o




The house is empty. There's nobody living there.

She had no difficulry finding a job.

N ow w r i t e fu I I

8 rrr . ! iidnll

No/nothing/nobody etc. = not + anylanything/anybody etc.:



We haven't got any money. (= \7e've got no money.)

I didn't say anything. (= I said nothing.)
Slic didn't tcll anybody about her plans. (= She told nobody...)
stirtiorr isn't anywhcrc ncar hcrc. ( norvherc ncar hcrc)

When you usc no/nothing/nobody ctc., do not usc a negative verb (isn't, didn't, can't ctc.):
o I said nothing. Qtot'I didn't sa1'nothing')
o Nobody tells anything. (nol 'Nobody doesn't te 11...';
'Wc also usc anylanything/anybody
ctc. (withoLrt'rrot')
what/who' (sce Unit 84D). Comparc no- and any-:

to nrcan'it docsrr't







n ten ces u

s in

an y/anyb od y / any


Complete these sentences uith no, nune or any.

1 Ir rvas a public holiday, so rherc were .. .f.e... shops open.

r'r'rattcr rvhiclr/

No and none

We use no + a noun. No = not a or not any:

. We had to walk home because there was no bus. (= there wasn't a bus)
. I can't talk to you now. I've got no time. (= I haven't got any time)
. There were no shops open. (= there welen't any shops open)
We use none alone (without a noun):
. 'How much money have you got?' 'None.' (- no money)
o All the tickets have been sold. There are none left. (= no tickets left)
Or we use none of...,
none of these shops none of my money none of itlthem/us/you
Atternoneof +aplural word('noneof theshops','noneof them'etc.) youcanuseasirrgularor
a plural verb. A plural verb is more usual:
o None of the shops were (or was) open.

After nobody/no one you can use they/them/their:

. Nobody phoned, did thcy? (= did hc or she)
. The party was a disastcr. Nobody crrjoycC thcnrsclvcs. (= hirrrsclf or hcrsclf)
. No one in the class did their homework. (= his or her homework)


We took a fcw photographs but

What a stupid thing to do!


. of them were very good.

intelligent person *ouid do such a thing.
I'll try and answer.................. questions you ask me.
I couldn't answer
of the questions they asked me.
We cancelled the parry because ................ of the people we invited were able to

c'omplete these sentences with no- o/ any- + -body/-thing/-where.

I I don't wanr ...eny?.hing... to drink. I'm not thirsty.
2 The bus was completely empty. There was ................................ on it.
3 'Where did you go for your holidays?'
I stayed ar home.,
4 I went ro rhe shops but I didn't buy......... ....

5 'I7hat did you buy?' ............,........ I couldn't find ............

6 The town was still the same when I returned years later

7 !?u, you seen my watch? I've looked all over ih. hour. but I can't find it
8 There was complete silence in the room.
Choose the

2 The accident looked

serious bui


Nottring t enything. It's empty.'

I don't know nothing / anything


had changed.

as injured.

3 I looked out of the window but I c

1 tuty job is very easy. Nobody / Anybody could do it.

6 The situation is uncertain. NothitgTlnythlng

Any blgger / no better etc.

I wanted.,

right tuord.

!h. didn't tell

J 'Ifhat's in that box?'



de arfr.hins....

73 ttt
14 tzt

''What do you want to eat?' 'Nothing. I'm not hungry.'

I'm so hungry. I cot,ld eat anything. (= it doesn't matter what)
Thc exam was extrcmely difficult. Nobody passed. (= evcrybody failcd)
The exam was very easy, Anybody could have passed. (=, it doesn't mattcr who)

Some and any


g none/nobod y/n othing'nowhere.

What did you do?

Who were you ralking ro?
Vhere are you going?
How nrtrch luggage havc you got?
Horv many children have rhey got?
Who did you meet?
What did vou buv?


You can also use these words after a verb, especially .rfter be and have:








tutuult, many, ilnte, Iew, a lot, plenty


lnsome of these sentences much is incorrect or unnatural. Change much ro many or

a lot (of) wbere necessary. Put 'RIGHT' if tbe sentcnce is correct.

little with uncounrable noLrns:

much time much luck little energy little money
We use many and fcw wirh plural nouns:
use much and

many fr,e nds many


few cars

Wc usc a lot of / lots of / plcnty of rr,irh uncourrrablc ancl plurirl nouns:

a lot of luck
lots of rime
plenty of money
a lot of friends
lots of people plenty of ideas

We use much"/many especially in negative sentences and questions. A lot (of) is alsr> possiblc:
o \We didn't spend much moncy. (or Vc didn'r spcrrd a lot of nroncy.)
o Do 1,ou knorv many pcople? (or Do you know a lot of pcoplc?)
o I don't go out much. (or I don't go our a lot.)
In positive sentences a lot (of) is more usual. Much is unusual in posirive senrences in spclken


ideas (=


nor much / not many):

o We must be quick. There is liale time. (- not much, not enough time)
o He isn't popular. He has few friends. (= not many, not enough friends)

You can say very little and very few:

a few are more positive. A linle = some, a small amount:

o Let's go and have a drink. We've got a little time before the train leaves.
(a little time = some time, enough time to have a drink)
o 'Do you speak English?' 'A litde.' (so we can talk a bit)
few = sorrrr a small number:
o I enjoy my life here. I have a few friends and we meet quite often.
(a few friends = rot many but enough to have a good time)
o 'lfhen did you last see Clare?' 'A few days ago.' (= some days ago)


He spoke little English, so it was difficult ro communicate lvith him.

He spoke a linle English, so we were able to communicate with him.
She's lucky. She has few problems. (= not many problems)
Things are not going so well for her. She has a few problems. (= some problems)

Note that'only a limle' and 'only a few' have a negative meaning:

o We must be quick. We've only got a little time.
o The village was very small. There were only a few houses.
Countable and uncountabl"

' @[EU




Contplete the sentences using plenty (of) + one of the follotuing:

hotels money

room fiffi to lcarn

1 Thcrc's no nccd ro hurry. V'lg'.y.e. ggl?l.enry af tir-na.

thines to scc

2 He's got no financial problenrs. He's got

3 Come and sir with us. There's
4 She knows a lot but she still has..
5 Ir's an interesting to\vn to visit. There
6 I'm sure we'll find somewhere to stay.
Put itt much, many, few or littlc.

He isn't vcry popular. He has ..,f.qw-.. friends.

The weather has been very dry recently. We've

2 Ann is very busy thcse days. She has..,....

... frcc rimc.
3 Did you takc
phorographs whcn you wcrc on holiday?
4 I'rn not very busy today. I haven'r got . .....
to do.
5 The museum was very crowded. There were r()o
.. ... . people.
5 Most of the town is modcrn. Thcre are ...
old buildings.


of tbese sentences need a. Put in awhere necessary.

,....... rain.


the sentence is alreadl,


A little and


o There is very little time.

o He has very few friends.

We didn't spend nruch money.


Plenty = more than enor.rgh:

o There's no need to hurry. \?e've gor plcnty of timc.
o I've had plenty to ear. I don'r want any more.

Little and few (without'a') are negarive

drinks much tea. ..a.le! pI.Iea

3 Jim always purs nr.rch salr orr his foorl.
4 Wc'll havc to hurry. Wc lrlvcn'r got nruch rirrrc.
5 Did it cost much to repair rhe car?
5 Ir cost :nuch to repair the car. ..... ..
7 I don't know much people in this rown.
8 I use the phone much ar work.,,. ..
! Thcy've got so nruch nronc), rhey don't knorv what ro do wirh

fcw cou ntries

We spent a lot of money. (rol'We spent much money')

He goes our alot. (rtot 'H- goes out much')
You can use many in posirive sentences, but a lot (of) is nrore usual
o A lot of people (or Many people) drive too fast.
But note that we use too much and so much in positivc sintences:
r \Wc spent too much moncy.



Muclr (of)/ many (of)



lucky. She has few problems. ...Kl9lll..

2 Things are not going so well for her. She has few problems. ..a..tew,.gr.eblema
3 Can you lend me few dollars?
4 I can't give you a decision yet. I need linle rime to think.
5 There was little traffic, so rhe journey didn't rake very long.
5 It was a surprise that he won the match. Few people expected him to win.
7 I don't know much Spanish - only few words
Put in lirtle

/ a little

/ few /a

1 !7e must be quick. We


have ...l.ittl.e-... sir1s.

2 Listen carefully. I'm going to give you ...........

3 Do you mind if I ask you .
4 This town is not a very int
r, so ...........
tourists come
5 I don't think Jill would be
s gor ..........
. parrence.
6 '\U7ould you like milk in yot
7 This is a very boring place to live. There's................. to do.

'Have you ever been to


'Yes, I've been





All / all

of most / most of

[r[ rl l' r


I none of etc.



You can use the words in thc box (and also no) with a noun (some food / few books etc.):

o All cars hrvc whccls.

^ S<llrrc cars can go fastcr thlrn othcrs.
o (on a notice)NO CARS (= no cars allowcd)
o Many people drive too fast.
o ldon't go out vcry <lftcn. I'm at honrc most days.


You can use thc words in the box (irlso nonc and half) rvith of. You can say somc of (the
most of (nry friends), none of (this money) etc.

Weusesomeof,mostof(etc.) +the/this/that/these/thoselmylhis/Ann's...etc.



.finr tlrinks that all ..,,,.. nluscunts arc boring.




the people I invited birds my dinner the houses

European countries her opinions my spare time



hll ,.a-ar.a . havc wheels.

I spend mosr
It's a historic


people watch too much TV.

7 A:e any......,...... those lefters for rre?

8 Most
days I gct up bcforc 7 o'clock.

thc list and completc tbe sentences. (Jse of (some of / most of etc.) tuhere


6 Many


. gardenirrg.
are over 400 years old.

.. ... are caused by bad driving.

When she got married, she kept it a secret. She didn't tell any ...
Not many people live in the north of the country. Most

live in the south.

So we say:

of thc ;rcoplc, sttntc oI thosc 1-rco1-rlc (lmt rrol 'sontc of pc<lplc')

nrost oI nry fricrrrls) rrrost of Ann's fricrrcls lltttl rtot'n]ost of fricnds')
nonc of this rnoncy, nol'lc of thcir rnoncy (but not'nonc of ntoncy')
For example:
o Somc of thc pcoplc I work with arc vcry fricnclly.
o Nonc of this nloncy is utiirc.
o Have you read any of these books?
o I wasn't well yesterday. I spent most of the day in bed.
You don't need of after all or half. So you can say:
o All my friends live in London. or All of my friends...
o Half this money is mine. or Half cf this money...


p^rry wcrc vcry

I I havcn'r rcad rnany ..lf


tbe sentence is already coffiplete.

.5 I havc livcd in l-ondon r]roSt.,....,,..... my lifc.

the PoPulation

o(...lnrost of... / nonc of...

(-) if

:.:, cars hitvc whccls.

qf tlris nroncy is lrinc.
...... people get angry very easi[y.
. tlrc pcoplc i nrct at tl',r

accrdents tdfs

emDt)t space


C,hoose front
necessar)' '

You cannot say'all of cars', 'most o/people'etc. (see also Section B):
o Sonrc pcoplc arc vcry unfricrrdly, (nol 'sontc of peoplc')
Notc thet wc srly ntost (llr.r/ 'tlte rttost'):
o Most tourists don't visit this part of the town. (rol'the most tourists')


PfiM of whcre nccessary. Lcaue an

Not all

.,, can fly. For example, the penguin can't fly.
, . to thc party could comc, so I cancellcd it.
''10 Julia and I havc vcry diffcrcnt idcas. I don't agrce with many
l1 Sarah travels a lot. She has been to mosr .....
l2 I had no appctitc. I could orrly cat half .. ....

C,omplete tbe sentenc':s using the words

Sometimes you need the or of the.

'1 I wasn'r we ll yesterday. I spenr


...9.em.e..c-?1.6-... can

also Section C.

Cornpare all... and all (of) the...:

. All flowers are beautiful. (= all flowers in general)
o All (of) the flowers in this garden are beautiful. 1= 2 particular group of flowers)

You can use all of / some of / none of etc. + it/us/you/them:

. 'How many of these people do you know?' 'None of them.'/'A few of them.'
o Do any of you want to come to a party tonight?
o 'Do you like this music?' 'Some of it. Not all of it.'
Betore itlus/you/them you need of after all and half (all of, half of):
all of us (not'all us')
half of them (not'half them')
You can use the words in the box (and also none) alone, utithout a noun:
o Some cars have four doors and some have two.
o A few of the shops were open but most (of them) were closed.
o Half (of) this money is mine, and half (of it) is yours. (not'the half')

in brackets. Sometimes no other utorCs are necessary.

. .mwL..ol.rhp.Aay.. in bed. (most/day)

go faster than others. (some/cars)
drive too fast. (many/people)
you took on holiday were very good.

learn more quickly than others. (some/people)


6 We've eaten


Have you spent......


can't ,top trtt ing. He


:": 1


is easy to
on with.
The exam was difficult. I could only answer

:";3 i' [','r5: n !],"'




had a lazy holiday. We spent

le Ve




...... like

him. (most/people)
.. (half/questions)

itlthem/us (all of it / some of them efc.).



Every one.,
had an umbrella.
ls mlne.
were able to help me.
were French.




Al of whom / most of whtch








tsom / Dotn


neither / neither


either / either


use both/neither/either for two things. You can use rhese words witir a noun (botl^bcoks,
neither book erc.).
For example, you are talking abour going our ro eat rhis e. cning. There arc rwo rcsraurants
where you :an go. Yor, siry:
o Both restaurants are very good. (not'tne both r.staurants')
o Neithcr rcstaurant is expcnsive .
o \)(/e can go to eithcr rcstaurant. I don't mind. (cithcr = onc or rhc orhcr, ir docsn't martq
which one)

Both of... / ncithcr of ... /cithcr of...

When you use both/ncither/either + of, you always nced the ... / thcse/those.. . / my/yourlhiy
Tom's... (etc.)' You cannot say'borh of restaurants'. You have to say'both of the restaurants,
'borh of those restaurants' etc.:
e Both of these resraurants are very good.
o Neither of the restaurants we went ro was (or wcrc) expe nsive .
o I haven't becn ro either of those rcstaurants. (= I haven'r bccn ro onc or thc othcr)
You don't need of after both. So you can say:
o Both my parenrs are fro'n London. or Both of my parenrs...
You can use both of / neither or / either of + us/you/them:
o (talking to two people)Can either of you speak Spanish?
o I asked rrvo people rhe way ro rhe sration but neither of thcm kncw.
You must say 'both oP before us/you/them (of is necessary):
o Both of us were very rired, (nor'Both us were...')
After ncitircr of,.. .r singullr or a plural vcrb is possiblc:
o Neithcr of the children wants (or want) to go to bcd.
You can also use both/neither/cither alone:
o I couldn't decide which of the two shirts to buy. I liked both. (or I likcd both of rhem.)
o 'ls your friend Brirish or American?' 'Neither. She's Australian.'
o 'Do you want tea or coffee?' 'Either. I don't mind.'


o Both Ann and Tom were late.

o I was both tired and hungry when I arrived home.
o Neither Liz nor Robin came ro the party.
o She said she would contacr me but she neither wrore nor phoned.
o I'm not sure where he's from. He's either Spanish or Italian.
o Either you apologise or I'll never speak to you again.

witb both/neither/either.
coffee?' ' . E-i?her.. I really uon'r mind.'

i+ I
It's the 20th.'
Z .Whar day is it today - rhe 18th or the 19th?'
3 'There are two sandwichcs here. Do you mind wh,ch I rake?' 'No, takc . ..
4 r: Where did you go for your holidays - Scotland or Irclancl?

A week in Scotland and a wcek in lrcland.
'Whcn shall I phonc you, morning or afrerno<ln?' '
"Where's Kate? Is sl,c at work or at home?'
s: Wc went

Contplete the sentcnces

witb both/ncithcr/eithcr.


of wbarc



.8.o,!.h..@.fl .y parcnts are from London.

To get to the town centre, you can go along the footpath by the river r>r you can go along rhc
. .... way.
road. You can go
times he was our.
3 I tried twice to phone George bur
., Tom's parents is English. His father is Polish and his nrorhcr is Iralirr.,
5 I saw art accident this n-rorning. Onc car drove into thc back of anothcr. lrorrunatcly
drive r rvas iniured bur
cars werc quitc birdly clarrr.rgcd
6 l've gor two sisters and a brother. My brother is working but
sisters are still at school.



Complete the sentences


with both/neithcr/either of us/them.

1 I askcd rwo pcople rhe way to rhe srarion bur....r-e.l.?h.Q.1.9.1.lhefi.. could help mc.
2 I was invited ro two parries last week but I didn't go ro
3 There were two windows in the room. It was very warm, so I opened
4 Sarah and Iplay tcrrnis tollcrhcr rcgularly bur
.;',;i,,t vcry
5 I tricd rwo b<xrkshops for the book I wanred but ......
. .... had it.

Write sentences witlo


both...and... / neither...nor... / eithcr...or...

So was Ann. ....9c9h.Tom enA.Ann..wsr?..lepg;...

She didn't write and she didn't phone. ...?.he.ngl.har..wrahc.n.a.l.p.hen.e.A,...
Jim is on holiday and so is Carol. Both
George doesn't smoke and he doesn't drink.
Jim hasn't got a car. Carol hasn'r got a car either.
It was a very boring film. It was very long
The film
Is that man's name Richard? Or is ir Robert? Ir's one of the two.
That man's name ..,......

1 Tom was lare.



You can say:


Cpmplete the sentences

'Do you want tea or



8 I haven't

got time ro go on holiday. And I haven't got rhe money.

!7e can leave today or we can leave tomorrow

- whichever you


Compare either/neither/both (two things) and anylnone/all (more than two):

There are rwo good hotels in rhe rown.

You can stay at either of them.
\(e tried two hotels. Neither of them had
any rooms. / Both of them were full.



o There are many good hotels in rhe rown.

You can stay at any of them.

o We tried a lot of hotels. None of them

had any rooms. / All of them were full.

Bothof whorn/nettherof



Both- E@lsl

for you i



All, every and whole

Afl and everybody /everyone


We do not lrornrally usc all to nrcirn cvcrybody/cvcryonc:

o Everybody en joyed thc party. (not 'All en joyed...')
But notc that we say all of us/you/thcm, nor 'cvcrybody of...':
o All of us crrjoy,cd rhc parry. (nrst'cvcrylrody of us')


.. . about hcr new job. It sounds quirc

J Margaret told rnc
writc their nanles on a piece of paper, please?
6 Can

YJhy are you always thinking about money? Money isn't ......,.......

8 I didn't have much money'vith me.

9 v'her, the fire alarn rang, ..........

.. ...,.

inte rcsring.


I had ',vas ten pounds.

left the building immediately.

she said was that she was going away.
10 She didn't say where she was going.
11 we have complctely different opinions. I disagree with
she says.
did u'ell
vvell rn
in the examination.
we all drd
in our class passed.
12 Ve
.. of us passcd.
13 \ile all did wcll in thc cxaminarion.
14 t07hy arc you so lazy? Why do you cxpecr nre ro do
Write sentences

with whole.

1 I read the book from beginning to end. .l read.the.whp.l.e..Veo.l'..

Every/everybody/everyone/everything are singular words, so we use a smgulttr verL-t:

o Every seat in the rheatre was taken.


o llverybody has arrivcd. (not'heve arrivcd')

But we often use thcy/thcm/thcir after cvcrybody/cvcryonc:
o Evcrybody said thcy cnjoyed thcmsclves. (= hs or she cnjoycd hinrself or herself)


Everyone in the team played


Paul opened a box of chocolates. When he finished eating, there were no chocolates left in

the box. He ate

t 4 The police came to the house. They were looking for something. They searched everywhere,


early in the morning unril late in the evening.

5 Ann worked from

All and wholc

Wholc = colttplctc, cntirc. M<lst <lftcn wc Llsc wlrolc witl't singular nouns:
. . Did you read the whole book? (= all the book, not iusr a part of it)
o She has lived her whole life in Scotland.
we normally use the/my/hcr etc. before whole. compare wholc and all:
the whole book / all the book her whole life / all her life
You can also use: a whole...:
o Jack was so hungry, he ate a whole packet of biscuits. (= a complete packet)
tVe do not normally use whole with uncountable nouns. IDUe say:
o I've spent all the money you gave me. (not,the whole money')

Evcryonc in l)avc arrcl Judy's family plays tcnnis. Dave and Judy play, and so do all their

Jack and Jill went on holiday to the seaside for a week. It rained from the beginning of the
week to the end. It.................
Nout utrite sentences 5 and 7 again using all instead o/whole.





Complete these sentences using every with one


F,vcryIall/wholc with tirnc words

We use every to say how often something happens. So we say every day / every Monday

ten minutes / every three weeks etc.:

o When we were on holiday, we went ro the beach every day. (not,all days,)
e The bus service is very good. There's a bus every ten minutes.
o A nn gets paid ever-' four weeks.
All day / the whole day = the complete day from beginning to end:
o We spent all day / the whole day on the beach.
o He was very quiet. He didn't say a word all evening / the wholc evening.
Notc that wc say all day (not'all thc day'), all wcck (not'all thc wcck') etc.
Compare all the time and every time:
o They never go out. They are at home all the time. (= always - not,everv time')
o Every time I see you, you look different. (= each rime, on every occasion)

- @il

All and everything

Sornctirncs yoLl can use all or cvcrythrng:
o I'll do all I can to help. or I'll do cvcrything I can to help.
You can say'all I can' l'allyou necd'etc. but rve do not normally use all alone:
o I{e thinks hc knows cvcrything. (not 'hc knows all')
o Our holiday was a disaster. Everything went wrong. Qtot 'All went rvrong')
Wc usc all in rhc cxpression all about:
o 'l'hcy rold us all about thcir holiday.
Wc also usc all Qrct'every,thing') ro nrean thc only thing(s):
. All I'vc eaten today is a sandrvich. 1= the only thing I've earen toda\.)



Cpmplete tltese sentences uith all, everything or everybody/everyone.

E.rcry.b-0dy.... enloyed it.
1 It was a good
2 ...41 .. I've caten today is a sandwich.
.... .. has got rheir faults. Nobody is perf:ct.
rs rhe same as rt was.
4 Nothing has

Each and Gvfl


Every one

- @El

Att (word order)

- @[EE|

minutes tef,fiinr*tee



of the following:



four years

1 The bus service is very good.




There's a bus ...q-ly.!*n..mln.u.te?,...

Tom is ill. He has some medicine. He has tt, take it.................
The Olympic Games take place
We live near a busy airport. A plane flies over our house
lt's a good idea to have a check-up with the dentist

Wbicb is the colrect abernatiue?


I don't like the weather here. It rains every time / all the time.
Vhen I was on holiday, all my luggage / my whole luggage was stolen.



Each and euery

Each and every are similar in meaning. Often it is possible to use each or every:
o Each time (or Every time) I see you, you look different.
o There's a re lcphone in each room (or every room) of the hol:se.

Look at the pictures and complete the sentences

with each or every,

q 2{--,

But each and cvcry irrc not cxf ctly rhe same. Study thc diffcrcncc.:

We usc cach whcrr wc tlrink of tlrings

separarely, one by, one.
. Study each sentence carefully. (- srudy
the sentences one by one)

Wc use cvery whcn wc think of thi'rgs as a

group. The meaning is similar to all.

= X+ X+ )(+ X

Every sentence must have a verb. (= sll

sentences in general)
VCr/ =

Each is more usual for a small number:

o There were four books on rhe tablc.
Each book was a differenr colour.
o (in a card ganre)Ar the beginning of rhe
game, each play'er has three cards.

Evcry is more usual for a large number:

o Carol l<,ves rcading, Shc hirs rcacl cvcry
book in the library. (= all thc books)
o I would like to visir cvery counrry in the
world. (= all the countries)

Each (but not every) can be used for nvo rnings:

o In a football match, each team hr,s 11 players. (not'every ream')
We use every (not each) ro say how often somerhing happens:
. 'How often do you go shopping?' 'Every day.' (not'each day')
o There's a bus every ten minutes. fuot 'each ten mirrutes')

.Easb player


You can use every with a noun:



evcry studcnt

You can say cvery onc (but not cvcry alone):

. 'Have you read all these books?' 'Yes,
every one.'



Each one was differenr.

You can say each of (rhe.../thesc... erc.):

r Read each of these sentences carefully.
o Each of the books is a differcnr colour.
A/so each of us/you/them:
o Each of them is a different colour.

train to



We've won ........... . game this season.

apartment has a balcony.

You can say evcry one of... (but not 'every

I've read every one of those books.

I've read every one of them.



Thcre wcre four books on thc table . . Eap.h.... book was a different colour.
Olympic Games are held ...ev.eH... four years.
. ... ..., parent worrics about thcir childrcn.
playcr has a rrrckct.
In a ganrc of tcnnis thcrc arc two or four playcrs.
Nicola plays volleyball .... .......
Thursday evening.
I understood most of what they said but not .......
....... word.
The book is divided into five parts and
of these has three secrions.
I get paid
four weeks.
We had a great weekend. I enjoyed
.. minute of it.
I tried to phone her two or three times, but .....
time there was no reply.
Car seat belts save lives.
driver should wear one.
(from an examination paper) Answer all five quesrions. Begin your answer to
question on a separate sheet of paper.

2 The

Or you can use each one:

6 There's a

Put in cach or cvcr\'.

Compare thc structurcs wc usc with cach and cvcry:

You can use each rvith a noun:

each book each studcnt
You can use each alonc (without a noun):
o None of the rooms was the same. Each
was different. (- each room)

has three cards.

Carol has read .every... book in rhe library. 7 She was rvearing four rings - one on
sidc of a square is thc sanrc length.
, scat in the theatre was taken.
Our football ream has been very succcssirrl.


<,I those books')

Complete the sentences using each.

You can also use each in the middle or at the end of a sentence. For example:
o The students were each given a book. (= Each student was given a book.)
o These oranges cost 25 pence each.
Everyone and every one
Everyone (one word) is only for people (= 'ever',body'). Every one (two words) is for things or
people, and is similar to each one (see Section B):
o Everyooe enjoyed the party. (= Everybody...)
o He is invited to lots of parties and he goes to every one. (= ro every party)
Each other

* @EEl


and very

+ @fi[l

1 The price of

one of those oranges is 25

pence. Those .. ate.n.gz?


2 I had ten pounds and so did Sonia. Sonia and I .........

3 One of those postcards costs 40 pence. Those
4 The hotel was expensive. I paid {,40 and so did you. We . ..
Put in everyone (one word)

or every one (two


He's invited to a lot of parties and he goes to ...w,er.y...?r.e,


2 As soon as ................
had arrived, wc began thc meeting.
3 I asked her lots of questions and she answered......
...,.... correctly.
4 She's very popular.
. ...... . likes her.
5 I dropped a tray of glasses. Unfortunately ......,......
...... broke.


Adiectives ending in -ing anci -ed (boring/bored etc.)


(Jse the

Thcrc arc nrrlrry acljcctivus cn(ling, in -ing a'.d -cd. I;or cxanrplc, boring and borcd. Srudy this
cxltrrrnlc sitr.r:t tion:
Janc has bcen doing.he same job ror a vcry long rimc.
I--r'cry day shc d<>cs cxactly tlrc snrnc tlrirrg again and
agairr. SIrc clocsn't cnjoy it an1'rnorc rrrrd would likc to
do sonrcthing different.
Janc's job ;s boring.
Jane is bcred (with her job).


Sotttcboclv is borcd if sonrcthing (or sonrcbody clsc ) is boring. Or, if sorncthing is boring, it
nrakcs yorr borcd. So:
e Jane is borcd bccausc hcr job is boring.
o Jane's job is boring, s<> Jane is borcd. (not'Jane is boring')
lf a person is boring, rhis nreans rhar rhey make other people bored:
o Gcorgc rrlrva)'s rnlks aborrr thc sanrc rhings. llc's rcally boring.

Contparc adjccrivcs crrding in -ing and -cd:

Y<lu can sar':

. My job is

You can say:

I'nr borcd with nry jo[r.
I'm not interested in nry job any more.
I'm always tired when I finish work.
I'm not satisfied with my job.
My job makes me depressed. (etc.)



deprcssing. (etc.)

The -ing ad jective rells you about the job.

It was quire surprising that he

the cxamination.


'I'lrc filnr rvas disappointing.

I cxprcctcd
it to be much bertcr.

The nervs was shocking.

'interesting in politics')
Are you interested in buying a car? I'm
trying to sell mine.



Choose tbe correct word.

the film. I had expected it to be better.

Are you interesting/ interested in football?
Thc football match was quite cxciting / excitcd. I enioyed it.
when you have to ask pcoplc for money.
lt's somctimcs cnlbarrassing / e
Do you easily get embarrassing / embarrassed?

1 I rvas Cis+ppeinri% / disappointed with


6 Ihadneverexpectedtogetthe job. Iwasreally amazing/amazed whenlwasofferedit.
7 She has rcally learnt very fast. She has made astonishing / astonished progrcss.
8 I didn't find the situation funny. I was not amusing / amused.
9 It was a really terrrfying / terrified experience. Afterwards everybody was very shocking /

Why do you always look so boring / bored? Is your life really so boring / bored?
He's one of the most boring / bored people I've ever met. He never stops talking and

Complete the sentences using one

Julia is very in,.erested in politics. (nor

thc part1,?

Diana rcachcs young childrcn. It's a vcry hard job but shc cnioys it. (cxharrst-)
a Shc enioys hcr iob but it's often ...........
b At the end of a day's work, she is often
3 It's been raining all day. I hate this weather. (depress-)
a This weaiher is .................
b This weather makes me ..............
... because of the weather.
c lt's silly to get ..............
4 Clare is going to the United States next month. She has never been there before. (excit-)
.. expcrience for her.
a It will be an ........
b Going to new places is al'.vays .. ,.. ..
about going to the Unitcd Statcs.
c She is really



a The film was ...4iea?P.elnglng....

5 Yte were ...d.i.?!44. . rn ith the film.

The -ed adjective tells you how somebody

Compare these examples:

. Julia thinks politics is very interesting.

Did )'ou meer anyone interesting at

(pmplete the sentences for eacb situation.

I The film wasn't as good as we had expected. (disappoint-)

never says anything interesting

feels (abou,t the iob).

Everybody was surprised that he

passed the


o I was disappointcd wirh rlrc film.

it to

be much berter.

rVe were very shocked when we heard
the news.

word giuen + the ending -ing or -ed.


annoying / annoyed
boring / bored


/ interested.
of the words in the box.

exciting / excited

confusing /

disgusting /

exhausting / exhausted
interesting / interested
surprising / surprised

He works very hard. It's trot ...9wp.rJ9j!19.... that he's always tired.
got nothing to do. I'rn .............
Most of the students didn't
3 The teacher's explanation was
understand it.
4 The kitchen hadn't been cleaned for ages. lt was really.......
ln art.
5 I seldom visit art galleries. I'm rrot particularly . . ... ....
..,....... lust because I'm a few minutes late.
5 There's rro nd to get
I fcll aslcep.
7 The lccture was . ...........
8 I asked Emily if she wanted to come out with us but she wasn't
9 I've been working very hard all day and now I'm
......... about it.
10 I'm stafting a new job next week. I'm quite
11 Tom is very good at telling funny stories. He can be very
12 Liz is a very
.......... person. She knows a lot, she's travelled a lot and
she's donc lots of different things.

2 I've


The position of enough

Enough goes after adjecrives and adverbs:
He didn'r g3t the job because he wasn't experienccd enough. (nol'cnough cxperiencedl
.' You won't pass the examination if you don'r work hard enough.
. She shouldn'r ger married yer. She's n<>t old cnough.
Thc opposirc is too.,. (too harcl / too old crc.):
o You never stop working. You work too hard.
Enough normally goes before nouns:
o Hc didn'r gcr thc job bccausc hc cliclrr'r Irrrvc clrough
cxpcricncc. (ttol 'cxpcricncc
. I'd like to go away on holiday but I haven'r gor cnough money.
' Some of us had to sit on the floor because therc weren'r enough chairs.
You can als<-r use enough alone (rvirhour a noun):
o I'll lend you some money if you haven'r got cnough.
The opposire is too much... / too many...:
. 'We can't go awa)' on holiday. It costs too much (money).
. There are too many neople and not enough chairs.
We say enough/too...for (sonrebody/something):
. I haven't got enough money for a holiday.
o He wasn'r experienced enough for the job.
. This shirr is too big for me. I need a smaller size.
Bur we usually say'cnough/ do somcthing,Qrct 'for cloing'). So rvc
crrough nron(y to buy sorncthing too youllll to do soirrcthilrg ctc.









She shorrldn't gct marricd yet. She's nor old.enp.ugh..

I'd like ro buy a car l'rut I havcn'r got
irt yorrr t('lr ()r wottld yorr likc sorttt' ttt<lrt'?
I{.rvc yotr got
? Or slrlll I su'irclr ott tltc hcrrting?
Arc y<ltt
for rtll of yorr.
It's only a smirll cirr. Thcrc isn't
t() {l() t() w<lrk rhis rt',lrrtirtg.
Stcvc clrdn't fccl
lcl iclrr't:lnswcr rrll thc 11 :rcstiorts ir' tlrc cxrrrtt. Idirl rr't lravc
to apply' for thc job?
f)o you think I'vc got
for you.
Try this jackct on and sce if it's
for e vcrYbocly to hrrvc coffcc at lhc srrnrc trnrr'.
Thcrc wcrcn't

Conrplete tbe answe rs to thc questirnts. Usc,tooorcnoug,htuitbtbcwordittllrackets.

Is shc going to get rnar.ied?

(old) No, shc's




enevghle gs!.


about sonrething.

(busy) Wcll, I'nr afraid l'nr

t() y()U 'to\v.

(latc) No, it's

cirre ma.

(u'rrrrr) It's lrot

ilr tlrt'p,ilr(l('n.


Worrlcl you likc to bc a polirician?

(nicc) No,


(cncrgy) No, lhrrvcn't ll()t

y<ltr t() ;ll:ry tcrrnis torlay?

It'tltis lotlrt;'.

l)id you hcrr whar

hc was seying?

(far rrway) No, wc wcrc

Can he rcad a newspaper in English?

(English) No, he doesn't

what hc was saying.



a ncwspapcr.
Maka ortc scrtlcncc front two. Oonrplcla thc,tctu scnlcrrcc usirtli too orcnoug,lt.
1 We couldn't ear rhe food. It was roo hot. .. fhe.tqp.d.wee..W-a ho-.t.W.pal......
2 I can't drink this coffee. It's too hot. This coffee is
3 Nobody could rnove the piano. It was too heavy.

The piano
I don'r wear this .o"f in *inr.r. t, ilnl, warm cnor.rqh.
This coat
I can't explain the situation. It is too complicated.
The situation.....
Three pcoplc can't sit on this sofa. lt isn'r wiclc cnough.
This sofa
\We couldn't climb over the wall. It was too high.
The wall
You can't sce some things without a microscope. Thcy arc too small.

The wallet was too big to put in my nocket.

(not'to<, big to pur ir')
These boxes are too heavy ro carry. (not'too heavy to
carry them')
The water wasn'[ clean enough to swim in.

Adjeclive + to... (ditficult to understand etc.)

of the fotlowing adiectiues or ttoutls:

:, politicirrn.






He wasn'r expcricnccd cnough to do thc job.

To... and lor... (purpos")


cups milk moncy qualifications



to thc

Some more examples like this:

4/js67i,,ss; big

Why tion't wc sir irr rhc grrrclcn?

Shc's nor old cnough to gct rrrarricd.

Shc's too young, to gct lrrrrrricd.
Lct's get a taxi. It's too far to walk homc frorn herc.
There weren't enough chairs for everyone to sit down.
They spoke too quickly for us to understand.

The food was very hot. We couldn'r ear it.

The food was so hot that we couldn't ear it.
The food was too hor to eat. (without'it'\

[-ct's l]o to thc cincma.

I haven't got enough money to go on holiday. (not'for going')

We say:

{,Conplnt, tltcse scntences usittg cnough tt,itb

I rrccd to talk to

For exar:rple:




Enough and too

- @fflfi


uOmpanson (1)

- cheapet, mote expensive




tc thc scntetrces usittg a contl)aralit,c fttnrt (oldcr / m<lrc important ctc.).

Look ar these examples:


How shall we travel? By car or' b1,

b1 train?
Let's go by car. Ir's cheape
Don't go by train. It's mor
lorc expenstvc.
Cheaper and morc expcnsive are
re comparat iue f(srns.



After comparatives yuu can trse than (sec also tlnit 105):
. Ir's cheap:r ro go by car than by rrain.
. Going by train is more expensive than going by car.


morc... for adverbs that

end in -ly:



more scriously
more carcfully

A/so: more often

but: earlier (nol 'more early')

For spelling, see Appendix 5.

Your work isrr'r vcry good. I'm sure you can dcr
Don't worry. Thc situation isn't so bad. It could be
l0 I was surprised wc got here so quickly. I expected the journel'to take
11 You're talking very loudly. Can you speak a bit
12 You hardly cvcr phonc mc. Why don't you phone mc
t3 You'rc standrrrg t(x) near thc camcra. C-an you nrovc a bit
t4 You were a bit dcpressed ycstcrdal'but i'ou look

We use more... for ionge r ',vords (twc>

syllables or more):
more modern more scrious
more expensivc morc comfortable

Conrpletc tbe scntences. Eacb




You're older than m..

The exam was quire easy - easier than
we expected.
Can you walk a bit fastcr?
I'd like to havc a biggcr car.
Last night I went to bcd carlicr rhan


You're more patient than me.

The exam was quite difficult - more
difficult than we expccted.
Can you walk a bir morc slowly?
I'd likc to havc a morc rcliablc clr.
I don't play tcnnis much thcse days. I
used to play more often.

You can use -er o/ more... with some two-syllable adjectives, especially:

quiet clever narrow shallow simple

o lt's too noisy here. Can we go somewhere quieter

than where


Compare these examples:




+ better:
The garden looks better since you tidied it up.
I know him well - probably better rhan anybody else.
bad/badly -) worse:
. 'Is your headache better?' 'No, ir's worse.'
o He did very badly in the exam - worse than expeced.


than I thought. (or

Further (but not'farther') can also mean (more' or 'additional':
o lrt me know if you hear any further news. (= any more news)
Comparison (2) and (g)


Superlatives (cheapesVmost expenslve etc.;

ttse tbe


contpa"atiue form of one of tbc u<trds in tltt, lisl.

ne cessary.






I was feeling tired last night, so I went to bed . .Qar.liQr.lhen. usual.

I'd likc to hirvc a m.Ql.Q.relia.V.l.e car. The onc I've got kceps brcakirrg dorvn.
. wc thought ar frrst.
Unfortunately her illness was
Have you lost weight?
You look
don't lrave enough spacc he rc.
I want a . ,..
irr having a goorl tinrc.
He doesn't study very hard. Hc's.
Health and happincss arc
Thc instructiorrs wcrc vcry conrplicatcrl. 'I-lrcy corrltl ltrtvc Ilccn
l'hcrc wcrc a lr>t <'lf pcoplc ort thl bus. lt rvas
.. living in a torvn.
I Iike living in the countryside . It's
if you havc a good rnap.
You'll find your way around the town ..
in others.
In some parts of the country, prices are


+ further (or farther):

o lt's a long walk from here to the station - further


, a\\,ll) i

Readthe situations and complete the sentences. Use a comparatiue form (-er or more...).
I Yesterday the temperature was nine degrees. Today it's only six degrees.

/ more quiet?

These adjectives and adverbs have irregular compararive forms:



The comparative form

We use -er for short words (one
cheap -+ cheaper fast-+ fastcr
large -+ Iarger thin + rhinner
\Ve also use -er for two-syllable s,ords rhar
end in -y (-y -+ -ier):
lucky -+ luckier early -r earlier
easy -) easier
prerry -+ preftier

It's ttro noisy he rc. Cart rvc go sonrcwhcrc qV.ielef?

This coffec is vcry wcak. I likc ir a bit
The hote I was surprisingly big. I expected it to lrc
The hotcl was surp:'isingly chcap. I cxpcctcd it to bc
The weathcr is tor> cold in this country. I'cl likc to live sorncr.vhcrc
My iob is a bit boring somctimes. I'd like to do somerhing
I was surpriscd how easy it was to use tli- computcr. I thougfrr it would


farther rhan...l


lpday ihan lI wae yeekr*ay,..

The journey takes four hours by car and five hours by train.

It takes
Dave a:.d

I went for a run. I ran ten kilometres. Dave stopped after eight kilometres.
I ran ..........
4 Chris and Joe both did badly in the exam. Chris got 20o/o but Joe only got 15 %.
Joe did
5 I expected my friends to arrivc at about 4 o'clock, In fact they arrivcd at2.30,
My friends
5 You can go by bus or by train. The buses run every 30 minutes. The trains run every hour.
The buses
7.IVe were very busy at work today.'!fle're not usually as busy as that.

.. ...



parison (2)

Co m


the utords in brackets to complete the sentences. (Jse much




yoLl cirn usc:

a lot
far (= 1 l1;1; ar bit
a littlc
slightly (= a littlc)
[-ct's go hv cr.r. lt's much chcapcr. (r.,r lt's a Iot chcapcr.)
[)olr't go lry train. lt's a lot morc expcnsivc. (r.rr lt's much rnorc cxpcnsivc.)
(,otrlrl yott sPcak a bit lrrorc slowly? (o'...sPcrrk a littlc rtrorc slowly?)
'l his blg is slightly hcavicr th rrr thc otlrcr orrc,
Hcr illncss was far morc scrious than rvc thought at first. (r.,r ...nruch Inorc scri'.rrs...97
...a lot more scrious...)


1 Hcr

illncss was . [r.!9h.mQrQQe.liay.z.!h?r

tt'tis bag is tt.r small.
! 2 This

(far / intere sting)


You're driving too fast. CoulC you drive
. ro learn a foreign language in the country where
It's .. ... . .
it is spokcn. (a lot / easy)
I thought she was young,cr than mc lrut in fact shc's . ...
lslightly / old)

Hardcr and harder / more and more / more and more difficult

1 I'm fcd up with waiting. I'm not waiting aIy..l9.ngerr.

2 l'm sorry I'm a bit late but I couldn't get here


'What time shall s,e leave?' 'Thc sooner the better.' (= soon as possible)
'What sort of box do you want? A big one ?' 'Yes, the bigger
thc bcttcr.' (= as big as

When you're travelling, the less luggage you have to carry the better. (= it is best to


little luggage as possible)

We also use the...the.., (with two comparatives) to say that one thing depends on another thi
o The warmcr the rveather. the better I feel. (= if the weather is warmer. I feel better)
. The sooner we leave, the sooner we will arrive.
o The younger you are, the easier it is to learn.
o The more expensive the hotel, the better the service.
o The morc electricity you use, the higher your bill will be.
o The more I thought about the plan, the less I liked it.




Comparison (1)and

(3) ,


Even + comparative


3 My lrags sccrncd to gct

4 As I waited for my interview, I became
5 As the day went on, the weather got....................
6 Travelling is bccoming ......,.......
7 Since she has been in Britain, her English has got
8 As the conversation went on. he became
These sentences are

like tbose in Section D. IJse the utord(s) in brachets (in tbe correct form) to

complete the sentences.

1 I like warm

weather. The warmer the weather, ..Ihp..Vd.Elc-r..1.f.ee1.... (feel)

really like him when we first met.
But the more I got ro know him, ...........
,........ (like)
If you're in business, you want to make a profit.
The more goods you sell,
lt's hard to concentrate when you're tired.
The more tired you are, .,.....-....
She had to wait a very long time.
The longer she waited, ..................

2 I didn't


Erhich is correct, oldcr or

cldcri Or both of
I My older / elder brother
pilot. (older and


is a


' @m

....... anywhere elsc.

Complete the sentences using the structure in C (...and...).

1 lt's becoming ....f,.ar.der..and..ha.rdel... to find a job. (hard)
2 That holc in your pullovcr is gctting


brothcr/s istcr/son/dau gh ter:

. My elder brother is a pilot. (or My older brothcr...)
We say'my elder brother' but we do not say that'somebody is elder...':
o My brother is older than me. (not'elder than me')
For eldest, see Unit 107D.

This shop isn't expensive. The prices are .....

stop for a rest. I can't walk...
The traffic isn't particularly bad today. Ir's .,,,,.

4 I must

Stucly thcsc cxarrrplcs.

Older and elder

The comparative of old is older:
o Tom looks older than he really is.
You can use elder (or oldcr) when you talk about pcoplc in a family. You can say (my) elder

Completc the sente nces using any/no + a comparatiue . Use than wbere ,tecessary.

Thc...thc bcttcr


etc. + a coffiparatiue form.

wc thought a. first. (rnuch / scrious)

.omething ,.
I nced .omething
, .(much/big)
I _ ..
-r-^:) .L^ problcm is
...... ....
, , rt sccr.ns (nruch / complicated) i
i 3 I'm afraid the ----l-t^_
i 4 You lookccl tlcprrcssctl tltis rnorrring brrt you look
"i ,
now. (a bit / hapPY)
I expecred.
I enioyed our visit to the museum. It rvas


You calr use any and no + comparatives (any longer / no biggcr etc.):
r I've rvaitccl long enough. I'ur lrot waitirrg anv longer.(= not cvcn a littlc longcr)
o Wc cxpcctcd thcir housc to bc vcry big but it's no biggcr thirrr oLrrs. ( isn't any
biggcr thrrrr <>urs.)
o Yestcrd:rr 1'ou said yoLr felt ill. Do you feel any bettcr today?
o This horcl is bcffcr than rhc othcr <>nc rrncJ it's no nrore cxpcnsivc.

We repcat conrparatives like this (...and...)to say that something is ch:rnging continuously:
o lt's becon.ring harder and harder to find a job.
. Il's bcconring morc and nrorc difficult to find a job.
r Your l:nglish is inrproving. It's gctting lrcttcr and lrcttcr.
o -fhcsc day's more and morc pcople arc lcarning English.

I abit

than uharc /;-'ccssdrY.

elder are both correct)

I'm surprised Diane is only 25. I thought she was older / elder.
Ann's younger sister is still at school. Her older / elder sister is a nurse.


is older / elder than his brother.



- as, / than

hmplete tbe sertut ccs ltsntK

I I'nr quitc tell ['rut you arc talle r. I'm nor es.p.all a?yeu.
Z My salary is high ['rut yorrrs is highcr. My sala ry isn'r
3 You know a bit a bout cars but I knorv nlorc. You don't
4 lt's still cold but it was coldcr 1,esterda,v. Ir isn'r
j I s'ill fccl a bit tirecl but I fclt I lor ntorc rirccl 1'csrcrclly.

Study this example siruation:

Shirley, Hcnry and Arthur are all millionaires. They are :ll
very rich
Shirley has f 10 rriillion, Henry' has f8 million arrd Arrlrur

f2 million. So:



Henrv is rich.
Hc is richcr than Arrhur.
Ilur hc isn't as rich as Shirlcy. (= Shirlcy is richcr rhan hc

Some more examples of not as... (as):

o Tom isn't as old as he looks. (= he looks oldcr than he is)
o rhe city cenrre rvasn't as crowdcd this morning as it usually is. (=



is .rsrri,lll,r,rore

You can also say 'not so... (rs)':

o lt's not warm but ir isn't so cold as yesterday. (= isn'r as cold as...)
Less... (than) is similar ro nor as... (as):
' I spent less money than you. 1= I didn't spend as much money...)
' The city centre was less crowded than usual. (= it wasn't as crowded...)
You can use (but not (') in p<-rsitivc sentcrlccs and in qucstiolrs:
' I'm sorry I'm late. I gor here as fast as I could.
'o There's plenry of food. You can have as much as you like.
Let's walk. Ir's just as quick as taking the bus.

o Can

you send me the nrorlcy as soon as possiblc, pleasc?

Also: twice, threc times etc.:
o Petrol is twice as expensive as it was a few years ago.
o Their house is about three times as big as ours.


Ann gets the same salary as me.

- @!EEE

As and tire


Rewrite the se sentenccs so that thcl' bauc tltc sttnta nteaning.
pld aE he !p.qks,
Jack is youngcr thiln he lo<>ks. Jack isrr'r ae
2 I didn't spcncl as much nronc), as )/ou. You 9?en! ry.o-rQ mQnsy,
3 The stari<ln was ncarcr rhirn I rh<tughr. Thc statiort rvirslt't
4 The nreal didn't cost irs lnuch as Icxpccrccl. Thc nrcirl
5 I go out less than I uscd ro. I dorr'r
6 tler hair isn't as long irs it trsccl to bc. Shc usccl


I know thcnr bettcr than you

There wcrc fewcr pcoplc at this nrccring rhan ar rhc lasr onc.
There wcrcn't

You don'r

Complete the sentcncas usirtg Choose one


the following:

bad conrfortablc {tlrr krng oltcn quictly soon wcll

I I'm sorry I'm a bit latc. I got hcre! a9. I could.
2 It was a difficult question. I answered it . .
3 'How long can I sray with you?' 'You can srily...
4 I necd rhc infornration cluickly, so plcasc lct rrrc krrow
5 I likc to kccp fit, so lgo swirnming .... .....
5 I didn't want to wake anybody, so I came in .. ..

I corrld.
yotr lrkc.'

ln the following sentences use iust as, . .as.

7 I'm going to sleep on the floor. Ir's ...... ..,
8 Why did he gct thc job rather rhan me? I'nr
9 At first I thought you were nice but really you re........



I crrn.
. . ..

. sleeping in

. I could

that harcl bcd.






Write sentences using the same as.

have the same as you.'

Than me / than I am etc.

We qsually say:
. You are taller than me. (not 'than I')
o He is not as clever as her. (zor'as she')
After than/as it is more usual to say mdhim/her/thcm/us
'o You are taller than I am.
They have more money than we have. but
' I can't run as fast as he can.

Comparison (1)and (z)


They've lived here for quite a long time but rvr-'vc l,,,ed hcrc longer.
They havcn'r
Iwasa bit ncrv()us bcfrlrc thc intcrvicrv brrt usrurllt' I'nr lr lot rrrorc ncrv()us.

o Jenny didn't do as wcll in thc exam as shc had hoped. (= shc had hoped
ro do bctter)
o 'The weathcr is bettcr roday, isn't it?' 'Ycs, it's not as cold.'(= yesrerclay was
' I don't knorv as man/ people as you do. (= you know morc peoplc)

We say the same as (not'the same like'):

o Ann's salary is the same as mine.
. Tom is the same age as George.
. 'Iflhat would vou like to drink?'



- @IEl


y and Kate are both

22 years old.

...9a.lly..lp.,Uh.e p.ame a.qe


2 You and I both have dark brown hair. Your hair ....
3 I arrived ac 70.25 and so did you. I ... ........ . .
4 My birthday is : April. Tom's birthday is 5 April roo. My

Complete tbe sentences

when rhere is no verb. Compare:

you are taller than mc.
They have more money than us.
I can't run as fast as him.


with than... o,' as...

can't rcirch as high as you. You are tallcr . .!ha.n mQ...

He docsn't know much. I know morc..........
I don't work particularly hard. Mosr people work as hard
We were very surprised. Nobody was more surprised
She's not a very good player. I'm a berter player
They've been very lucky. I wish we were as lucky







- the longest / the most enioyable etc.

rc the senterrces. Use a superlatiue (-est or most...) + a prepositio,t.

Ir's a very nice roon'.. It ! rQam

cheap restaurant. It's .... . ....... .......
lr3 Ir was a very h"pfy day. It was . .......
4 Sh." a very intelligent studcnt. Shc ..
5 lr's a vcry valtrnblc plinting. It ..
6 Spring is a vcry btrsy tilrtc for rnc' It

Study thcsc cx:rnrplcs:

What is thc longest rivc' in rhe u'orld?

What u'rrs thc most cnjoyablc holiday 1'ou'vc ever had?

rllt(l nlost cltj<lya[llc ttrc strltcrlrLlilc fornrs.

Thc strprcrlittivc fornt is -cst or nrost... . In gcncral, rve usc -cst for slrorr worcls nrrcl most...
Iottgcr rt'ords. ('l'hc rulcs arc thc sanre as thosc for tlrc conrparative - scc Urrit 104.)

+ lorrgest

hot -+ hotrcsr


nrost fanrolrs
l'hcse adjcctivcs rrrc irreqular:



I;ol spcllirrg, scc A1'r1-rcndix







most difficult

hard -+ hardcst
most cxpensrve

ar -+ furthcst


C,orrrpl rc:

This h<;rel is the cheapesr in rown. (superlatiue)

This lr.tcl is chcapcr than all thc orhcrs in rown. (contparatittc)

Olclcst arrd cldcsr

1'hc superlative of old is oldest:

That church is the oldest building in the rown. (not'the eldest')

wc usc cldcst (or oldcst) when wc arc talking abour pcoplc in a family:
. My eldest son is 13 years old. (or My oldest son...)
o Arc yor.r thc cldcst in your family? (or ...thc oldcst...)

After superlatives we usc in wirh places (towns, buildings etc.):

o What is thc Iongest river in thc world? (not,of the world')
o Wc had a lovely roonl. It was onc of the nicest in the hotel. (not'of the hotel')
\We also use in for organisations
and groups cf people (a class / team / company etc.):
o Who is the bc:t student in the class? (not'of the class')
We normally use of for a period of time:


What was rhc happiesr day of your life?

Ycstcrd:ry was thc horrcsr day of thc ycar.

We of;en use the present perfect


(l have done) after a superlative (see also Unir 8A):

What's thc bcst film you'vc cvcr sccn?
That was thc most delicious mcal I'vc had for a long time.

Sometimes we use most + adjective to mean .very':

book you lent me was most interesting. (= very interesting)
'o The
Thank you for the money. It was most geneious of you. (- veiy generous;
Comparison (cheaper/moreexpenslve erc.)

bthe following




sentences use one

the town.
my life.
... the class.
..... .. thc Ballcrl'.,i
the ycarJ

of + a superlatiue + a prepositiort.

lt's a vcry r:icc room. lt....l.q..pne.o-f.p.hen!leE.!

He's a vcry rich man. He 's one..
lt's a ver1 old castle. Ir
She's a very good PlaYer. She
It was a very bad experience. It .....
He's I very dang,erous criminal. He

the l,otel.
........ the world.

the team.
my life.
the countrr-.

suttutccs. Use a superlatiue (-cst or most...) or a conrltaratiue l-cr or morc..).

1 We staycd at the p.he.a?e.9l... hotel in the town. (cheap)
2 Our hotel was th.Q.a??r.. than all the others in thr town. (cheap)
..... (large)
3 The United States is very large but Canada is . . ..
.. ....... ... river in the world? (long)
4 What's
today. (happy)
5 I-{c was a bit clc;rrcsscd ycstcrday birt hc looks
. day of my life. (bad)
5 It was an awful clay. lt was
sport rn your country? (popular)
7 What is
mountain in the world. It is
8 Evercst is
tlr;rrt ;ttty otltt'r tttottntrtirr. (higl')
9 !/c hrrrl rt grcitt holirlrry. lt was ortc of tltc

Q,omplete thc

Wc ltorlttrrlly usc thc lrciorc a srrpe rlrrtivc (thc longcst / thc rrrosr fanrous ctc.):
o )'cste rd.ry was the hottcst da;' ef rhc year.
o That filrtt rvas really'boring. It u,as thc most boring filnr I'vc evcr sccrr.
o SIrc is a rcalll,rricc pcrs()n - onc of tlrc rriccst pcoplc I knorv.
. WIry docs hc lrlrvtrl,. c()ntc to scc l)tc at tlrc rvorst ltossilllc rrrorrrcrrt?


in. the hotel.

'2 lr't a vety




had. (enjoyable)
I prefcr this chair to the other one. It's






way of getting from here to the station? (quick)

t2 Mr and Mrs Brown have got three


......... is 14 years old.

What do you say in these situations? Use a superlatiue + ...ever...
brackets (in the correct form).

Use the words giuen


You've just been to the cinema. The film was extremely boring. You tell your friend:
(boring/film/see) ...Iha!'.e.Ihp..mpel..horlng.ffln ,l.':G.stQr.Qsen,....
you a joke, which you think is very funny. You say:

2 Your friend has just told

3 You're drinking

coffee with a friend. It's really good coffee. You say:

4 You are talking

to a friend about Mary. Mary is very patient. You tell your friend about her:

5 You

have just run ten kilometres. You've never run further than this. You say to your frien.l:

6 You decided to give up your job. Now you think this was a bad mistake. You say to your
friend: ( bad/mistake/make) lt ................
7 Your friend meets a lot of people, some of them famous. You ask your friend: