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TYPES OF DEFECTS

Sl.
no.
01.

Name Of
Defect
Wrong end
[Doubling]

02.

Blend
Variation

Yarn

Uneven
distribution of
blends in yarn
during
the
process
of
mixing at blow
room
stage/draw
frame stage.

Yarn to be
used after
chemically
testing for
proper
blend.
Should not
be used for
piece dyed
qualities.

03.

Thick &
thin places

Yarn

Number
of
fibre variation
at
different
tarn processing
sections & is
mainly caused
by
drawing
fault
in
spinning
process.

Use
such
yarns
in
warp wise
directions
only.
Proper
selection of
weave.

Yarn

No partition in
between ring
frames
working
on
white
and
coloured
material.
Twisting
of
coloured flies

Proper
cleaning
machine.
Avoid
working
spinning
frames
coloured
well

04. Contaminati
on

Origin/Genr
Cause
e
Yarn
Different
constituent
(single yarn) is
used during
doubling
process

Remedy
To be over
tinted
before use.
To be sent
for white
shade only.

of

of
of
as
as

Picture

with
white
material
on
spinning unit.
Defective reed.
Improper reed
setting on the
loom due to
defective slay
or reed cap.
Drawing hook
of
more
thickness.

05. Reed Line

Weaving
[Warp-wise
defect]

06. Oily Warp

Weaving
[Warp-wise
defect]

Excessive
lubrication of
parts.
Poor material
handling.
Splashing of
oil
and
lubricants from
the
loom
moving parts.

07.

Weaving
[weft-wise
defect]

Defective
brake.
Crank
and
crank
shaft
bush loose.
Anticrack
motion
defective.
Improper
beating
up
motion.
Rocking shaft
bush loose.

Starting
Marks or
Starting
Places

white
material
side by side.
Proper
checking of
reel while
approved
for drawing.
Proper
maintenanc
e of slay
and
reed
cap.
Better
machine
condition
and
strict
supervision.
Educating
the oiler for
proper
lubrication.
Defective
oilcan
should be
replaced.
Use
of
emulsifying
agent along
with
the
lubricant.
Brake
should be
checked and
set right.
Scheduled
checking
and setting
right
the
worn
out
part and the
motion.

08.

Thick &
Thin Places

Weaving
[Weft-wise
defect]

Defective letoff and take-up


motion.
Defective
emery
rolls
movement.

Scheduled
and proper
maintenanc
e of let-off
and take-up
motion.

09.

Moires
Effect

Processing

Improper
Uniform
batching.
tension
Improper heat should be
setting.
there while
batching
thee fabric
on beam.
While heat
setting,
condition of
temperature
contact time
should be
maintained
properly.

10.

Crease Line

Processing

Expanders and
guide rolls not
fitted properly.
Improper
stitching.
Improper
feeding
of
fabric in the
mangle.

11.

Perforation
Marks

Processing

Insufficient
quantity of end
pieces
used
while disperses
dyeing on high
pressure
dyeing
machine.
Rapid heating.

Proper
maintenanc
e of the
machine.
Expanders
and
the
guide rolls
should be
checked
before
starting
dyeing
process.
Crease less
stitching of
the fabric.
Sufficient
quantity of
clean end
piece
should be
used at the
bottom of
the beam.
Slow
heating.
Machine as
well
as
beam
should be
cleaned
properly.

12.

Dye Mark

Processing

13.

Light and
Dark Print

Printing

14.

Mis-Print

Printing

Prolonged
machine
stoppage.
Localised
dyeing of the
dyed fabric.
Stoppage
of
dyed fabric on
the roll for too
long.

Machine
stoppage
should be
minimum.
Hydro
extractor
goods
should be
kept with
wet
end
pieces.
Proper
maintenanc
e
of
machine.

Due
to Proper
pressure
mixing of
variation
of colour.
squeeze while Worker
printing
education
and
training.
Proper
maintenanc
e
and
levelling of
printing
table.
Uneven level Proper
of
printing Maintenanc
tables.
e
and
levelling of
printing
tables

15.

Out Print

Printing

Variation
in
width
wise
tension of the
fabric.
Defective
railings

Proper
setting of
railings.
Educating
the worker
properly.

16.

Incomplete
removal of
colour in
discharge
Printing.

Printing

This is a
major
defect. The
lightly
coloured
areas
should have
been
completely
white.

17.

Laddering

Knitting

Loss
of
strength of
reducing agent
employed to
remove
the
colour or
inadequate
quantity
of
reducing
agent in
the print paste.
Continued
knitting
with a broken
needle.

This is a
major
defect.
However if
the ladder is
located
towards the
edge of the
fabric it
may
be
classified
as minor.

18.

Barre:
horizontal
stripes in
fabric

Knitting

19.

Hole in
sulfur
dyed fabric
due
to tendering

Dyeing

Possibly due to
lower tension
in
one of the
feeders,
loops formed
in the
knitting cycle
initiated
by
that
particular
feeder
were slightly
larger
than the rest
thus
causing an
embossed
appearance in
the
form of stripes.
This
hole
appeared
in the levis
denim
article
soon
after It
was purchased.
The
hole
appeared
on washing the
garment

This is a
major
defect as it
is easily
detectable
and is
not
an
intended
effect in the
fabric.

This is a
major
defect.
Consumers
want their
purchase
to retain the
characteristi
cs they
bought,
unless
stated
otherwise

20.

Colour
variation
in acrylic
fabric
due to
improper
dye
levelling

Dyeing

Acrylics crease
easily.
Creasing
can cause
unlevelled
penetration of
dyes

Major
defect.
Fabric with
unlevelled
dyeing
cannot be
used for
originally
intended
solid shade
products.