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International Journal of Applied Research and Technology

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International Journal of Applied Research and Technology
ISSN 2277-0585
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Farmers Perception on the Benefit of Extension Services


in Jigawa State, Nigeria.
Muktar, B. G., Ahungwa, G. T. and Nasiru, A.
Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria.

Available online: August 31, 2016.

To cite this article:


Muktar, B. G., Ahungwa, G. T. and Nasiru, A. (2016). Farmers Perception on the Benefit of Extension Services in Jigawa
State, Nigeria. International Journal of Applied Research and Technology. 5(8): 24 30.

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International Journal of Applied Research and Technology

International Journal of Applied Research and Technology


Vol. 5, No. 8, August 2016. 24 30.

25

Esxon Publishers

Farmers Perception on the Benefit of Extension Services in Jigawa State,


Nigeria.
Muktar, B. G., Ahungwa, G. T. and Nasiru, A.
Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria.

(Received: 19 August 2016 / Accepted: 25 August 2016 / Published: 31 August 2016).

Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the perception of the farmers in Jigawa State on the benefits of extension
services in the State. A multi stage sampling was adopted to select respondents, simple random selection was used to select
four Local governments from the four extension zones of the state and a purposive sampling technique to select 20
respondents from each of the Local government selected, making a sample size of 80 respondents. Data was collected by
trained enumerators and was analyzed using simple descriptive statistics. The result shows that majority of the respondents
(46.7%) are in their active years (31-50 years), most of the farmers (87.5%) were male, married (86.3%) and with
household of more than 5 people (87.6%). Most of the respondents have Quranic education (47.5%) and only 1.3% are
having tertiary qualification. The results further show that 82.5% of the respondents indicated that their main source of
information is from radio. Result from likert scale analysis shows that 8.8% perceives extension services as helpful,45% as
partially helpful and 36.3% as not so helpful. However, 38% of the respondents shows that their family welfare has
improved due to timely access of inputs in recent times, 37.3% felt that it has slightly improved while 24% felt the change
is slightly visible. The limitation that discourage farmers from seeking extension services are inaccessibility of the
extension agent as majority of the farmers (53.8%) indicates that agents are not readily available in their localities, only
(35%) of the respondents felt that extension agents plays a major role in linking them to markets which indicate a negative
feeling by the farmers on the role of extension to market linkage. In places where extension agent is accessible, issues of
credibility and lack of trust is evident, for example 33.7% alluded financial exploitation, 2.5% flirting with their household
women and 63.5% indicate unfamiliarity with the extension agent to be an obstacle to trust and subsequent adoption of
their messages. This study therefore recommends the revitalization of the extension services in the state, sensitization of
the farmers on importance of seeking extension services and providing incentives for rural posting to extension agents.
Furthermore, the enforcement of good etiquettes on extension agent through strict implementations of code of conducts
and a strong punitive measure for an unruly agent.

Keywords: Farmers, Perception, Benefit, Extension Services, Jigawa State, Nigeria.

For corresponding author:


E-mail: info@esxpublishers.com
Subject: 0816-0218.
2016 Esxon Publishers. All rights reserved.

International Journal of Applied Research and Technology

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Introduction
The role of the agricultural sector of any developing nations economy including Nigeria has continued to be
unrivalled by any other sector. The supremacy of the Agricultural sector in providing employment and raw materials upon
the traditional provision of food and fiber to the human population cannot be overemphasized. It is well accepted that for
the required advancement of these sector to perform its expected role of sustaining food demand and fiber, extension
services remain the only avenue through which it can attain that role. In Nigeria, an estimated 76 percent of Nigerias
population lives in the rural area and about 90 percent of the rural dwellers are engaged in agricultural activities (UNICEF,
2008). With this scenario, agriculture occupies a pivotal place in the Nigerian economy as over seventy percent (70%) of
her population obtain their livelihood from agricultural activities (CBN, 1997). It therefore became imperative for
successive governments in Nigeria to introduce several programs aimed at developing the agricultural sector like National
Accelerated Food Production (NAFP), River Basin Development Authorities (RBDA), Green Revolution, and National
Programme on food security (NPFS) among others. In spite of these efforts by successive governments the desired result of
boosting agricultural contribution to the economic well-being of the farmers in particular and rural dwellers in general has
still not been realized (Omotayo, 2005).
The failure of all these programs and many others lead to a redirection of the government strategies, which lead to
the World Bank Supported Training and Visit Extension delivery (Adejo et al., 2012). This system was being controlled by
the ADPs that were initiated in 1975 who are saddled with the responsibilities of providing basic inputs to agricultural
ventures including information and trainings. These best practices are being extended through extension teachings by
extension workers, although most farmers have continued to be passive receivers of information without providing any
feedback to the system (Adejo et al 2012), this is an anomaly in the extension cycle. Agricultural Extension is expected to
foster a dynamic and sustainable form of agricultural development which has remained of great concern to government and
priority of discuss in policy arena (Agwu et al 2005). Extension teaching methods are the tools and techniques used to
create situation in which communication can take place between the farmer and the extension workers. They are the
methods of extending new knowledge and skills to the rural people by drawing their attention towards extension service,
arousing their interest and helping them to have the necessary experience. (Okunde, 2007; Abdullahi et al 2012).
Perception is the organizing and interpreting various stimuli into psychological experience. People tend to see the
world around them in their own unique way and respond behaviorally according to their interpretation (Adereti and Ajayi
2011). This means personal experiences are gathered and elicit some certain kind of behavior that translate into habit.
Ayansina (2011) posited that in everyday experience one tends to respond to stimuli that are relevant to ones need, interests
and values. It has been identified in Nigeria that most of the extension innovations and messages are typically based on
perception of farmers need and the desire of public agencies like the ADPs (Adejo et al 2012). It is therefore pertinent to
understand farmers perception of the extension services for better designing of programs to ensure smooth adoption and
sustainable productivity. There has been a disappointing trend with regards to what extension does in the transfer of
agricultural technology, extension has been viewed as having failed to deal with the specific problems of farmers (Ahmad,
1999; Ajieh, 2006). It is also stated as among the reasons for the failure of extension services is the lack of interest of
farmers, low awareness among farmers regarding availability of extension services and poor economic background of
farmers (Ajieh, 2006).
The aim of this study is to determine the farmers perception on Extension Services in the area, and the objectives
are to determine the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers in the study area, determine the level of awareness of
Extension Services among farmers in the study area and describe the limitations impeding access to agricultural extension
Materials and Methods
This study was conducted in Jigawa State, Nigeria, a state located in the north western part of the country. It is
inhabited by the Hausa, Fulani and Manga (Kanuri) ethnic group. The state lies between latitudes 11.00N to 13.00N and
longitudes 8.00E to 10.15E. The state is bordered to the west by Kano and Katsina States, to the East by Bauchi state,
Yobe to the Northeast while to the North Jigawa is bordered by Zinder in Niger republic. According to the 2006 census the
population of the state is 4,348,649 million inhabitants, with an estimated growth rate of 3.5%. The people are
predominantly farmers with about 80% of the populace living in the rural area. (Jigawa, 2015).
Sample and Sampling techniques
The Population for the study was all the extension Zones within the State, the sample was drawn from the different
extension Zones in the State. The zones namely:
Zone 1: Birnin Kudu, Gwaram, Buji, Jahun, Kiyawa, Miga, Dutse
Zone 2: Gumel, Maigatari, Garki, Ringim,Taura,Gagarawa,
Zone 3: Hadejia, Guri, Malam Madori, Auyo, Kirikasamma, Kafin Hausa, Birniwa and
Zone 4: Kazaure, Yankwashi, Roni, Babura, Suletankarkar, Gwiwa.
A multi stage sampling was adopted in selecting the sample size. A simple random sampling was used to select
four Local Government Areas (LGAs) from the four zones, each from an extension zone in the state. A purposive
selection of 20 farmers from each LGA was identified and were administered questionnaire by trained enumerators. This
brought the sample size to a total of 80 respondents. The selected LGAs are: Dutse, Maigatari, Kafin Hausa and
Yankwashi Local governments. Data was collected using structured questionnaire administered by trained enumerators.
Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages were used to analyze the data collected.

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Results and Discussion


The result in table one indicates two groups of age range 31-40 and 41-50 as having constituted almost half of the
respondents who are in the range of active age, this might not be related to the fact that middle age people are likely to be
more active and involved in economic activities because of responsibilities they shoulder. This scenario agrees with the
assertion of Idris et al (2008) who said that at this age, respondents are expected to be very active in the farm and more
responsive to agricultural extension programs. The educational level of most respondents (47.5%) was found to be more of
Quranic education and very few having tertiary (1.3%). It is revealed that most of the respondents are male (87.5%),
married (86.3%) and with a large number of family household (87.6%). This is a reflection of the reality in the study area,
where polygamy is allowed by the religion of the inhabitants and large number of children are expectedly fathered through
this practice, more so, when people marry at young age. Majority of the farmers are found to be having 1 to 10 years
farming experience. Majority of the respondents (75%) are within the household income of 1000 to 100,000 Naira monthly
signifying a low level income when looked at from the purview of number of dependents most of them shoulder.
Only about 46.3% are aware that there is still extension services being giving in the state as most farming and
market information are sourced either through a friend or through Radio and only 35% of the respondents have access to
either an extension agent, the remaining who are more than half of the respondents (53.8%) indicates that they are not
aware that extension is still going on in the state as they are hardly contacted directly by any extension agent. 65% of the
respondents showed that they do not have direct access to an extension agent even as some of them are aware that there is
an extension agent in their area. The respondents indicate that their main source of extension information is through the
radio (82.5%) and only (17.5%) have access to extension information through print media, internet and or GSM, perhaps
these are the learned and civil servants that engage in farming activities.
Majority (78.8%) of the farmers identified extension as an important and beneficial service to their production and
livelihood. It therefore indicates that the respondents in the study area as recognizing the importance of extension services.
Only 20% of the respondents felt that the extension services do not benefit them in any way, they feel with friends and
information relayed in the medias they can do well in their farming practices. While 1.3% are neutral on the perceived
benefit, they dont seem to fathom the benefit or otherwise of the extension, since they assert they have not seen any
obvious result of the presence of extension services. For the respondents that have access to the extension services, result
of the likert scale indicates 10% of the farmers as considering extension as very helpful to their production and livelihood
while 8.8% sees it as helpful and the greater percentage 45% feels it is partially helpful while 36.3% have a neutral feeling
with regards to the impact of the services in their production and livelihood. In general, the farmers in the state feel that the
extension services they receive has helped their production and even has impacted on their livelihood. 38% of the
respondents feel that their family welfare has improved in recent times when agricultural inputs start reaching them on time
and therefore were able to use the input as when needed which result in good yield and about 37.3% feel their family
welfare has slightly improve while 24.7% feel that the change is not all that visible.
Majority of the respondents (53.8%) indicates that the extension agents are not readily available in their localities.
Only 35% of the respondents felt that the extension agents plays role in connecting them to markets to sell their produce
and 65% felt little or no contribution was giving by the agent in selling their produce. Most of the respondents feel the
extension agents are not credible enough as 33.75% of them have indicated bridge of trust in the form of abusing financial
trust, also 2.5% have reported extension agents being involved in flirting with women in the locality and majority (63.5 %)
indicates that they are not familiar with the extension agent as most are resident in the cities and only came as a visitor.
Conclusion and Recommendations
This study found that the majority of the farmers are in their active years and are aware of the importance of
extension services to their agricultural practices. However, most of the farmers are unaware of the government still gives
the services in the state, this they attribute to the absence of the extension agents in their localities. They perception of the
farmers to the contribution is such that most are either viewing extension services in the state as partially beneficial or even
indifferent as it is poorly accessed by the farmers. It is therefore highly recommended that government revitalize the
extension service in the state, create awareness to the populace through sensitization, campaigns and lectures as well as
provide good working condition to the extension agents. This should include incentives to living with the farming
communities as well as training. Also government should implement strict of code of conducts for the agents and a clear
punitive measure for any unruly extension agent.

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References
Agwu, A. E. and Chukwuone, N. A. (2005) Funding Agricultural Extension in a democratic and Deregulated Economy:
The Cost Sharing Approach J. Agric.Extension,8:90-98.
Abdullahi, A., Suleman M.S and Ismaiil I.S. (2012) Assessment of the Factors Responsible for Facilitating Extension
Services in Ungogo Local Government Area of Kano State. A paper presented in the 46th annual Conference of
the Agricultural Society of Nigeria. November, 2012 Pp. 31-32.
Adejo, P. E, Okwu,O.J and Ibrahim,M.K; Challenges and prospects of privatization of agricultural extension service
delivery in Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural extension rural development vol 4 (5). PP 63-68.
Ajieh, P. C., (2006) Farmers Perception of Extension Services of the Delta State Agricultural Development Programme
(DTADP). Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (Jasr) Vol. 6, No.2, 2006.
Ayabsina, S.o (2011); Farmer Perception of Public and Extension Services in south western Nigeria being a Ph.D
Unpublished Thesis submitted to department of agricultural extension and rural development, University of Ilorin.
Aderiti, F. O and Ajayi, A. O (2011). Concepts and basic principles of agricultural Extension in Nigeria. Publication of
Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria (AESON).
Central Bank of Nigeria, (1997). Annual Report and Statement of Account pp. 91-96.
Harmut, A.H, Bergman G. Drederich, E. Grober,VH.Keller G.P and Sulzer, R. (1989): Rural development series;
Agricultural Extension; Basic concepts and Methods Vol 1 Technical co-operation Federal Republic of Germany.
Omotoya, A. M. (2004). Institutional Arrangement for Effective Participation of the Private Sector on in Extension
Delivery in Nigeria. Proceedings of the 1st South-west Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria (AESON)
Workshop Held on the 1st December, 2004 in Ibadan, Nigeria, pp. 16 23.
UNICEF (2008). Draft Country Programme Document, Nigeria. E/ICEF/2008/P/L.7, UNICEF, Enugu, Nigeria.

International Journal of Applied Research and Technology


Tables
Table 1: Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents
Variable
Frequency
Age (years)
11-20
4
21-30
14
31-40
19
41-50
19
51-60
18
61 and above
6

Proportion (%)
5.0
17.5
23.8
23.8
22.5
7.5

Education
Quranic
Primary
Secondary
OND
HND/BSc
Masters

38
12
13
12
4
1

47.5
15.0
16.3
15.0
5.0
1.3

Gender
Male
Female

70
10

87.5
12.5

Marital Status
Single
Married
Divorced

6
69
2

7.5
86.3
2.5

30
33
10
5
2

37.5
31.3
12.5
6.3
2.5

Household Size
0-5
6-10
11-15
16-20
21-25
Source: Field Survey 2014

Table 2: Level of Awareness and access to extension service


Variables
Awareness

Frequency

Proportion (%)

Yes
No

37
43

46.3
53.8

28
52

35.0
65.0

20
14
26
17
3

25.0
17.5
32.5
21.3
3.7

Access
Yes
No
Source of information
Radio
GSM
Friends & relatives
Co operatives
Others
Source: Field Survey 2014

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International Journal of Applied Research and Technology

Table 3: Farmer perception to the benefit of extension in Jigawa


Variable
Frequency
Perceived extension services as beneficial
Yes
63
No
16
Neutral
1
How helpful is the services
Very helpful
8
Helpful
7
Partially Helpful
36
Neutral
29
Family Welfare
Impressively improved
2
Averagely improve
19
No improvement
23
Neutral
36
Source: Field Survey 2014

Table 4: Limitation impeding farmers in accessing Extension services


Variable
Frequency

percentage
78.8
20.0
1.3
10.0
8.8
45.5
36.3
2.5
23.8
28.7
45.0

Proportion (%)

Inadequate number of extension agents


43
37

53.8
46.3

28
52

35.0
65.0

Abuse of financial trust

27

33.75

Cases of flirting with girls

2.5

Unfamiliarity with the ext. agent

51

63.75

Yes
No
Linkage to markets
Yes
No
Lack of credibility of extension Agents

30