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Daniel Baumann, IT

CO2 & FUEL CONSUMPTION - HYBRID & EV


07.09.2016, Jakarta, Indonesia

Engeljehringer Kurt

AVL List GmbH


Public

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Copyright Notice:
The contents of this document may not be reproduced in any form or communicated to any third party
without prior written agreement of AVL.
While every effort is made to ensure its correctness, AVL assumes no responsibility for errors or
omissions, which may occur in this document.
AVL List GmbH, Kurt Engeljehringer

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Engeljehringer Kurt | Emission Test Systems | 07 April 2015 |

CONTENT

Introduction

CO2 / GHG regulations


Gap between Lab testing and real life
Hybrid testing requirements
AVL Test bed solutions

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Engeljehringer Kurt | Emission Test Systems | 07 April 2015 |

WE DONT HAVE A PLANET B

Limited Resources of:


We have only one planet
Air volume - 60% of the air is below the summit of mount Everest
Fossil energy

1960

1960:
3 Billion people
200 Million vehicles

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2015

2015:
7 Billion people
1.100 Million vehicles

Engeljehringer Kurt | Emission Test Systems | 07 April 2015 |

CO2 AND CLIMATE CHANGE

Al Gore showing the


correlation between CO2
and temperature and is
using a lift do
demonstrate how much
higher CO2 is today.

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Engeljehringer Kurt | Emission Test Systems | 07 April 2015 |

ENVIRONMENT and RESOURCES


SUSTAINABILITY and RESPONSIBILITY

CO2 is a global problem


We all are affected. But often
countries much more, which are not
the big emitters.

CO2 emitted per country:


1. China
2. USA
3. India
4. Russia

Climatic change is real.


it is not anymore about avoiding it,
about to limit its effects and to learn
to life with it.

It is men made.

CO2 emitted per person:


1. USA
2. Canada
3. Australia
4. Middle East

97% of all scientific studies say, there


is climatic change and it is men
made. There are only 3% Deniers

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Engeljehringer Kurt | Emission Test Systems | 07 April 2015 |

ENVIRONMENT and RESOURCES


SUSTAINABILITY and RESPONSIBILITY

CO2 scenarios for worldwide transport


vs. GHG target as tank to wheel (ttw)
emissions.

The forecast scenarios for the increase


of GHG emissions by the transportation
segment to not match at all the CO2
targets. Even by estimating a large share
of electric passenger cars.
Much more will be needed than fuel
consumption reduction and electrification
of passenger cars.
CO2 neutral fuels (PtG, PtL, Bio fuels
but only generation-2, ...) for
airplanes, ships, trains
reduction of transportation by more
local production (US and EU has
heavily localized production in Asia
and by that exported CO2 emissions
and increased transportation
...
Source: Dr.-Ing. Rolf Leonhard, Robert Bosch GmbH at AVL Exhaust and Particulate Forum,
Ludwigsburg, 2016

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Engeljehringer Kurt | Emission Test Systems | 07 April 2015 |

CONTENT

Introduction

CO2 / GHG regulations


Gap between Lab testing and real life
Hybrid testing requirements
AVL Test bed solutions

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Engeljehringer Kurt | Emission Test Systems | 07 April 2015 |

CO2 AND GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSIONS


[1]

China: gasoline vehicles only. More


stringent targets after consideration of
new energy vehicles awaited.
[2] US: NHTSA fuel economy
standards.
[3] Brazil: all data converted to gasoline
(E00) equivalent.
[4] EU: 95% of the manufacturers fleet
must meet 95 g CO2/km in 2020, 100%
in 2021

EU 2025: 68-78*
EP
*Proposed env.
committee EP
April 2013

Source: ICCT, 12/2014, The state of clean transport policy: A 2014 synthesis of vehicle and fuel policy developments / AVL
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Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 |

CO2 LEGISLATION
Application:

Country

Topic

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

GHG

GHG (2012-2016) 263 -> 225 gCO2/mi

CAFE

Corporate Average Fuel Economy

Fuel
economy

Fuel Consumption Stage-II

Fuel
economy

Fuel Economy Targets

Fuel
economy or
GHG

17 km/l or 140 g GHG/km

Fuel
consumptio
n

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2018

2019

2020

2021

130 g/km CO2

CO2

CO2

2017

2022

2023

2024

95 g/km CO2

2025 Notes
67-78

Meet or Pay
130 and 95g/km targets
based on NEDC
Must meet

GHG (2017-2025) 212 -> 143 gCO2/mi

Meet or Pay

6.9 l/100km (161 gCO2/km)

Fuel Economy Targets 2015

Fuel Consumption 5l/100km (117 gCO2/km)

Fuel Economy Targets 2020

24.3 km/l or 97 g GHG/km

Average fuel consumption

km/l related to vehicle weight

Fleet average

135g CO2/km

LCGC (Low Cost Green Car) scheme

Government program to push


for the fuel consumption
reduction

Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 |

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EU CO2 TARGETS
Specific emissions target per OEM
Each manufacturer has its individual annual CO2 target.
That is calculated on the basis of the average vehicle mass of
the manufacturer's fleet and a reference mass, which is
defined on base of the average vehicle mass of the whole EU
fleet.
Niche-Derogations for OEMs selling 10.000 to 300.000 cars
and Derogations for OEMs selling less than 10.000 cars per
year

Credits

Incentives for vehicles with less than 50g/km, by counting it


such a car as 3,5 cars in 2013 and 1,5 in 2015
E85 credits (5% less CO2), for such cars in countries where
at least 30% of the fuel stations offer E85 (only Sweden)

Eco-Innovationen
Innovative technologies, which can not show the CO2
reduction in the type-approval test procedure, like LED lights,
can reduce up to 7gCO2/km if agreed by the authorities.

A manufacturer selling 1 Mil. cars per year


and failing his CO2 target by 1g/km, pays :

95 Mil. per year


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USA: GREEN HOUSE GAS (GHG) EMISSIONS


USA has since 1975 the CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency) standard.

which continues to be valid, even after introduction of the GHG standards.


Manufacturer may meet the standard or have to pay a fee.
Test are done with the EPA 2-cycle test (FTP-75 + HWFET)

USA implemented a Green House Gas (GHG) standard

US Supreme court decided that also CO2 is a pollutant under the Clean Air Act.
GHG (Green House Gases) are CO2, CH4 (50 times more GHG potential than
CO2) and N2O (280 times more GHG potential)
Standards must be meet

It is unlikely that EU will also include CH4 and N2O, since EU emission
inventories show that CH4 and NO2 contribution is only 1% GHG emissions
(already as CO2 equivalent, N2O factor 280 and 50 for CH4 already
included).
Diagram: German GHG emissions of road transportation CO2, N2O and
CH4 in Mio t CO2 equivalent. Source: UBA

US labeling information for car buyers

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USA: FUELECONOMY.GOV
The average
US Car

The average
European Car

Plug-In Hybrids

A pure electric
vehicle

Tailpipe GHG emissions:


393 g/mi
246 g/km

286 g/mi
179 g/km

81 g/mi
51 g/km

133 g/mi
83 g/km

0 g/mi
0 g/km

Total GHG emissions:


473 g/mi
296 g/km
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364 g/mi
228 g/km

300 g/mi
188 g/km

240 g/mi
150 g/km

250 g/mi
156 g/km

includes tailpipe- and emissions for


production and distribution of fuel and
electricity. Based on Pylmouth, Michigan

Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 |

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CONTENT

Introduction

CO2 / GHG regulations


Gap between Lab testing and real life
Hybrid testing requirements
AVL Test bed solutions

Public

Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 |

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GAP BETWEEN LAB AND REAL LIFE


Gap between Norm- and real life CO2 emissions over time.
Source:

The impact of the drive cycle is typically over estimated

ICCT International Council on Clean Transportation 2014

CO2 (Fuel consumption) Correlation NEDC versus WLTC


Drive cycle impact:

10 typical diesel and 10 typical gasoline vehicles


driven in the WLTC and NEDC with the same test
procedures did not show difference in the CO2
emissions.

+/- 2%
Test procedure impact:

Driving these vehicle by using the UN-ECE-83 test


procedures and in the GTR-15 (WLTP) test procedures
results in

20-25% higher CO2 emissions in the GTR-15


procedures
no change in test procedure and drive cycle
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Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 |

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MOTIVATION OF NEW EU LEGISLATION?


Measures:

Targets:

RDE

Close the gap between lab and real


life pollutant emission limits

PEMS testing

Euro-6
Limits

130 95
gCO2 / km

GTR-15
Technical Regulation

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Today pollutant emissions are in average app. 7 times


(Diesel NOx) higher on the road than in the lab.

Further reducing NOx and PN


emissions

Further reducing CO2 and fuel


consumption targets

Close the gap between norm and


real life CO2 and fuel consumption

Today CO2 emissions and fuel consumption are in


average app. 40% higher on the road than the declared
norm values.

Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 |

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CONTENT

Introduction

CO2 / GHG regulations


Gap between Lab testing and real life
Hybrid testing requirements
AVL Test bed solutions

Public

Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 |

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HYBRID AND EV VEHICLES


When talking about Hybrid vehicles there are various names used. Especially between technology naming and names used in the emission regulations
are quite different. As example Plug-In is used to describe the technology, while the EU regulation calls it an Off Vehicle Charging (OVC) hybrid.
functional matrix below may help.

Hybrid related naming's


Technology
name
Micro - Hybrid
Mild - Hybrid

Full - Hybrid

Plug-In - Hybrid

Range Extender
Pure Electric
Vehicle

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EU related emission
regulation naming

US related emission
regulation naming

Electrification Functionality
Engine
Start/Stop

E-Boost
Systems

Regenerati
ve braking

Drive with
E-Motor
only

External
Battery
charging

Pure
electric
driving

Electric
driving
only

Conventional vehicle for Conventional vehicle for


emission standards and emission standards and
not a hybrid.
not a hybrid.
NOVC Hybrid
Hybrid electric vehicle
Not off vehicle charging

OVC Hybrid
Off vehicle charging

Plug-In Hybrid,
Grid connected electric
vehicle

BEV Battery Electrical


Vehicle

Grid connected electric


vehicle

Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 |

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FULL HYBRID (NOVC)


Hybrid related naming's
Technology
name
Full - Hybrid

EU related emission
regulation naming

Electrification Functionality

US related emission
regulation naming

Engine
Start/Stop

E-Boost
Systems

Regenerati
ve braking

Drive with
E-Motor
only

External
Battery
charging

Pure
electric
driving

Electric
driving
only

NOVC Hybrid
Hybrid electric vehicle
Not off vehicle charging

Emission
Analysis

Fuel
consumption

SOC

Power
Analyzer

Ampere
Meter

Public

Change in
state of charge

Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 |

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PLUG-IN FULL HYBRID (OVC)


Hybrid related naming's
Technology
name
Plug-In - Hybrid

EU related emission
regulation naming

US related emission
regulation naming

OVC Hybrid
Off vehicle charging

Plug-In Hybrid,
Grid connected EV

Result A
CHARGE DEPLETING

Electrification Functionality
Engine
Start/Stop

E-Boost
Systems

Regenerati
ve braking

Result B
CHARGE SUSTAINING

Drive with
E-Motor
only

External
Battery
charging

Pure
electric
driving

Electric
driving
only

Weighted Result

OVC - PHEV- Measurements :

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RANGE - Electric range / OVC range


ELECTRICITY - Power consumed from main to reach this range.
FUEL CONSUMPTION Charge DEPLETING and Charge SUSTAINING
POLLUTANTS EMISSIONS must be within the limits on each test cycle

Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 |

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PHEV HYBRID WORKFLOWS TIME


16:00

18:00

20:00

22:00

18:00

20:00

22:00

14:00

12:00

10:00

08:00

06:00

22:00

20:00

18:00

Day 5

16:00

14:00

12:00

10:00

08:00

06:00

22:00

20:00

18:00

Day 4

16:00

14:00

12:00

10:00

08:00

06:00

22:00

20:00

18:00

Day 3

16:00

14:00

12:00

10:00

08:00

06:00

18:00
20:00
22:00

16:00

14:00

hours
1
12
5
5
1
0.5
12
5.5
12
1
12
1
5
1
5
3.3 Days

Day 2

16:00

Discharge
Soak 6-36h & charge
x-NEDC (Dovc)
charge
Discharge
Precon
Soak 6-36h
x-NEDC (Emissions)
Soak 6-36h charge
Discharge
Soak 6-36h
NEDC 1 Ph
Charge
Discharge
Charge
Minimum

12:00

Day 1

app. 1 week to get 1 result

Discharge
Soak 6h
2 x UDDS
Soak 12-36h charge
x-UDDS
Soak 12-36h
2 x UDDS
Soak 12-36h charge
x-HFET
charge
Discharge
Soak 12-36h
1 + 3 HFEDS
1+1 US06
1+1 SC03
Minimum

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14:00

12:00

10:00

08:00

06:00

22:00

20:00

18:00

Day 5

16:00

14:00

12:00

10:00

08:00

06:00

22:00

20:00

18:00

Day 4

16:00

14:00

12:00

10:00

08:00

06:00

22:00

20:00

18:00

Day 3

16:00

14:00

12:00

10:00

08:00

06:00

18:00
20:00
22:00

Day 2

16:00

hours
1
6
1.5
12
5
12
1.5
12
3
5
1
12
2
1
1
3.2 Days

14:00

Day 1

12:00

US

Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 |

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SOAK AREA PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLES


For Plug-In Hybrid vehicles (OVC) the hybrid batteries will be
charged and discharged during soak times.
Soak

Soak

That requires to:


measure SOC and
Energy flow
record data
link the data to the test
vehicle data base
integrate this data in the
final emission test report
of the vehicle
do it for more than one
vehicle in parallel

Charge

Soak
Soak

Charge

Charge
Discharge
Soak

AVL iGEM Charge Meter


Example: EPA / CARB SAE J1711 Workflow

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Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 |

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CONTENT

Introduction

CO2 / GHG regulations


Gap between Lab testing and real life
Hybrid testing requirements
AVL Test bed solutions

Public

Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 |

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AVL EMISSION PRODUCT PORTFOLIO


AVL has the largest and most complete emission testing and
measurement product portfolio on the market.

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Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 18 Februar 2016 |

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AVL iGeneration Emission Test Systems


AVL iGeneration Emission Test Systems
AVL has launched a totally new innovative and intuitive emission
measurement system generation, covering all standard emission systems.

Hardware Platform
Performance:
Highest possible accuracy and repeatability
Compliant with all current and future legislations (by current drafts)
Highest availability
Benefits:
Identical HW architecture
Same components wherever possible
Common spare part stock
Common maintenance procedures
Less training effort
Lowest total cost of ownership

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Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 18 Februar 2016 |

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AVL iGeneration Emission Test Systems


AVL iGeneration Emission Test Systems
AVL has launched a totally new innovative and intuitive emission
measurement system generation, covering all standard emission systems.

Software Platform
iGEM FT

Performance:
Intuitive operation
Best integration and interfacing

iGEM PSS

Aligned upgrades, like for new legislations


Benefits:

iGEM CVS

Easier operation
Less operator mistakes

iGEM AMA

High automated procedures and functions


Integration of several GUIs on one operator monitor

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Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 18 Februar 2016 |

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AVL iGeneration Emission Test Systems


AVL iGeneration Emission Test Systems
AVL has launched a totally new innovative and intuitive emission
measurement system generation, covering all standard emission systems.

Calibration devices and Accessories


iGEM FT

Performance:
All required calibration validation devices needed for emission testing
Fully automated operation

iGEM PSS

Benefits:
One device can be used for different measurement systems
iGEM CVS

Fully integrated with systems for automated procedures for efficient


workflow and highest accuracy and repeatability
tailored also for the challenges of new engine concepts

iGEM AMA

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Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 18 Februar 2016 |

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AVL Emission Automation Systems


AVL iGEM Vehicle
Features:
Fully automated operation of test bed and all systems
All legislations implemented, for a vehicle- and fuels-types
One man operation possible
All required test, calibration and validation functions

One platform from engine, powertrain and vehicle testing


Test bed automation system of the US-EPA, TV Hessen, ...

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Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 18 Februar 2016 |

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BASIC EMISSION TESTING SOLUTION


Basic Solution
Basic cost efficient solution
Mainly for certification and certification
type of development
Including NOVC hybrid vehicles

Fulfilling all legislation requirements

The most important Topics


Easily upgradable
Gasoline/Diesel
Low Emission capable
Particulate mass and particle number
measurement for all vehicles
4 sample phases for WLTC
LV & HV battery SOC measurement

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Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 |

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HYBRID TESTING - CERTIFICATION


Hybrid Basic Solution

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Engine Start/Stop Detection


Current Clamp and analyzer
CVS valve matrix for repeating cycles
Automation system with hybrid
functionality

Kurt Engeljehringer | Emission Test Systems | 31 August 2016 |

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HYBRID TESTING - ADVANCED


Hybrid Basic Solution

Engine Start/Stop Detection


Current Clamp and analyzer
CVS valve matrix for repeating cycles
Automation system with hybrid
functionality

Hybrid Advanced Solution Add Ons

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Heated CVS system configuration


Tail pipe pressure control
Dilution air flow sensor
Power Analyzer
Pre- and Post Cat emission bench
2nd Chassis Roller 4WD

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AVL - CHASSIS DYNO - SOLUTION


Maximized availability of test cell (Efficiency)

Fastest test cell and pre-test and post-test device preparation


Minimized maintenance downtime
One man test operation capability
Parallelized/Unmanned maintenance and quality assurance test
Customer example: 3 shift, 6 days a week, 6 testcells 32,000 valid
tests per year

Future-proof solution

future powertrain concepts considered


Modularity and upgradability, prepared for future needs
Compliant to current and future regulations (up to app. 2025)

Tailored to customer needs

Pre-engineered solution - 3D layout


Modularity
Optimized for customer needs and existing customer facility
fast adaptation to development needs and technology changes

Hybrid Testing

All types of Hybrid- and EV vehicle testing

Unique RDE tool chain (RDE ready)

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Road2Lab and Lab2Road functionality (aligned with PEMS AVL M.O.V.E)


Simulation (InMotion) integration
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AVL EMISSION Test Systems

Mastering Emissions