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Kundur
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  Review plant documents and existing models   Prepare test plan   Perform pre-field-test simulation   Field tests for:   Parameter estimation   Verification of models   Parameter estimation   Model validation   Overall assessment GU .1 1539pk .

  Open Circuit Saturation   Reactive Power Capability   D-axis Parameters   Q-axis Parameters GU .2 1539pk .

uses rotor current measurements to identify field circuit data   Does not provide accurate q-axis data b)  Stator decrement tests:   Unit tripped with only d-axis armature current (P=0. terminal voltage and field current time responses used to estimate d-axis data   Similar test with only q-axis armature current (id=0) gives q-axis data. iq=0). References 1.   Improvement over IEEE Standard 115-1983. 2 and 3 describe this approach GU . fairly widely used.Several alternative methods available: a)  Enhanced sudden short circuit tests: not used anymore. a condition difficult to determine when parameters not known accurately   Difficulty in maintaining constant field voltage with bus-fed exciters   Currently. load angle equal to power factor angle.3 1539pk .

5 and 8 present this approach GU . data good.c)  Standstill frequency response (SSFR) tests:   Rotor stationary. and aligned to two particular positions   Stator excited by a low level (±60A. disconnected from the system.4 1539pk .and q-axis equivalent circuits obtained using transfer function approximations   Where damper windings are used. may not form good connection at standstill (rotational effects significant)   At low and high frequencies. they are often just overlapped. ±80V) source over frequency range 1 mHz to 1 kHz   Operational parameters measured: Ld(s): d-axis operational inductance Lq(s): q-axis operational inductance G(s): stator to field transfer function   Parameters of d. At mid-frequency range data may not be accurate for machines with specific type of dampers References 4.

gives indication of rotational effects The measured operational parameters for a 500 MW.and third-order transfer function approximations to measured characteristics are also shown. 3800 RPM generator at Lambton GS in Ontario is shown in Figures 4.d)  Open-circuit frequency response tests:   Unit operated on open-circuit at reduced voltage   Field excited at various frequencies and field-tostator frequency response measured   Allows confirmation of data in mid-frequency range.9. 4.8.7. 4.5 1539pk . The second. GU .

Figure 4. Kundur. 1994 GU .6 1539pk .5: Variation of magnitude of Ld(s) Copyright © P.

GU .7 1539pk .

e)  On-line Frequency Response (OLFR) tests:   Machine operated near rated (or at any desired) output   Excitation modulated by either sinusoidal signal or random noise   Components are resolved on the two axes and operational parameters similar to those of SSFR tests are used to derive a model   Rotational effects are captured. could be significant depending on rotor construction References 6.   Models for three large generators based on SSFR and OLFR tests are validated by comparing results of simulations with measured dynamic responses involving line switching   For one generator.8 1539pk . models derived from stator decrement tests and short-circuit tests are also validated GU . 7 and 8 present this approach Model Validation In Reference 10.

12 and 13. nonlinearities. A general procedure is as follows: 1. perform frequency response and/or transient response tests on individual elements   Identify transfer functions. GU .Nature of tests required depends on type of excitation system. model development and validation are described in References 11.  Reduce detailed model to fit standard model for the specific type excitation system   Validate by comparison against measured response Techniques for field testing.  (a)   (b) (c) With generator running open-circuit at rated speed and rated voltage. nominal settings and setting ranges   Construct a detailed block diagram 2. perform frequency response and time-response tests Measure overall linear response and responses at various points to a step change in AVR reference Perform additional tests with generator at rated output Validate detailed model of complete system 4. and ceiling limits   Validate as much of detailed block diagram as possible.9 1539pk . block diagrams.  Obtain circuit diagrams. modify diagram as necessary 3.  With generator shut down.

. 1480-1489. Hannett. Poray. Vol. GU . Shackshaft and A. Vol.E. Proc. April 1981. "Validation of Synchronous Machine Models and Determination of Model Parameters from Tests". Dandeno and A. pp. deMello and L.Generator Testing (a) (b) Stator Decrement Tests: [1] G. [5] P. Frequency Response Tests: [4] M. IEEE Trans.10 1539pk . pp. P. T. Zein El-Din. "On-Line Frequency Response Tests and Identification of Generator Models. Coultes. 115-1995. 12. PAS-100. Vol. deMello and J. "IEEE Guide for Synchronous Generator Modelling Practices and Applications in Power System Stability Analyses". "IEEE Guide: Test Procedures for Synchronous Machines". February 1981. Vol. Dandeno. "Implementation of New Approach to Determination of Synchronous Machine Parameters from Tests". PAS-96. 124. IEEE Trans.E. IEE (London). PAS-100. Vol. [7] P. [3] F. 1110-2002. Poray. Poray. Coultes and W. pp.J.P.. "Development of Detailed Turbogenerator Equivalent Circuits from Standstill Frequency Response Measurements". 1211-1218. pp. EC-2.. "Derivation of Synchronous Machine Parameters from Tests".T.L. IEEE Trans." IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. pp. 1170-1178.. 16546-1661. Ribeiro. pp. pp. P.N. 38-42. "Synchronous Machine Models by Standstill Frequency Response Tests".M. 1977.T. [6] M. P. "Adaptation and Validation of Turbogenerator Model Parameters through On-Line Frequency Response Measurements". and H. Vol. [2] F.L. Vol. 1646-1653. April 1981. PAS-100. 662-672. Rogers.R. IEEE Trans.. Kundur and G. EC-2. [9] IEEE Std. [8] IEEE Std. Watson. September 1987. Kundur. No. A.. September 1987. July/August 1977.

"Validation of Turbogenerator Stability Models by Comparison with Power system Tests". IEEE Trans. September 1987. pp.Chapter IV: Field Testing Techniques". Dandeno. Testing and Evaluation of the Dynamic Performance of Excitation Control Systems. GU . and M. Poray. IEEE Standard 421. Vol. Excitation System Testing [11] IEEE Committee Report. Publication 81 EHO 175-0 PWR. [12] IEEE Guide for identification.E.11 1539pk .L.1-1990 (revision to IEEE Standard 421A-1978). "Power system Stabilization via Excitation Control . PAS-92.. January/February 1973. "Excitation System Dynamic Characteristics". pp.. P. [13] IEEE Tutorial Course Text. EC-2.T. IEEE Trans. 1637-1645. Vol. Kundur. A.(c) Model Validation: [10] P. 64-75. Coultes.