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# Question 1

2 out of 2 points

## The temperature of a substance is the amount of heat within a substance.

FALSE

FALSE
Temperature measures the average kinetic energy of molecules in a
substance.

Response
Feedback:

Question 2
2 out of 2 points

Two objects in contact are in thermal equilibrium if their particles possess the same
average kinetic energy.

TRUE

TRUE
When objects are in thermal equilibrium, they are at the same
temperature.

Response
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Question 3
3 out of 3 points

Response
Feedback:

## The equilibrium expression should be written using only compounds in

aqueous solution or gas phases. The coefficients shown in the balanced
chemical equation should be used as superscripts in the Kcequation.

Question 4
2 out of 2 points

If the change in enthalpy is negative, H is negative and heat is released during the
change.

TRUE

TRUE
Response
Feedback:

## If the change in enthalpy is negative, the reaction is exothermic and the

final state has less energy than the initial state.

Question 5
2 out of 2 points

## Combustion is an example of an exothermic reaction.

TRUE

TRUE
Response Feedback:

## A fire is an example of an exothermic reaction.

Question 6
2 out of 2 points

The specific heat of a substance is the heat that must be absorbed to increase the
temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree Celsius.

TRUE

TRUE
Response Feedback:

## The unit for specific heat capacity is J/gC.

Question 7
3 out of 3 points

Given 13.5 grams of substance Z, if the substance absorbs 36 kilojoules of energy and the
temperature increases by 25 degrees Celsius, what is the specific heat of the substance?

## 1.07 x 102 J/gC

Response
Feedback:

Using the equation, q = mcT, and by rearranging the equation, you can
determine the specific heat of the substance. It is important to make sure units
cancel, which includes the need to convert from kilojoules to joules.

Question 8
3 out of 3 points

Given 16.2 grams of substance Y, if the substance absorbs 2722 joules of energy and the
specific heat of the substance is 9.22 J/gC, what is the final temperature of the substance

## if the initial was 26 degrees Celsius?

44C

44C
Response
Feedback:

Using the equation, q = mcT, and by rearranging the equation, you can
calculate the change in temperature. From this and the initial temperature,
you can then determine the final temperature.

Question 9

A calorimeter is used in an experiment. The initial temperature of the system was found to
be 32 degrees Celsius. The final temperature was found to be 48 degrees Celsius. Discuss
the direction of transfer of energy and the resulting change in enthalpy (if any).

Selected
Correct

Metal fragments released heat into the water raising the temperature of the
water.

## Since the temperature is increasing, heat is being transferred from

the reaction and into the water. This is an exothermic reaction. In
this type of reaction, the enthalpy will decrease, so the change in
enthalpy will be negative.

## Response [None Given]

Feedback:

Question 10
2 out of 2 points

Two substances have different Hvaporization values. If given the same number of moles of
each substance, and assuming the same amount of heat is applied to both substances, the
substance with a higher Hvaporization value will convert from a liquid to a gas more quickly.

FALSE

FALSE
Response The Hvaporization is the amount of heat necessary per mole of substance to
Feedback: convert a substance from a liquid to a gas (or Hcondensation for gas to

liquid). The substance with a higher Hvaporization will absorb more heat before
converting from a liquid to a gas.

Question 11
0 out of 3 points

What amount of heat is exchanged when 16.02 grams of substance Y goes from a gas at
62 degrees Celsius to a liquid at 62 degrees Celsius? Boiling point of substance Y = 62
degrees C; Hvaporization = 9.22 J/mol; Hfusion = 2.77 J/mol. MWsubstance y = 14.77 g/mol.

3.00 x 100 J

10.0 J
Response
Feedback:

Using the equation, q = H*mol, one can determine the amount of heat
absorbed or released to allow phase change to occur.

Question 12
2 out of 2 points

The equation, DF

## D + F + heat, is an example of an exothermic reaction.

TRUE

TRUE
Response
Feedback:

When heat is added as a product, the reaction is exothermic. We also see heat
written on the reactant side, but with a negative sign indicating it must be
removed in order for the reaction to proceed in the forward direction.

Question 13
3 out of 3 points

Which of the following statements concerning the reaction shown below are true?
P4 (s) + 3O2 (g)
P4O6 (s)
H = 1640 kJ
heat is absorbed
heat is released
rxn is exothermic
rxn is endothermic
products have higher enthalpy content than reactants
reactants have higher enthalpy content than products

Response
Feedback:

## To produce a H, the reaction must be exothermic, where heat is released.

If energy is released, then the reactants have a higher enthalpy than the
products.

Question 14
3 out of 3 points

Which of the following statements concerning the reaction shown below are true?
AgBr (s) + Cl2 (g)
AgCl (s) + Br2 (l)
H = 27.6 kJ
Heat is absorbed.
Heat is released.
Rxn is exothermic.
Rxn is endothermic.
Products have higher enthalpy content than reactants.
Reactants have higher enthalpy content than products.

Response
Feedback:

## To produce a H, the reaction must be exothermic, where heat is released.

If energy is released, then the reactants have a higher enthalpy than the
products.

Question 15
3 out of 3 points

The enthalpy change for the reaction, 3CO (g) + 2Fe2O3 (s)
Fe(s) + 3CO2 (g), can be
calculated from Hf values for each reactant and product. Which substance or substances
in this equation have a Hf value equal to 0.0 kilojoules?

Fe(s)

Fe(s)
Response
Feedback:

Every element in its standard state has its enthalpy of formation value set to
zero kilojoules. Pure solid metals and diatomic gases, such as O2 and Cl2, are
in their standard states.

Question 16
3 out of 3 points

Given the enthalpies of reaction below, determine the enthalpy change for the reaction:
N2O (g) + NO2 (g)
3NO (g).
N2 (g) + O2 (g)

2NO (g)

H = +180.7 kJ

## 2NO (g) + O2 (g)

2NO2 (g)

H = -113.1 kJ

2N2O (g)
O2 (g)

H = -163.2 kJ

2N2 (g) +

155.6 kJ

155.6 kJ
Response To complete this problem, it is necessary to reverse equation two, which
Feedback: changes the sign of the enthalpy value. Then, it is also necessary to divide

equation two and three by 2, in order to obtain the given equation. This will
reduce both their enthalpy values by half.

Question 17
2 out of 2 points

According to the first law of thermodynamics, energy can be transferred as heat or work.

TRUE

TRUE
Response
Feedback:

## According to the first law of thermodynamics, energy can be changed from

one form to another, but the total energy of the universe remains constant.
Two ways of transferring energy are heat and work.

Question 18
2 out of 2 points

Heat flow transfer cannot occur between two objects with the same molecular average
kinetic energy.

TRUE

TRUE
Response
Feedback:

If two objects possess the same molecular average kinetic energy, then
heat will not transfer from one object to the other.

Question 19
3 out of 3 points

## Heat will flow from object A to object B if:

The molecular average kinetic energy of the two objects is the same.
The molecular average kinetic energy of A is higher than that of B.
The molecular average kinetic energy of B is higher than that of A.

II only

II only
Response
Feedback:

Heat will transfer between objects only if there is a difference in the molecular
average kinetic energy between the two objects, and the object transferring
the heat has greater thermal energy.

Question 20
2 out of 2 points

The law of conservation of energy maintains that the total amount of energy in the
universe remains the same during all energy changes.

TRUE

TRUE
Response
Feedback:

In regards to this law, energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but only
transferred.

Question 21
0 out of 2 points

FALSE

TRUE
Response
Feedback:

## Chemical changes usually proceed from more concentrated energy states to

less concentrated energy states spontaneously. These reactions occur without
outside assistance because the free energy decreases during the change.

Question 22
3 out of 3 points

## In general, spontaneous reactions are different than non-spontaneous reactions in that

spontaneous reactions:

can provide free energy that can be used for work elsewhere

can provide free energy that can be used for work elsewhere
Response In spontaneous reactions, the reactants generally possess more concentrated
Feedback: energy and more thermal energy than the products. The energy is released into

the surroundings and can be used as energy to drive another reaction that
might be non-spontaneous.

Question 23
2 out of 2 points

TRUE

TRUE
Response
Feedback:

## A decrease in entropy, or disorder, means that a more ordered arrangement

or more concentrated energy form has been achieved.

Question 24
3 out of 3 points

Response
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## When &Delta;G = 0, there is no tendency for a reaction to occur in any

direction. The system is at equilibrium.

Question 25
2 out of 2 points

A reaction will only be spontaneous if the change in enthalpy is more negative than the
product of TS is positive.

TRUE

TRUE
Response
Feedback:

## The combination of the change in enthalpy, H, and TS, must be

negative for the reaction to be spontaneous.

Question 26
3 out of 3 points

+H
H
+S
S

II and III

II and III
Response
Feedback:

## Both a release in heat energy (negative enthalpy) and an increase in

disorder (positive S) favor a G, which indicates a spontaneous change.

Question 27
0 out of 2 points

If reactant particles collide in the proper orientation, the collision will be effective and the
reactants will form products.

TRUE

FALSE
Response
Feedback:

## To have an effective collision, reactant particles must collide with sufficient

kinetic energy to break existing bonds and collide in the proper orientation.

Question 28
2 out of 2 points

Pulverizing a solid reactant from chunks into a powder can affect the rate of the chemical
reaction.

TRUE

TRUE
Response
Feedback:

By pulverizing the solid from chunks into powder form, you are increasing
the surface area, which increases the rate of the chemical reaction.

Question 29

Explain how changing the pressure can affect the rate of reaction.
Selected Increasing the pressure on a reaction involving reacting gases increases the rate of
Answer: reaction. Changing the pressure on a reactoin which involves only solids or liquids has no
effect on rate.

Correct

## When the reactants or products of a system are gases, the pressure

can be changed to affect the rate of reaction. At a constant
temperature, the pressure can be changed in one of two ways:
decreasing the volume of the system and/or increasing the number
of molecules of gas present. Either of these changes will change
the concentration of the gas. Because there is less distance
between molecules, collisions occur more often. Thus, an increase
in the concentration will cause an increase in the rate of the
reaction if the reactants include more gas particles than the
products.

## Response [None Given]

Feedback
:

Question 30
2 out of 2 points

In an energy diagram for an exothermic chemical reaction, the total energy change is the
difference in energy between the energy of the reactants and the energy of the products.

TRUE

TRUE
Response
Feedback:

The overall energy (or enthalpy) change is the difference between the energy
of the products and the energy of the reactants. The activation energy does
not affect the overall energy change.

Question 31
3 out of 3 points

Using the enthalpy diagram below, determine which of the following is true.

## The reaction is exothermic.

Response
Feedback:

The reactants possess more energy than the products. This describes an
exothermic reaction.

Question 32
3 out of 3 points

Selected
Correct
Response
Feedback:

## providing a less energetic transition state for reactants to

convert to products
providing a less energetic transition state for reactants to
convert to products
Catalysts lower the activation energy of a reaction, and thus, increase the
rates of both the forward and reverse reaction rates equally.

Question 33
3 out of 3 points

Selected

## The rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the

reverse reaction.

Correct
Response
Feedback:

## The rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the

reverse reaction.
By definition, chemical equilibrium is established when the rate of the
forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction.

Question 34
2 out of 2 points

An increase in pressure will cause a shift of equilibrium towards the side of the reaction
with the least moles of gas.

TRUE

TRUE
Response
Feedback:

## By increasing the pressure, the reaction equilibrium will shift so as to reduce

the stress of the increased pressure. This is accomplished by shifting the
equilibrium towards the side containing the least amount of gas.

Question 35
3 out of 3 points

For this equilibrium reaction, which of the following describes how the given stress affects
the equilibrium position?
2SO3 (g) + heat

## Removal of SO2 results in shifting of equilibrium to the right

Response
Feedback:

Removal of SO2 reduces the concentration of SO2. In this case, the shift of
equilibrium will be to the right, so that the system can replace the lost SO 2.

Question 36
3 out of 3 points

For this equilibrium reaction, which of the following describes how the given stress affects
the equilibrium point?
N2 (g)+ O2 (g)

2NO (g)

## Removal of N2 results in shifting of equilibrium to the left

Response Removal of N2 reduces the concentration of N2. In this case, the shift of
Feedback: equilibrium will be to the left, so that the system can replace the lost N 2. A

change in pressure will not affect the position of equilibrium because the moles
of gas in the reactants and products are equal.

Question 37
2 out of 2 points

## In determining the equilibrium constant for a reaction, reactants or products in solid or

aqueous form are not included in the expression.

FALSE

FALSE
Response Because the term, concentration, is not used for solids or liquids, neither solids
Feedback: nor liquids are included in the equilibrium expression. The concentration of

## aqueous solutions can be expressed using molarity, so aqueous solutions are

included.

Question 38
3 out of 3 points

Given the following information, determine the Keq for the following reaction: COCl2 (g)
CO (g) + Cl2 (g)

Substance

Concentration (M)
equilibrium

CoCl2

1.8 x 10-3

CO

1.2 x 10-2

Cl2

1.2 x 10-2

8.0 x 10-2