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III.

EXAMINATION OF THE
CRANIAL NERVES

NAME/NO. OF C.N.

FUNCTIONAL OR ANATOMIC
SIGNIFICANCE

I. OLFACTORY
II. OPTIC

It smells
It sees

III. OCULOMOTOR

Its MM move the eyeball

IV. TROCHLEAR

Its MM moves the eyeball after


running through a trochlea or pulley

V. TRIGEMINAL

It has three large sensory branches to


the face

VI. ABDUCENS

It abducts the eye

VII. FACIAL

It moves the MM of all facial orifices

VIII. VESTIBULO COCHLEAR

It equilibrates, hears

IX. GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL

It supplies taste fibers to the tongue


and
Activates the pharynx during
swallowing

NAME/NO. OF C.N.

FUNCTIONAL OR ANATOMIC
SIGNIFICANCE

X. VAGUS

It is vagrant wandering from the


pharynx to the Colon

XI. SPINAL ACCESSORY

It arises in the cervical spinal cord,


runs into the Skull, out again, and
conveys accessory fibers to the vagus

XII. HYPOGLOSSAL

It runs under the tongue

FUNCTIONS OF THE
CRANIAL NERVES

I:

Smells

II:

Sees

III, IV, VI:

Move eyes; Constricts pupils (III)

V:

Chews and feels front of head

VII:

Moves the face, tears, tastes, salivates

VIII:

Hears, equilibrates

IX:

Tastes, salivates, swallows, monitors


carotid body and sinus

X:

Tastes, swallows, lifts palate, phonates,


afferent and parasympathetic efferent to
thoraco-abdominal viscera

XI:

Turns head, shrugs shoulders

XII:

Moves tongue

CRANIAL NERVES

LOCATION OF NUCLEI

I.

Frontal Lobe

II.

Diencephalon

III, IV

Mesencephalon

V, VI, VII

PONS

VIII

Pontomedullary Junction

IX, X, XII

Medulla

XI.

Spinal Cord

METHOD FOR RAPID


SEQUENTIAL SCREENING OF
THE MOTOR FUNCTION OF
THE CRANIAL NERVES

NERVES COMMANDS TO PATIENT


BY EXAMINER

III
IV
VI

Follow my Finger

OBSERVATIONS AND TESTS BY


EXAMINER

Move finger through all fields of gaze,


watch for Asymmetrical corneal light
reflections, Nystagmus, pupilloconstriction
during convergence, lid-limbus relations,
inquire about diplopia

Look up at the ceiling

Watch for asymmetry or absence of


forehead Wrinkling and eyebrow elevation

Closing your eyes tight Look for asymmetry of wrinkles radiating


and dont let me open them from Lateral canthi and try to force lids
open with Your fingers
VII

Draw back the corners


of your mouth or
smile

Look for asymmetry of nasolabial folds.


Have patient make labial sounds if speech
sounded Abnormal.

Draw down the corners


of your mouth hard

Look for asymmetry of movement and for


Wrinkling of skin on neck from platysma
action

Bite your jaws together hard Palpate masseter MM


V

Open jaw as wide as


possible
Hold your jaw to one
side

Try to push it back. Repeat test to the


opposite Side

Stick out your tongue as


far as possible

Look for deviation, atrophy and


fascsiculations Test for lingual articulations
if speech sounded Abnormal
Look for weakness or slowness of
movement.

XII
Move your tongue from
side to side
X

Look for deviation of the tip by sighting on


the Notch between medial two incisors

Say ah

Look for asymmetrical palatal elevation.


Test for palatal articulations and do gag
reflex if speech or swallowing were
abnormal

XI

Turn your head to one side Try to push head back to midline. Inspect
and dont let Me push it back and palpate SCM MM. Repeat test to
opposite side. Try to press the patients
Touch your ear with
shoulders back down.
your
shoulders

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