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# Department of Technical Education

## DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING/ CIVIL DSHIP

FOURTH SEMESTER CIVIL ENGINEERING
SUBJECT: HYDRAULICS
Contact Hrs/Week: 4 Hrs.

## Contact Hrs/Sem:64 Hrs.

TOPICS

CHAPTER
NO

CONTENTS

NO OF
HOURS

MARKS
WEIGHTAGE
IN EXAM

PART-A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Fundamentals of Hydraulics
Total Pressure and centre of pressure
Flow of fluids
PART-B
Flow through orifices and mouthpieces
Flow over notches
Flow over weirs
PART-C
Flow through channels
Flow through Pipes
Pumps and turbines
Seminars, field/technical visit, inventions/innovations,
demonstrations, workshops etc

05
06
08

12
15
20

08
05
05

20
14
14

07
06
05
05

20
15
15
-----

04

----

64

145

## FOURTH SEMESTER CIVIL ENGINEERING

SUBJECT: HYDRAULICS
DETAILS OF CONTENTS
1. FUNDAMENTALS OF HYDRAULICS
Fluid, classification and properties of fluids

## Pressure and its measurements: Definition of Hydrostatic pressure, atmospheric pressure,

gauge pressure, absolute pressure, vaccum pressure, intensity of pressure and pressure
Measurement of pressure: Manometer, U-tube , differential manometer, simple problems
2. TOTAL PRESSURE AND CENTRE OF PRESSURE
Total pressure and centre of pressure on vertical planes like, triangular , rectangular and
circular plane surfaces (simple problems)
Practical applications of centre of pressure, sluice gates (only theory)
3. FLOW OF FLUIDS
Types of flow, stream line , turbulent, steady and unsteady, uniform and non uniform
Discharge and continuity equation- simple problems
Energies in fluid motion- potential, kinetic and pressure head
Bernoullis theorem( without proof) simple problems
Horizontal venturimeter, theory and simple problems
4. FLOW THROUGH ORIFICES AND MOUTHPIECES
Definition and types of orifices, vena contracta, hydraulic co-efficients and their
relationship (only theory)
Flow through rectangular and circular orifice (simple problems without derivation)
Flow through submerged and partially submerged orifices
Mouth pieces- different types and their uses, convergent, divergent and Bordas mouth
piece.
5. FLOW OVER NOTCHES
Definition of notch, and its types, discharge calculation for rectangular, triangular and
trapezoidal notch (simple problems without derivation)
6. FLOW OVER WEIRS
Definition of weir, discharge over rectangular and cippolitte weir (simple problems
without derivation)
Types of weirs and their uses (only theory)
7. FLOW THROUGH CHANNELS
Definition and classification of channels
Discharge through channels using Chezys and Mannings formula( no derivation
simple problems only)
Most economical sections for rectangular and trapezoidal channels
8. FLOW THROUGH PIPES
Loss of fluid friction
Types of losses, major and minor losses
Darcys formula for head loss due to friction( simple problems, on major and minor
losses)

## Hydraulic gradient and total energy line

Flow through single pipe
Flow from one reservoir to another reservoir through single pipe
Water hammer, surge tanks (only theory)
9. PUMPS AND TURBINES
Working principle of reciprocating, centrifugal and deep well pumps
Maintenance of pumps
Turbine, types and its working principle of Pelton and Francis turbine
GENERAL EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES:
Upon completion of the study of the subject the student should be able to
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

## Comprehend the fluid pressure and its measurement

Know the importance of total pressure and centre of pressure
Comprehend the general principles of the flow of a fluid and energies of fluid
Understand the principles of flow through orifices and mouth pieces
Determine the discharge for different types of notches.
Determine the discharge for different types of weirs
Understand the terms and principles of flow through channels of most economical
sections
8. Understand the terms and principles of flow through pipes.
9. Understand the working principles of pumps and turbines
SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES:
1.0 Comprehend the fluid pressure and its measurement.
1.1 Know the definition of fluid, its classification and important properties and their
SI
units (simple problems)
1.2 Understand the definition of Hydrostatic pressure, atmospheric pressure,
gauge pressure, absolute pressure, vaccum pressure, intensity of pressure and
1.3 Measurement of pressure using simple manometer and differential manometer,
simple
problems on them
2.0 Know the importance of total pressure and centre of pressure
2.1 Understand the concept of total pressure and centre of pressure on vertical planes
like, triangular , rectangular and circular plane surfaces
2.2 Simple problems on the above
2.3 Know the practical applications of center of pressure (sluice gates)

3.0 Comprehend the general principles of the flow of a fluid and energies of fluid
3.1 Definition of various types of fluid flow. stream line , turbulent, steady and
uniform and non uniform
3.2 Establish the equation of continuity of flow.(simple problems)
3.3 Know the type of energies of fluid in motion.( potential, kinetic and pressure
3.4 State Bernoulli's theorem for total energy and its equation(simple problems)
3.6 Application of Bernoulli's equation for horizontal venturimeter(Theory equation
and
simple problems).
4.0 Understand the principles of flow through orifices and mouth pieces.
4.1 Know the definition of orifice and Classify the different types of orifices
4.2 Define the terms Vena contracta , hydraulic coefficients and their relationships
4.3 Understand the flow through rectangular and circular orifice and simple problems
4.4 Understand the concept flow through submerged and partially submerged orifice.
4.5 List the various types of mouthpieces., differentiate between internal and
external
mouth piece
5.0 Determine the discharge for different types of notches.
5.1 Definition and types of notches
5.2 Know the Formula for discharge over rectangular notch, trapezoidal notch
and triangular notches.(simple problems)
6.0 Determine the discharge for different types of weirs
6.1 Definition and type of weirs
6.2 State the formula for discharge over a rectangular weir and cippolette weir(simple
problems)
6.3 Francis formula for the discharge over a rectangular weir(simple problems)
7.0 Understand the terms and principles of flow through channels of most
economical sections
.
7.1 Define the terms: wetted perimeter and hydraulic mean depth.
7.2 Knowledge of Chezy's formula for discharge through open channel.
7.3 Calculate the discharge through a rectangular and trapezoidal channel
using Chezy's formula.
7.4 State Manning's formulae for discharge through open channel.
7.5 Calculate the discharge through rectangular and trapezoidal channels using
above formulae.

## 7.6 Explain the most economical cross section of a channel.

7.7 State the conditions for most economical section of a rectangular and
trapezoidal channel.
7.8 Calculate the discharge for most economical section of rectangular and
trapezoidal channels from the given parameter.
7.9 Calculate the max. velocity and max. discharge in a channel of circular section
7.10 Explain the terms - specific energy, critical depth, critical velocity for
non-uniform flow.
7.11 Explain the hydraulic jump and its applications.
8.0 Understand the terms and principles of flow through pipes.
8.1 State the law's of fluid friction for uniform flow.
8.2 To know the types of losses of flow in a pipe major and minor losses
8.3 Know and apply Darcys formula for head loss due to friction in a pipe flow
from given parameters.
8.4 Define and Sketch the hydraulic gradient and total energy lines.
8.5 Calculate the discharge from one reservoir to another reservoir through
a single pipeline.
8.6 Explain the effect of water hammer.
8.7 Outline the use of surge tank
.
9.0 Understand the working principles of pumps and turbines
.
9.1 Explain the working principles of a reciprocating pump, centrifugal pump
and deep well pump-theory and sketch
9.2 Explain the maintenance of pumps
9.3 Define turbine , classification of turbines, differentiate between impulse and
reaction turbine and its working principle
REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics - Dr. P.N.Modi and Dr S.M.Seth
(Standard Book House, Delhi - 6)
2. Hydraulics By H S Vishwanath, Sapna Publications.
3. Hydraulics, Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines R S Khurmi
( S Chand and Company, Ramnagar New Delhi - 110 055 )
4. Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics - Dr. Jagadish Lal
5. Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics - Abdulla Sheriff
6. Hydraulics and Hydraulic Machinery V. Thanikachelam T.T.T.I Madras - 600 113
7. Hydraulics, Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Machines Bansal A R ( Laxmi publication,
New Delhi- 110 002)
8. Hydraulics, Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Machines - S.Ramamrutham

## DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING(DSHIP) FOURTH SEMESTER
SUBJECT: HYDRAULICS
MODEL QUESTION PAPER
Duration : 3 Hours

## Instructions: 1. SECTION-I is compulsory.

2. Answer any two full questions from the remaining sections
SECTION-I
Q1

(a)
(i)
(ii)

(iv)
(v)

## Fill in the blanks

. is an instrument used to determine fluid pressure
The relationship between three hydraulic co-efficient is given by

## . is an hydraulic device used to convert mechanical

energy to hydraulic energy
The condition for orifice to be large is
is used to determine discharge flowing through a pipeline

(b)

(iii)

1 x 5=05

05

SECTION-II
Q2

(a)
(b)
(c )

Q3

(a)

(b)
(c )
Q4

(a)
(b)

(c )

## Define the following i) specific gravity ii) specific weigh iii)

viscosity iv) surface tension v)capillarity
Determine pressure of a liquid of specific gravity 1.25 at a depth
10m below its free surface.
Define total pressure and centre of pressure

05

## A circular plate of diameter 3m is immersed in water in such a

way that its centre is at a depth of 5m below the free surface.
Determine the total pressure and centre of pressure exerted by the
liquid on the plate
What are sluice gates? Explain its practical application
b) uniform and non uniform flow
What are the limitations of Bernoullis theorem
A circular pipe tapered in section is 100mm diameter at one end
which is 2m above datum and 250mm diameter at other end which
is 6m above datum. The pressure and velocity of water flowing at
lower end is 200 KN?m2 and 10m/sec respectively. Determine the
pressure at the other end
A venturimeter 200 X 100 mm is used to determine discharge of
water flowing through a pipe. The U-Tube differential mercury

07

05
05

03
05
03
06

06

## manometer fitted shows a differential reading of 40 mm.

Determine the discharge of water flowing through the pipe
Q5

(a)
(b)

(c )
Q6

(a)
(b)
(c )

Q7

(a)
(b)

(c )

SECTION-III
What are orifices? Mention its different types and explain any one
type
An orifice of 20mm diameter is provided to determine discharge
of water flowing through the tank. The depth of water is 4m above
the centre of the orifice. Determine discharge of water flowing
through the orifice
Differentiate between submerged and partially submerged orifice

05
06

04

What are mouth pieces? Mention its different types and explain
Bordas mouth piece
Determine discharge through a rectangular notch having breadth
100mm and depth of flow over the crest of the notch being 28mm.
The co-efficient of discharge being 0.6
Mention the advantages of V-notch over rectangular notch

05

## Mention different types of weirs? Explain their practical

application
A rectangular weir is used to determine a discharge of 3m/sec. The
maximum depth of flow over the weir is being 100mm.
Determine the breadth of the weir to allow the above discharge.
Take Cd of the weir as 0.6
Mention the difference between notch and weir

04

06
04

07

03

SECTION-IV
Q8

(a)
(b)
(c )

Q9

(a)

(b)

## Define most economical section

Design most economical rectangular section to carry a discharge
of 10m3/sec given Chezys constant 55 and bed slope 1 in 1500
Define hydraulic gradient line and total energy line

04
08

## An earthen channel with a 3m wide base and sied slopes 1:1

carries water with a depth of 1m. The bed slopes is 1 in 1600.
Estimate the discharge. Take value of N in Mannings formula as
0.04
A reservoir has been built 4km away from a college campus
having 5000 inhabitants. Water is to be supplied from the reservoir
to the campus. It is estimated that each inhabitant will consume
200 liters of water per day and that half of the daily supply is
pumped within 10 hours. Calculate the size of the supply main, if
the loss of head due to friction in pipeline is 20m. Assume coefficient of friction for the pipeline as 0.008

08

03

07

Q10

(a)
(b)
(c )

## Find the loss of head due to friction in a pipe of 500mm diameter

and 1.5km long. The velocity of water in the pipe is 1meter per
sec. take co efficient of friction as 0.005
Explain the working principle of reciprocating pump
Differentiate between impulse and reaction turbine

05
05
05