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Research Title:

Contributing Factors Causing Absenteeism Among Grade

Research Proponents:

Three Pupils at San Jose T. Reyes Elementary School


Riza P. Abrenica, Rowena A. Atienza, Rosalyn T.

Division:
School:

Policarpio and Ma. Natividad A. Masalunga


Batangas
San Jose T. Reyes Elementary

I.
II.

Title:

Contributing Factors Causing Absenteeism Among Grade


Three Pupils at San Jose T. Reyes Elementary School
Context and Rationale:
Absence nowadays cannot be separated from the individual who was called

a student. This absence of phenomena, it is easy to see even likened it has become
a necessity in the nature of students. So it is not surprising if this habit continues to
fall proceeds among school students as examples of primary, secondary and even at
university level, the problem still persists. It cannot be denied that every now and
then, students may miss some school activities and lessons. But it becomes a
problem if the student will be away from school for many days. Going to school
regularly is crucially important for a students education and social skills. Chronic
absentee students are placed at a disadvantage both socially and academically.
They miss out on critical stages of social interaction and development with their
peers and at the same time impacts negatively on their academic progress. This can
result to low self-esteem, social isolation and dissatisfaction that could well have
precipitated non-attendance in the first place. School absenteeism is an alarming
problem for administrators, teachers, parents and the society in general, as well as
for the pupils in particular. Unaccepted absence has a negative effect on peer
relationship which could cause absence.
According to Malcolm, Wilson, Davidson and Kirk (2003) teachers identified
effects of absenteeism on children as: academic under- achievement, difficulty in

making friends which could lead to boredom, loss of confidence. Also, prolonged
absence can have deleterious effects for the child in later life. Students who are
absent from school are at the greatest risk of dropping out of school early.
Absenteeism also affects the teachers ability present class work in a sequential and
organized way. This can have an effect on the progress of all the students attending
the class. The families of habitual absentees can also suffer. For a poverty-stricken
family, it may mean a continuation of the poverty and unemployment cycle that may
run in the family. This also contributes to family conflicts.
The society also suffers as the children of school age hang around in the
streets. They can be found just gallivanting around. Since they have nothing to do,
they resort to petty crimes like stealing other peoples belongings and properties.
Others may resort to drug addiction and other behavior that is detrimental to society.
Thus, if the student keeps on being away from school for too long, he may grow up
to be a liability of his community and of his country as a whole.
It is the aim of every school to lessen, if not eradicate absenteeism among
its students. One way of addressing this problem is to identify the causes why
students become truant from school. Once they are singled out, understood and
analyzed, specific actions and measures can be undertaken. This will eventually
redound to the better performance of the students, teachers and the school in
general.
It is in this context that this action research was undertaken, that is, to
identify the causes of Absenteeism among Grade Three Pupils of San Jose T. Reyes
Elementary School. It has the goal of understanding and correcting such undesirable

pupil behavior. Based on the findings, methods and strategies were recommended to
minimize, if not eradicate absenteeism or truancy.
III.

Review of Related Literature


The purpose of this study is to make to find out the factors that influence

student absences to class. As well, this study helps the management of the university,
especially in overcome problems absenteeism among students particularly in the
Faculty of Business. According to (Schmidt,1983), absenteeism affects the students
ability to get high scores in examinations which can cause the decreasing of grades or
the student may fail and will cause him or her to repeat the same year level. Students
who have spent time attending lectures or classes have a significant, positive effect on
students performance. Students that participated exhibits higher grades and scores in
examinations that the student.
According to (Teasley,2004) absenteeism is a period of time when a student
does not attend school students who do not attend school will generally fall behind
their classmates in their academic success (Ford & Sutphen,1996) they have fewer
opportunity to learn the materials that will help them to succeed (Epstein & Sheldon ,
2002) the focus of student absenteeism ranges from early schooling until adolescent
years (Ford &Sutphen , 1996).
Absenteeism in students affects their school performances especially when they
are in a group or teamwork for their assignments and projects. Since grouping will
help develops the students cooperatives and ability to share and gain knowledge from
their group mates, likewise, the group mates will also miss the opportunity of gaining
knowledge from the absent student (Koppenhaver, 2003)

Based on research of (Marburger,2001) states that the absences create a dead,


tiresome, unpleasant classroom, environment that makes students who come to class
uncomfortable and the lecturer irritable. Absenteeism disturbs the dynamic teachinglearning environment and adversely affects the overall well-being of classes (Segal ,
2008). In quality terms, absenteeism is a waste of educational resources, time and
human potential. Student absenteeism also causes rework and wasted time for
lecturers (Lalek , 1995 &Rumburger 1997).
According to (Park and Kerr 1990, Romer 1993, and Foltz 1996, Marburger 2001) it
is widely recognized that absenteeism can negatively impact grades in economics
courses and that high attendance rates can improve student performance in variety of
classroom settings (Sheets et al. 1995, Johnston and James, 2000)
According of study by (Brooks, 1997, as cited in Bond, 2004) absenteeism can be
defined as persistent, habitual, and unexplained absence from school. Bond noted
that chronic absenteeism occurs when a student is absent without reason 20% or
more of school time: - this nominal figure is consistently identified regardless of the
specific circumstances of the absenteeism.
According to (Schmidt in 1983) absenteeism affects the students ability to get
high scores in examinations which can cause the decreasing of grades or the
student may fail and will cause him or her repeat the same year level. Students who
have spent time attending lectures or classes have a significant, positive effect on
students performance. Students that participated exhibits higher grades and scores
in examinations that the student
To prevent and correct serious attendance problems, school need to change
the way they structured improves the quality of the courses and intensity

interpersonal relationship between teachers and students (Epstein and Sheldon,


2002)
Daniel RMarburger indicates that student performance is inversely correlated
with absenteeism. The author investigates the impact of enforcing an attendance
policy on absenteeism and student performance. The evidence suggests that an
enforced mandatory attendance policy significantly reduces absenteeism and
improves exam performance.
Newman Wadesango and SeverinoMachingambi (2011) study was to
investigate the extent of student absenteeism in selected areas. Explore the reasons
why student absent themselves from classes and examine the implications of
student absenteeism. The study adopted the mixed methodology and used a survey
research design as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were
collected by self-administered questionnaires and interviews with the chosen
students. The study revealed that student absenteeism is rampant in the schools
under study due to reasons such as: lack of subject interest, poor teaching strategies
by teachers, unfavorable learning environment, too much socialization, and poor
relations with the teachers. The study also found an inverse relationship between
student absenteeism and course performance.
According (DonkaMirthecva, 2009) some studies show that students
attendance or absenteeism is closely linked with good students health thus resulting
to higher academic achievements.
According (Chang and Romero, 2008, Moonie, Sterling, Figgs and Castro,
2008) have identified chronic absenteeism as a persistent problem related to poor
academic performances and potential behavioral and development issues. There is

general agreement among researchers that being chronically absent places student
at risk of negative academic consequences.
Absenteeism can have pronounced negative impacts on students of poverty
(Ready,2010) and according (Balfane And Byrnes,2012) absenteeism can reduce
the like hood of post-secondary enrolment.
There is also evidence of a particular pattern of non-attendance amongst
university students, with most absenteeism accusing on Mondays-and Fridays being
of one day in duration (Timmins, 2002, Rodgers, 2002)
According (Gatherer and Manning, 1998) suggest that there are may actually
be psychological benefits to occasional absences. Yet, if one were to try to dress this
in timetabling and in so doing, scheduled classes only on Tuesdays, Wednesdays
and Thursdays.
Students perceptions of the classroom or teachers as chaotic, uncaring or
boring were associated with student absenteeism and truancy (Duckworth and
Dejong, 1989, Redericket al, 1997)
Research found that several family and community enrolment practices were
associated with student attendance including rewarding. Students for good
attendance communicating with families about student attendance, providing families
with information about people to contact at school or intuitions, conducting worships
on attendance, and providing after-school programs for students (Epstein and
Sheldon, 2002)
According to (Henry, 2007) social learning theory may also be applied to the
way parents pass on their values and expectations relatives to schooling and

education. The attitude a students parents have toward truancy plays an important
role in the extent to which truant behavior persists.
High rates of unexcused absences have been linked to school
disengagement and lower academic achievement.(Gotttried,2009)students with
high number of unexcused absences might be less motivated and supported at
home then a students with an equal number of exceed ones :Therefore the reasons
for school institutions absences are related to the extent to which students learn.
Recent studies show students who are chronically absent are involved with the
following disruptive classroom behavior in the current percentiles;29% are bullies,
bullied 19%.Have disrespect for teachers,19% are afflicted with gangs, and 13% are
verbally abuse teachers (Reimer& Sminh,2005) see school absenteeism as a cause
of low scholastics an more students are referred to for disciplinary action (Sommer
and Najd 1991)
Class attendance is likely to be substantially influenced by contextual factors
(Crede, Roch&Kiesecuyuks 2010) such as attendance norms of university perceived
difficulty of the class, characteristic of the instructors and whether students can
obtain lecture material online. It is also true that individual differences factors such as
motivation, consciencetiousness and intelligence increase the likelihood of a student
attending class ( Decades and Fortz 1996, Arulampalam, Naylor, and Smith 2012).
As summarize of the literature review, we can conclude that rate of absenteeism
among pupils is currently in high percentages. Based on previous research
conducted by researchers there are many factors contributing to the major problems
of the absenteeism such as parental responsibility, in conducive studying
environment, administration role, and so on.

IV.

Research Questions
Purpose of this study is made to find out the factors that influence student

absences to class. As well, this study helps the school of San Jose T. Reyes
Elementary, overcome absenteeism among grade three pupils. In addition, we also
take the responsibility of in given awareness to each student on the future impact on
the attitude of those who prefer not to attend the class and take easily for this kind of
attitude.
Specifically, the researchers would like to answer the following research
questions.
1. What is the absenteeism level of pupil?
2. What are the causes of absenteeism among pupils?
3. What are the teachers precautionary measures to avoid absenteeism
V.

among pupils?
Scope and Limitation
During the research, there are some limitations regarding our study on

absenteeism. There are several factors that may cause absenteeism. The
researchers have chosen four of the factors which are interest toward the subject,
lectures, teaching skills, pupils attitudes and health problem. The four factors that the
researchers have focused on are not significant enough to find out the reason of
pupils absence. There are other factors that also contribute to absenteeism among
grade three pupils of SJTRES.
The researchers only use questionnaire and verbal communication as the
survey method. Besides the questionnaire is only distributed to grade three pupils
whose house is nearby the school. There are only 20 participants. Therefore, it might
not represent the whole population of grade three pupils.
Another limitation is that the period of doing this research is limited.
VI.
Methodology and Research Design

Twenty grade three pupils were asked to complete a questionnaire. They rated
various situations, reasons, and causes for being absent from school. All the data
was then organized, tallied, tabulated, and presented in a series of tables and graphs.
Frequency counts, percentage weight values and weighted mean were used in the
analysis and interpretation of data.
The responses were analyzed using a five-point Likert scale with the following
equivalent:
1. Never
2. Rarely
3. Sometimes
4. Very often
5. Always
Figures were rounded signify classification of responses. The measure of
central tendency, specifically the mean, was used to determine the average value of
response or response average of the pupils
As the researchers, we explored student absenteeism through a lens
shaped in part as represented in the following visual illustration:

Demographic Characteristic

Gender

Dependent
Variable
(Students
Absenteeism)
Independent Variables

Figure 1: Demographic characteristics,


and
Independent Variables
Dependent Variables
The
Personal
Factors
variable
shown in the upper left box is the independent variables which are
Teacher Related
Home Related
hypothesized
to influence the dependent variables which are pupils absenteeism.
Relationship between the variables is assumed as independent variables will influence

the dependent variables either positively or negatively. The relationship between two
selected demographic characteristics and the dependent variables was also studied.
VII.
Result and Discussion
The survey was done utilizing the survey questions and the result was tallied
and will be scrutinized accordingly. The complexity of the Survey Sheet was
intentionally prepared to extract valid and trustworthy answers from the subject
population. The explicit outcome of the answers will be categorized in factors that
affect their punctuality values in attending to their classes or other learning related
activities.
This will be classified as Personal factors, Teacher Related Factors and Home
Related Factors and further be classified according to the details of each factor. The
presentation will be done according to the intention of the researcher to shed light on
this tricky rationalization.
Personal Factor
Always
(5)

Often
(4)

Sometimes
(3)

Rarely
(2)

Never
(1)

0
0
0

0
0
0

1
1
0

0
0
0

19
19
20

0
2
0
3
0

7
3
0
0
0

3
5
7
8
0

6
4
4
4
7

4
6
9
5
13

0
0
0

0
0
0

3
4
0

2
3
3

15
13
17

0
2
0

0
4
0

2
1
1

4
3
0

14
10
19

Physical Factors
1. Our house is far from the school.
2. It is unsafe to go to school.
3. Nobody accompanies me in going to school

since it is far.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Health
I have a toothache
My stomach hurts.
I have a headache
I'm down with fever/flu.
I have other diseases like diarrhea, etc.
Attitude
I am not interested in my studies.
I feel lazy.
My friends influence me to be absent from
my classes.
I can't concentrate in my studies.
I didn't wake up early.
I did not study/make my assignments the
night before.
I got fond of playing computer games.

Table 1: Personal Factor that Influence Pupils Absence

A. Physical Factors
Among the items cited, the distance of their house to the school and the danger
posed by walking to the school has the same response average, or a mean of 1.1.
This means that both are not reasons for them to be absent from school.
B. Health
Toothache is the most common reason of students for being absent. It has the
highest response average of 2.65. It is followed by fever/flu, with an average
response of 2.6. Stomachache comes in third with 2.55 average responses. The least
common reason for them for being absent is diarrhea, with 1.4 averages.

C. Personal Attitude
Playing computer games is the most common reason why some pupils are
absent. This account for 2.7 mean. Another reason commonly cited is that they cant
wake up early. This resulted from 2.25. Feeling lazy and cant concentrate and not
interested in studies also keep them away from school. The former has a response
average of 1.55 while the latter has 1.4 respectively.
Teacher- Related Factor

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Attitude
My teacher scolded me.
I can't understand my teacher's lessons.
I don't like my teacher.
Classroom Atmosphere
Our classroom is hot and uncomfortable.
It's noisy inside our classroom.
A classmate/classmates bully me.
I have no friends in our class.

Always
(5)

Often
(4)

Sometimes
(3)

Rarely
(2)

Never
(1)

0
0
0

3
0
0

4
2
0

5
7
0

8
11
20

0
0
2
0

0
0
2
2

0
0
3
2

2
2
6
4

18
18
7
12

Table 2: Teacher-Related Factor


A. Attitude

When the students are scolded for their bad behavior by the teacher, this tends
to make them be absent from their classes. It has the highest average response of
2.1 while the reason that they cant understand their lessons follow close behind with
1.55 mean.
B. Classroom Atmosphere
The highest mean of 2.3 was accorded bullying by fellow pupils which means that this
is the primary reason why they tend to be absent. No friends in school follows with 1.7
response average.

Home- Related Factor


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

My parents ask me to be absent from class.


My parents quarreled.
My parents don't care about my studies.
I'm too pre-occupied with household chores.
I have no money to buy snacks in school.
We have no food/I did not eat.

Always
(5)
4
0
0
0
0
2

Often
(4)
3
0
0
0
0
2

Sometimes
(3)
3
2
0
0
2
3

Rarely
(2)
6
0
0
4
4
4

Never
(1)
4
18
20
16
14
9

Table 3: Home Related Factor


A. Home-Related Factor
Students who say their parents asked them to be absent resulted in the highest
mean of 2.85. They have no food to eat come second with a response average of
2.05. The other reasons ranged from 1.0 to 1.4, including parents dont care on their
studies, their parents quarreled and not having money to spend for snacks and other
small expenses in school.
VIII.

Conclusion and Recommendation

Among all the causes presented, home related factor is the primary reason why
pupils are absent from their classes. Parents ask their son/ daughter to be absent is
the leading culprit in this category.
Personal attitude, health factor and classroom atmosphere reasons follow in
that order. The least reason they give is related to their physical environment .
Of all the factors/categories cited, the top 10 reasons of student absenteeism are as
follows:

Parents asking them to be absent


Playing computer games
Toothache
Fever/flu
Stomachache
Bullied by classmate/ classmates
Didnt wake up early
Scolded by the teacher
No food to eat
No friends in school
In order to limit or eliminate absenteeism, it is recommended that educators:

Inform parents about the benefit of keeping their children in school. Emphasize
to them that if they keep on asking their children to be absent, this will set a bad
example to the child. If the parents themselves are keeping the child away from
school, they must believe that household concerns are more important than their
education. Emphasize that academic success is very much dependent on
student attitude towards school. Motivate them so they will be looking forward to
attending their classes regularly. For those who wake up late, encourage them to get
an alarm clock. Do not scold the pupils who come late. Give them a time-table to
change their sleeping habits and to study before bed instead of watching TV or
playing computer games. Ensure that classroom atmosphere is conducive to
learning. Noise-reduction among students should be a priority. Older children, like

grade VI students, tend to have louder voices so they should be taught how to speak
softly and without needing to shout. The key here is discipline. The teacher must also
see to it that the students are comfortable and have no other concerns except the
lesson at hand. There should be a lively interaction between the teacher and the
students, but the teacher should see to it that noise is modulated so as not to distract
pupils from their learning. Refrain from scolding misbehaving pupils. As much as
possible, remind them of their wrong doing in a most diplomatic manner. Self-control
should be a virtue which the teacher should practice in the course of her teaching
everyday of the school week.

References:
https://owlcation.com/academia/action-research-on-student-absenteeism
http://www.ijern.com/journal/2014/October-2014/33.pdf
http://www.doe.in.gov/student-services/attendance/contributing-factors-absenteeism
http://confabjournals.com/confabjournals/images/191201471182.pdf
file:///C:/Users/user/Desktop/Syarifah_Suhaili_Tahir.pdf]