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Nghien curu Ton giao.

Sd 7-2008

34

PHAT GIAO VA MOI LIEN HE V d l XA HOI


DAI VIET THdl TRAN
(thekiXIII-XIV)
''

NGUYEN THI FHl/ONG CHI''

ao Phat du nhap vao Viet Nam Dai Viet thdi Trdn chac phai ra't nhieu.
bang hai con dfldng, tfl An Do qua Rat tiec, chung ta khdng ed con so' chinh
dfldng bien va tfl Trung Qud'c qua dfldng xac. Nhflng ghi chep cua Nguyen Dii
bg, vad khoang dau Cdng nguyen va phat hoan toan cd li khi sii cfl chep; "Tan Mao,
trien cflc thinh d thdi Ly - Tran. Nhflng nam thfl 7 (1231), Thflgng hoang xud'ng
chi den thdi Tran. Phat giao Viet Nam chieu rang trong nfldc pham chd nao c6
mdi dflgc due kei thanh mdt tfl tfldng dgc dinh tram deu phai td tfldng phat de thd.
dao, Thien phai True Lam. Trdn Nhan Trfldc la tue nfldc ta vi nang mfla nen lam
Tdng vi to thfl nha't cua Thien phai nay nhieu dinh nghi de eho ngfldi di dfldng
dfldc nhieu nha nghien cflu ggi la "bd nghi chan, trat vach bdng vdi trdng, goi
dud'c" cua Thien hgc Viet Nam. Dao Phat J a dinh tram"'^'. Cac quan vfldng nha
dfldc cac tdng ldp nhan dan sflng bai. Tran deu rat gidi tren nhieu linh vflc,
Giao li dao Phat vdi tfl bi, hi xa va sfl tu trong dd cd Phat giao. Cac vua Trdn Thai
tap theo ngu gidi va thap thien d i dang Tdng, Trdn Thanh Tdng, Tran Nhan
dfldc qudn chung nhan dan Dai Viet tiep Tdng va Tran Anh Tdng deu am tfldng
thu. Giao li dd cung rat gan vdi tmh than Phat hgc. Day la dieu khac vdi cac vua
bac ai, khoan hda, nhan tfl cua dan tdc va thdi Ly trfldc dd. Cae vi vua thdi Ly can
den eac thien sfl khdng chi vi ham thich
tdn tai den ngay nay,
dao Phat ma cdn can den t n thflc cua ho
Sfl phat tnen va pho bien ciia dao tren nhieu phfldng dien (chinh tri, van
Phat the hien d viec chfla chien dfldc xay hda, ngdai giao...). Tran Thai Tdng la
dflng rat nhieu. Thee ghi chep cua ngfldi cd vai trd quan trgng trdng viec dat
Nguyen Dfl trong Truyen ki man lij.c thi nen mdng cho sii phat trien Phat giao va
thdi Trdn, chfla chien dflng len khdp ndi: sau dd, dudi thdi Tran Nhan Tdng, Phat
"Lang Idn cd den hdn mUdi ndi, lang nhd giao phat trien cUc thinh. Trdn Thai Tong
cung chflng nam, sau, bao ngoai bdng rao ham me ke cflu Phat giao, nhflng cung
luy, td trong bdng vang son...""'. Tinh nghien cflu day du k m h dien ciia Nho
trung binh cd le mot lang cd khoang tfl 5
den 7 ngdi chua. Nhfl vay, sdchua chien d *. TS., Vien Sir hpc

Nguyen Thi Phuang Chi. Phdt gido vd mdi lien he vdi xd hgi..
giao nhfl dng da hoc bach trong Bdi
Thien

35

tiia

dfldc trieu dinh cho khdc in vao cudi the

tdng chi nam: "Mdi khi dfldc r a n h

ki XIII, gdp p h a n quan trgng cho viec

viec, t r a m lai hdi hgp cac vi tuoi cao dflc


ca de t h a m va'n dao thien, cdn nhfl cac
k m h dien ciia dai giao (Nho giao - TG) thi

p h a t trie'n P h a t hgc d t h e ' k i sau.


Tinh t h a n tfl bi, hi xa. k h o a n d u n g cua
P h a t giao k h d n g cd nghia la dan

dat

khdng k i n h n a o k h d n g nghien cflu"'". Tfl

ngfldi ta uy mi ma ngfldc lai, r a t ban linh

tfldng va tac p h d m cua T r a n T h a i Tdng

va dam b a n sdc had k h i Ddng A nhfl cau

va Tue T r u n g Thfldng Si cd tinh cha't md

ndi ciia T r a n Thii Do t r a ldi vua Tran;

dfldng cho Thien p h a i True Lam

"Dau t h d n chfla rdi xud'ng da't .xin be ha

thdi

Trdn, mac du hg k h d n g phai Id nhflng

dflng le" khi q u a n xam Ifldc

dng td. Hai dng da cd a n h hfldng Idn tdi

Mdng Idm le tien vao Dai Viet hoac cflng

T r a n N h a n Tdng. T r a n N h a n Tdng md

nha't tri quyet d a n h d Hgi nghi Dien

P h a t tfl thud nhd, sach Tam td thiic liic

Hdng. Cho du, T r d n T h u Do cung da cdt

chep: "Vao gid Ty mot dem kia, vua vfldt

tdc di tu"^' sau khi Trdn Canh len ngdi

Nguyen-

t h a n h ra di, dinh vao nui Yen Tu, nhflng

vua. Dd la diem h e t sflc ddc dao ciia thdi

khi den chua T h a p , nui Ddng Cflu thi trdi

Trdn va P h a t giao thdi Trdn.

vfla sang, lai vi qua met nen phai vao


nghi trong T h a p . Vi t a n g chfla a'y tha'y
vua tfldng mao k h a c thfldng, lien dem

Sfl tdn sflng dao P h a t thdi Trdn da


khien cho Nho thdn Le Quat, cung gidng
nhfl Trfldng H a n Sieu, chudng Nho giao,

thflc an len mdi. Ngay hdm dd, Thai h a u

bai bac P h a t giao nhflng rdi dng cung

lai day du vdi

phai thfla n h a n sfl t h a t bai cua minh

T h a n h Tdng. T h a n h Tdng sai q u a n t h a n

trong bai vdn bia d chfla Chieu Phuc (Bac

di tim khdp bd'n phfldng, ba't ddc di vua

Giang) rang: "Dao P h a t lay phflc hga cam

phai trd ve. Khi len ngdi, tuy d chd'n ciiu

ddng ngfldi ta ma sao dfldc ldng ngUdi sau

trflng cad s a n g m a v u a van sd'ng t h a n h

xa ben chat den the? Tren tfl vfldng cdng

tinh. V u a thfldng ngii trfla d chfla Tfl

dfldi den d a n thfldng he ddi vdi viec P h a t

Phuc trong Dai ngi, mdt hdm mdng tha'y

dau bet ciia cung k h d n g tiec. Neu ngay

tren r u n tro mot hoa sen vang Idn nhfl

nay uy t h a c trdng coi ve lam chfla xay

banh xe, t r e n hoa cd P h a t vang..."'"". Roi,

t h a p , thi hdn hdn hd hd nhfl da ndm chac

dem chuyen

ay t h u a t

dng lai dfldc T u e T r u n g Thfldng Si (anh

ta k h o a n de se dfldc bao lai ngay mai.

cua

Thanh

Cho nen trong tfl k i n h t h a n h , ngoai den

Thien Cam, me ciia T r d n N h a n Tdng),

chau phu, thdn cflng ngd hem, khdng cd

mot ngfldi ndi tieng ve Thien hgc truyen

lenh ma theo, k h d n g p h a i the ma tin; chd

Hdang

Thai

hau

Nguyen

day. Nen, T r a n N h a n Tdng k h d n g chi la

nao cd ngfldi d la cd chfla, do rdi lai dflng.

mdt vi vua a n h h u n g ma cdn trd t h a n h

n a t rdi lai siia, chudng trdng lau dai so

"bd dud'c" cua Thien tdng Viet N a m . Va,

vdi n h a d a n da chiem p h a n niia, xay

chi dfldi thdi T r a n mdi cd nhieu n h a vua

dflng ra't de ma tdn sflng cung r a t rdng.

h a m thich ke cflu P h a t hgc va de lai

Ta luc be dgc sach, chi (mud'n bat chfldc)

nhieu thd phfl c u n g nhfl tac p h d m ve

cd kim, tflng hieu q u a dao sach de giao

Thien tdng ndi tieng''^'. De t r u y e n ba P h a t

hda mgi ngfldi, m a cudi cflng chiia dfldc

giae trdng n h a n d a n , Dtii Tang Kinh

mot hfldng nao tin. Thfldng du lam ndn

da

36
nfldc, vet chan da mia thien ha, mud'n tim
nha hgc, vdn mieu chfla tflng tha'y dau.
Vi the ta vdn lay lam then nhieu vdi mdn
do dao Phat. Vay tdi tfl hoc bach viet ra
de khuyen ran ngfldi ddi"'^*.
Tfl heu van bia cung che biet, eac tang
ldp nhan dan treng xa hdi thdi Tran
dfldng thdi neu ed dieu kien deu mong
mud'n dflgc cflng tien rudng da't, tien cua
de xay dflng, trung tu chfla thap, due
chudng, dflng bia.
Bia chiia Phuc Minh - Ong Ldu^^^ hien
dat trfldc chua Phflc Minh, thdn Yen De,
xa Hiep Hda, huyen Vu Thfl, tinh Thai
Binh, do Dd Nguyen Chfldng, mdt trieu
thinh dai phu, Han lam quyen hgc si tri
che cao, thfldng ki dd uy trieu Tran sean
vdn bia vao nam Dai Tri 12 (1369) va
khac Idn ddu vao nam 1377, cho biet:
"Hfldng Man De d chau Hoang, cd chfla
Ong Lau, bien ghi la chfla Phuc Minh, do
Thai hau Lmh Nhan thdi Ly xay dflng.
Den ndm Binh Ngg (1336), ngUdi trong
hUdng triing tu Phdt dien, rdi tiep tiic viec
md rdng chiia, tii ndm Mdu Ddn, ndm
Khai Hiiu 11 (1338), den ndm Mau Ngg
(1342) mdi hodn thdnh. Sau do, con mua
dugc qud chudng cua dng hg Trdn d Co
LU treo tren lau chiia"^^\ Ndi dung van
bia cdn de cap den thuyet qua bao cua
dao Phat de di vao long ngfldi nen dfldc
nhieu ngUdi theo. Hg san sang hien ca
rudng vUdn. tai san de xay chfla thap;
"Phat giao d Tay True a'y, day che ngfldi
ta luc sd'ng lam viec thien, khi chet se cd
phuc bad; luc sd'ng ma lam viec ac thi den
luc chet se cd tdi bao, Ldi day a'y ciia nha
Phat that nggt ngad de di sau vao long
ngfldi, nen dfldc nhieu ngfldi theo, den
mflc hien ca rudng vfldn, xua't tai san ciia
nha de xay chua thap, nhflng dieu mong

Nghien curu Ton giao. Sd7 -2008


fldc xfla nay bao ddi, ben vflng kien cd
lam, khdng gi pha vd ndi..."""'. Tuy da cd
nhieu bae quan tii dung van chfldng bac
be nhflng cung khdng lam gi dfldc. Dieu
nay it nhieu phan anh tinh hinh da'u
tranh tfl tfldng gifla Phat giad va Nho
giao thdi a'y'^^'.
Bia ma nhai ndi Cd Phong ndm d ben
phai ddng Lien Hea nfli Cd Phong, nay la
chfla Khuc Mg, thdn Phong Phu, xa Minh
Giang, huyen Hoa Lfl, tinh Ninh Binh
(chfla Phat Ddng Lien Hoa nui Cd Phong
van cdn). Bia khdng ghi ten tac gia va
nien dai dflng bia''^'. Ndi dung van bia
eho biet: "Tran Thai Tdng la mdt dng vua
sflng bai Phat giao. Nhflng ndm ddu len
ngdi, dng khdng chu y den vfldng sfl, ma
mud'n len nui Yen Tii lam hda thfldng.
Ba'y gid, Ninh Binh khdng ehi la cd' do,
ma cdn la trung tam ciia Phat giao. Tr&n
Thai Tdng mud'n chan hflng Phat giao,
nen da cii mot vi cao tang den dd tuyen
dfldng Phat phap, Vi thien sfl nay da den
nui Cd Phong, huyen Hoa Lfl, tinh Ninh
Binh xay dflng lai chua va tru tri tai
dd""^^
Tren vach nui Non Nfldc (Due Thuy) d
thanh phd Ninh Binh, tinh Nmh Binh
hien nay cdn tam bia ma nhai, khdng
khac hoa van, cd ten ggi la Thdnh chi cua
ThUcfng hodng. Bia khac sdc chi cua
ThUdng hoang nha Tran, cho chfla Thiiy
Sdn (chua Non Nfldc) dfldc sd hflu cac loai
rudng da't, cay cdi, hoa qua ciia chfla. Ai
xam pham se bi xii tdi. Cdn cfl vao nien
dai khac tren bia la nam Ky Siiu, nien
hieu Thieu Phong, thi ngfldi ra "thanh
ehi" la Thfldng hoang Minh Tdng (d ngdi
1314-1329/ Mmh Tdng la ngfldi sang
sud't, den luc dm nang sap chet, vin
khdng cho lap dan chay cdu dao, khdng

Nguy6n Thi Phuang Chi. Phdt gido vd mdi lien he vdi xd hgi...
cho lam le phdng sinh, lai dan Hien Tfl
Thai hau khdng nen vao nui di tu... Viec
cap sdc chi cho chfla Non Nfldc chflng td
dia vi dae biet cua ngdi chua nay ddi vdi
trieu dinh lflc ay. Cho den nay, nui Non
Nfldc van la ndi lflu gifl dfldc nhieu da'u
tich cua danh nhan ddi Trdn'"'. Ngdai ra,
d hai ben phai va trai ddng nien dai cdn
ghi viec cung 40 mau rudng va ben dd
khdng thudc ngi dung ciia "Thanh chi".
Neu la rudng va ben dd "vua ban" thi
dflng chfl "tfl", "sdc tfl"... nhflng tren bia
lai dflng chfl "cflng". Viec cflng ben dd hai
ben sdng vao chua de dflng vao viec
hfldng dang, cflng la dieu dang chfl y khi
nghien cflu Phat giao thdi'Tran'"".
Vdn bia thdp Hien Dieu chiia Kim
Cuong che biet, thap Hien Dieu va chfla
Kim Cfldng la cum cdng trinh kien trflc
Phat giao ndi tieng thdi Ly - Trdn, dd Ly
Nhan Tdng sang lap vd dfldc nha sfl Tri
Nhu trung tu dfldi thdi Tran, den ndm
1367 thi hoan thanh. Hien nay, chfla va
thap CO deu da hi buy hoai, chi cdn lai
ta'm bia ma nhai d tren dinh nui Thien
Long, thdn Ang Sdn, xa Ninh Hda, huyen
Hoa Lfl, tinh Ninh Binh, la nen cu cua
chfla. v a n bia ndi rd: Nha sfl Tri Nhu, hgc
trd cua de nhi Td' Trflc Lam Phap Lea, da
xay dflng hai ngdi chfla thap tai que
hfldng cua dng. Ngdi chfla thfl nha't la
chfla Ndn Nfldc, thap Linh Te, ngdi chfla
thfl hai la chfla Kim Cfldng, thap Hien
Dieu. Mdi ngdi chfla thap phai xay dflng
5, 6 ndm mdi xong, cdng viec Idn lao nay
da dugc sfl ung hg het long cua Hoang de
va hoang gia luc dd. Anh Tran Du Tdng
la Trdn Nguyen Trac khdng nhflng bd thi
tien cua ma cdn viet vdn bia nay vao
ngay 18 thang 2 nam Dai Tri thfl 10
(1367)"".

37

Bia Dgi bi chiia Siing Nghiem nui Vdn


Ldi, dflng tai xa Bach Nhan, huyen Nga
Sdn, tinh Thanh Hda do Hflu Bdc xa Hiep
Thach Pham Sfl Manh^ thuat, Chi hau
thu Mai Tinh viet. Bia de ngay 16 thang
2 nam Nham Ty, nien hieu Thieu Khanh
3 (1372). Bia chfla Sflng Nghiem ben
canh viec ca ngdi canh dep nui Van Ldi,
canh tri thanh u, bd'n be sam ua't"", den
ndi hoa thfldng tru tri chfla Khanh Lam
nhan mdt Idn du ngoan ndi day "tha'y
canh dep fla nhin, ben md nfli bat rflng,
kien lap am tfldng Dai bi, Tam the toan
bang vang, dat tren nfli cao, ngay dem
cau khan cho hoang do ben vflng, thien
ha thai binh, dflc vua mudn tuoi", cdn ghi
danh tinh cua nhflng ngfldi cung rudng,
cung tien vao am va vi tri cac thiia rudng
cua hg. Bia cd mot bai minh 24 cau (mdi
cau 4 chfl) va mot bai thd that ngdn tfl
tuyet. Ldi vdn bia khflc chiet, cd dgng, ldi
viet ddi sang sua. Tac gia bai van bia nay
la Pham Sfl Manh, mot nha chinh tri,
nha van ndi tieng thdi Tran. Bai vdn bia
nay, nha't la bai thd that ngdn tfl tuyet d
cudi bia, cho tha'y tfl tfldng Thien va
ngudn cam flng "len cao nhin xa" cua ldp
tri thflc ddi Tran'"*'.
Be Phdt chiia Dgi Bi d thdn Que
Dfldng, xa Cat Que, huyen Heai Dflc, tinh
Ha Tay. Be Phat lam bdng da"'', dat
trong chua, Tren be hien nay dat an, tren
cd tfldng Phat. Ten be da treng vdn khac
la "Phat ban", nghia la "be Phat", cd the
xfla kia, tren be dat tfldng Phat Idn ma
ngay nay khdng cdn. Nien dai khdc chfl
dfldc ghi tren be la nam Giap Dan. men
hieu Long Khanh thfl 2 (1374).
Be Phat khac ten thi ehu ddng gdp vao
viec tao dflng be, tat ea 38 ngfldi. Trdng
dd, chi cd mot ngfldi hg Dang, mdt ngfldi

38
hg Phi, mdt ngu'di hg Dd, mdt ngUdi hg
Phflng, Sd cdn lai deu la hg Nguyen. Sau
khi thay nha Ly, nha Tran ra lenh nhflng
ngfldi hg Ly phai ddi thanh hg Nguyen.
Qua van khac tren be da nay. cung nhfl
qua met sd' bia khac (nhu Mdc bai dong
Da Bdi), cd the tha'y, sU phan bd dan cU
hg Ly kha rdng khap d thdi d'y''"'.
Bia chiia Siing Khanh (ten day du
"Sung khanh tu bi mmh tinh tfl". nghia
la Ldi tiia vd bdi minh bia chiia Siing
Khdnh), nguyen d chfla Sflng Khanh,
thudc hfldng Hoang Ndng, Thdng giang,
Phu Lenh trUdng ddi Tran, nay la thdn
Ndng, xa Dao Dflc, huyen Vi Xuyen, tinh
Ha Giang. Chfla hien khdng cdn. Bia cdn
dat tren nen chfla cfl''". Soan gia van bia
la Ta Khuc Ngao, tfl la Sd Khanh, viet
vao nam Dai Tri thfl 10 (1367). Ngi dung
van bia cho biet nien dai xay dflng chua,
qua trinh xay dflng chfla, ca ngdi nhflng
dflc tinh td't dep cua ngfldi sang lap ra
chua, danh tinh ngUdi cung tai san cho
chfla (rudng da't, nd ti, tham chi la mot
con trau),...
Ha Giang la tinh dia dau phia Bdc
nfldc ta. Su xua't hien ciia chfla Sflng
Khanh va bia chfla d day cho tha'y sU
phat tnen rdng khdp eua dao Phat thdi
Trdn, dong thdi chflng td y nghia van hda
Idn la nha Tran cd gdng ciing cd vflng
bien cfldng va phat tnen van hda d vflng
nay thdi ba'y gid'""'.

Nghien cuu Ton giao. Sd 7-2008


the gidi quan eua tac gia ve vu tru: Luc
dau nguyen khi chfla phan chia. chi cd cai
"chi nha't" bao trflm ta't thay. the gidi
cflng chfla cd Phat. The roi "tfl khi" hinh
thanh, "tam tai" xua't hien. tren la tinh
tuy bieu tfldng ciia trdi, dfldi la nui sdng
gifldng mdi ciia da't. Van vat bien hda
sinh sdi. cd nhan nghia thi smh cao ngao,
cd cai tdi thi chia thanh thfl bac cao tha'p
khac nhau. Dflc Phat thfldng sfl ddi la
the, nen hinh thanh tfl cai ba't sinh ba't
diet roi hien hflu d "tfldng" va "hinh"...
Phat phu hg eho lang xdm vdn hgc md
mang. nha nha sinh cdn hien chau thao.
ndi ndi thdc lua day kho. Con ngfldi tranh
dfldc sU thdi thuc cua due vgng, nhanh
chdng thoat khdi ndi khd tdi tam, cflng
nhau dfldc giai thoat den Nhfl Lai canh
gidi. Phan cudi bia cd 32 cau minh, mdi
cau 4 chfl, ca ngdi cdng dflc cua bac vua
thanh, khien cho xa hgi thinh tri, lang
xdm yen binh, dao Phat dfldc tdn sung va
an sau vao tan thdn da, xdm lang,,,"'"".
Qua ngi dung van bia ta cd the tha'y: Phat
giao d niia cudi the ki XIV van tiep tuc di
sau vao ddi sd'ng tam linh ngfldi dan,
chfla la ndi cdu an, cau phuc cua ca nhan
va cdng ddng trong xa hgi Dai Viet thdi
Trdn. Trong so' 44 bia thdi Tran trong
Vdn khdc Hdn Ndm Viet Nam thi ed tdi
22 bia dfldc khdc dflng vae mia cudi the
ki XIV, chflng to tinh hinh kinh te ciia
nhan dan, cung nhfl mflc do anh hfldng
cua dao Phat trong xa hgi dfldng thdi.

Mot sd van bia khdng chi ca ngdi canh


Sfl phat trien cua dao Phat da khien
tri chfla thap ma cdn ca ngdi dao Phat cho tang ldp tdng m trong xa hgi thdi
trong xa hgi thdi Tran. Bia chiia Dien Tran cd luc chiem den niia so' dan (cudi
Phiic [Dien Phiic vien biY^^'^^ dfldc tao dflngthdi Trdn). Trdn Phu, sfl gia nha Nguyen
ndm Mau Thin, men hieu Khai Thai 5 di sfl Dai Viet da ghi lai trong An Nam
(1328). Ten tac gia va ngfldi khdc van bia tUc sii nhfl sau; "Dan dng deu cao tree
deu bi md, chi cdn ten ngfldi viet chfl la ddu, ke cd quan chflc thi trflm bang khan
Nguyen Lflu. Ngi dung vdn bia "the hien xanh, vi dan ca nfldc deu la sfl het"'"'.

Nguy6n Thi Phuang Chi. Phdt gido vd mdi lien he vdi xd hgi.

39

Tdn sflng dao P h a t n e n tfl vfldng q u a n

dieu dflng ru d gifla ang cd hoang bui

den d a n c h u n g da xay dflng k h a nhieu

r a m . S a u khi q u a n Ngd lui, dan trd ve

chfla chien cho da't nfldc. Cac cdng t r i n h

phuc nghiep. Cd vien q u a n la Vdn Tfl Lap

kien true ndi chung, kien true P h a t giao

den tri h u y e n a'y, tha'y nhflng canh hoang

ndi n e n g , la nhflng di s a n van hda da dfla

t a n dd nat, ben rdng ra dan d m h cac xa,

nen kien t r u e d a n tdc p h a t trien d a n g tfl

d a n h t r a n h k e n nfla ma siia chfla lai it

hao. D a n h n h o Le Q u a t da n h a n xet ve

nhieu"'"'.

tinh h i n h xay dflng chua ciia n h a n d a n


thdi Tran; Chd n a o cd ngfldi ta't cd chfla
Phat, bd di roi lai dflng, n a t di rdi lai siia,
lau dai chudng t r d n g chiem den niia phdn
se vdi dan cfl. Dieu dd li giai vi sao da so'
cac di s a n kien t r u e thdi T r a n hien cdn
chu yeu Id kien t r u e P h a t giao. Vi nhfl
chfla T h a i Lac (Hai Dfldng), chfla Dau
(Bac N m h ) . chfla Bdi Khe (Ha Tay). chua
Pho M m h (Nam Dinh), t h a p Binh Sdn
(Vinh

Phuc),

thap

Bao

Thang,

chua

Quynh L a m ( Q u a n g Ninh), chfla Hoa Yen


tren nui Yen Tii ( Q u a n g Ninh), chfla Lam
(Quang Ninh)'"'"'. Tfl nhflng di s a n chua
t h a p nay m a c h u n g ta cd the tim tha'y
nhieu loai h i n h nghe t h u a t t r u y e n thd'ng
nhfl: c h a m khdc gd, nghe t h u a t t r a n g tri
tren t h a p da, da't n u n g , v.v...
Nhflng nhflng cudc xam Ifldc cua de
qud'c Nguyen-Mdng da de lai vet thfldng
chien t r a n h , trong dd h n h vflc kien true
chiu nhflng h a u qua n a n g ne. Nhieu cung
dien, chfla t h a p bi p h a h u y nha't la d
K m h dd T h a n g Long. Den niia cudi the ki
XIV, da't nfldc lai p h a i lo ddi phd vdi
nhflng cudc t a n cdng, cUdp p h a ciia quan
Chiem T h a n h . Cd nhUng lan, nhfl ndm
1371, q u a n Chiem T h a n h da vao T h a n g
Long

dot

trui

ca

cung

dien

do

thfl.

N g u y i n Dfl cho biet; "Ddi vua Gian Dinh


n h a T r a n , b m h liia ludn ndm, nhieu ndi
hi ddt; sd chfla chien cdn lai, mfldi khdng
dfldc mdt, ma cai so' cdn lai a'y, cung mfla
bay gid chuyen, do n g a xieu nghieng, tieu

Tfl n h u cau cua xa hgi va tdn giao thdi


T r a n , Thien p h a i True Lam de
Tran
N h a n Tdng s a n g lap vdi sfl ddng gdp ciia
T r a n T h a i Tdng va Tue T r u n g Thfldng Si
(Hflng N i n h vfldng T r a n Tung) trfldc dd,
la mdt t h a n h cdng dac biet trong lich sfl
P h a t giao Viet N a m . Thien phai True
L a m m a n g d a m b a n sac van hda Dai Viet
ddc lap. N g u y e n L a n g trong Viet Nam
Phdt gido sii ludn da viet; "Phat giao
True Lam la mdt nen P h a t giao dgc lap:
uy tin tinh t h a n cua nd la uy tin tinh
t h d n qud'c gia Dai Viet. Nd la xfldng sdng
cua mot nen v a n hda Viet N a m dgc lap.
Nen P h a t giao nay tuy cd tiep n h a n
nhflng a n h hUdng cua P h a t giao T r u n g
Hoa, An Do va Tay T a n g nhUng van gifl
ca tinh dac biet cua minh. Dflng ve
phfldng dien tfl tfldng, td chflc, cung nhfl
h a n h dao, Giao hgi True Lam cd nhflng
net dgc dao khien cho nd chi cd the la mot
Giao hgi Viet Nam"'"'"^'. Nguyen Duy Hinh
cung tflng n h a n xet; "Phai True Lam da
giai quyet yeu cdu thd'ng nha't y thflc he
dd theo ldi ich va q u a n diem cua gia tgc
Tran, dfldi sfl chi phdi cua y thflc he
chung dfldng thdi - P h a t giao da phd bien
va ton tai k h a lau, cd mdt t a n g ldp tri
thflc P h a t giao tfldng ddi ddng dao... Mac
du, q u a n diem True Lam van la duy t a m
nhflng trong tac ddng cu the nd khdng
gay cho con ngfldi y nghi bi q u a n chan
n a n cudc ddi ma lai dfla den mot sfl ren
luyen b a n t h a n thflc te m a n g tinh cha't
luan li dao dflc xa hgi hdn la tdn giao"'"'".

40
Thien phai True Lam cd nhflng diem
dac biet so vdi eac Thien phai trfldc dd. Ti
Ni Da Lflu Chi, vi To dau tien truyen
Thien tdng vao Viet Nam la ngfldi An Do.
Vd Ngdn Thdng va Thao Dfldng la ngfldi
Trung Qud'c deu la Td truyen thfla sang
Viet Nam. Dieu Ngfl Tran Nhan Tdng la
ngfldi Viet, khai sang ddng Thien Viet
Nam dau tien'^"'. Thien phai True Lam
ddi vdi dan thfldng thi day ngu gidi. hanh
thap thien. Tinh phd thdng ciia Thien
phai True Lam la vfla hanh Thien, vfla
giang kinh, luan, ngfl luc khdng chi tdng
si ma ngay ca vua quan va cfl si deu cd
the ngd dao. Sfl phat trien sau rdng cua
True Lam, ngoai y nghia xa hdi cdn phai
nhan manh den sfl uyen bac cua nhflng vi
Td khai sang Thien phai nay. Sfl uyen
bac cua hg ddng vai trd quan trgng trong
viec truyen dao, nen dfldc nhieu ngfldi tin
thee va ten tai lau ben.
Tuy nhien, sang the ki XIV, Phat giae
mac dfl van dang thinh hanh nhflng da
xua't hien hien tflgng cdng kich Phat giao
nhfl ngi dung van bia chfla Khai Nghiem
(hien de tai chfla Khai Nghiem, thdn
Vgng Nguyet, xa Tam Giang, huyen Yen
Phong, tinh Bdc Giang). Ngi dung van bia
nay len an nhflng ngfldi tu hanh Phat
giao da "khdng cdy md dn, khdng dit md
mac". Dieu ngac nhien va hiem tha'y la
ta'm bia dflng tai chfla, viet ve lieh sii xay
dflng chfla, nhflng lai cdng kich Phat
giao, neu cao dao dflc Khdng Manh'^".
Tren thflc te, nhflng bia cd ngi dung
tfldng tfl nhfl vay dfldng nhfl la khdng
nhieu.
Cac tac pham ve Phat giao ndi tieng
dfldng thdi phai ke den Thien Tdng chi
nam tii, Khda hU luc cua Tran Thai Tdng;
Thien Tdng thiet chily ngii liic, Dgi

Nghien ciru Ton giao. Sd 7 - 2008


HUcfng Hdi dn thi tap, Tdng gid todi sii,
Thach That mi ngii! eiia Trdn Nhan Tdng;
Tue Trung Thugng si ngU liic eiia Tue
Trung Thfldng Si. Nhflng mot so' trong
cac tac phdm ke tren da that truyen
Khod hu liic va Tue Trung ThUcfng si
ngii luc la hai tac pham cd gia tri ve mat
triet li va tfl tfldng phan anh the gidi
quan cua Phat giao thdi Tran ma tieu
bieu la Thien phai True Lam. Khda hU
liic dfldc Tran Thai Tong viet vao khoang
thdi gian tfl nam 1258 den nam 1277.
nghia la tfl khi dng da nhfldng ngdi cho
Thai tii Hoang (1258) eho den khi dng
bang ha (1277). "Sfl thanh cdng ciia Khda
hu luc ve mat tfl tfldng chii yeu la d chd
nd da luan chflng cho nhflng va'n de triet
li cd ban eua dao Thien. la nhflng van de
bieu hien the gidi quan duy tam tdn giao
cua dao Phat. Nd khdng chfla dflng cai
hao khi va sfl nhan thflc sac ben cua dan
tgc ta trong cudc khang chien chd'ng
Nguyen Mdng lan thfl nha't. mac du Trdn
Thai Tdng cd tham gia lanh dao cudc
khang chien dd. Tuy nhien Khda hU liic
cung dat ra nhieu van de cd ich cho sfl
phat trien ciia lich sii tfl tfldng Viet Nam.
Nhfl van de ban the cua the gidi, van de
ngi tam ciia chu the va van de eon ngfldi
hien thflc vdi nhflng heat ddng tam sinh
li va quan he dao dflc cua cen ngfldi. Dfl
rang, nhflng van de nay dfldc neu tren
lap trfldng duy tam nhflng cflng cd tac
dung gdi y nhdm thuc ddy sfl nhan thflc
tien len phia trfldc"'^^'. Tiep thee Khda hU
luc la Tue Trung ThUcfng Si ngii luc eiia
Tue Trung Thfldng Si. Ong tflng cim
quan tham gia cudc khang chien chdng
quan xam Iflde Nguyen-Mdng lan thfl hai
va ba. Sau dd, dng ve sd'ng tai Tinh Bang
(Hai Dfldng ngay nay) va danh tam tri

Nguyen Thi Phuang Chi. Phdt gido vd mdi lien he vdi xd hgi...
nghien cflu Thien hgc. Tac pham Tue
Trung Thugng si ngU liic ra ddi trong
hoan canh dd. Tuy khdng phai la mot
trong Tam to eua Thien phai Trflc Lam
nhflng Tue Trung Thfldng Si<^^' vdn dfldc
COI la True Lam to sfl vi dng chinh la
ngfldi trflc truyen yeu chi chd vua Tran
Nhan Tdng. Dong thdi, Tue Trung
Thugng si ngU luc da dfldc Thien phai
True Lam dem giang cflng vdi nhflng be
kinh khac ciia Phat giae.
Nhan xet
Phat giad thdi Tran la mdt trong
nhflng yeu to' quan trgng ciia xa hgi Dai
Viet. Tdn giao nay ddng vai trd thiet yeu
trong qua trinh xay dflng va bao ve da't
nfldc. Nd la sdi day ndi ke't tinh doan ket
nhan dan vdi tang ldp lanh dao da't nfldc.
He tfl tfldng va nhflng tac pham van hda
Phat giao la tinh hoa cua qud'c gia Dai
Viet thdi Trdn. Den nay, nd la di san van
'
. ,'
hda quy gia cua dan tgc.
Phat giao, dien hinh Id Thien phai
Trflc Lam, vdi sflc sd'ng ben bi trong cac
tang ldp nhan dan, tac ddng manh me
den xa hgi bdi tinh chat luan li dao dflc,
keu ggi lam viee thien, thfldng yeu ngfldi
khac, tdn trgng phep nfldc... Trflc Lam trd
thanh uy liic thd'ng nhat y thiic he tdan
dan, trd thanh nhan to' det nen he tfl
tfldng va tinh cha't xa hdi ddc dao, mang
dam tinh dan tdc.
Nhflng ddng sau sfl thinh hanh cua
Phat giao vdi vd so' chua thap dfldc xay
dflng, vd sd tflgng Phat va chudng dong

'A uf.i i I-

41

dfldc tao tac, sd hflu rudng chfla trd nen


qua nhieu, sfl chiem tdi qua niia so' dan
da trflc tiep lam anh hfldng den thu nhap
ciia qud'c gia. Nha nfldc khdng thu thue
tfl rudng chfla'^*', khien cho kha ndng tich
luy qud'c khd' giam di dang ke. Nhflng tri
thflc Nho hgc nhfl Pham Sfl Manh, Le Ba
Quat, Trfldng Han Sieu da y thflc dfldc
dieu dd. Do vay, hg da len tieng phan ddi
cho du khdng thanh.
Mat khac, giao li cua Phat giao td ra
khdng may hieu lflc trong viee giai quyet
nhflng va'n de ve dfldng ldi tri nfldc nen
Nho giao ngay cang phat trien va trd nen
cflc thinh vae thdi Le Sd sau dd. Dd cung
la diem ban che ciia dao Phat. Nhflng
van de cdn nha'n manh la, Phat giao
dfldng nhfl chi ma't vai trd ddi vdi tdng
ldp lanh dao da't nfldc khi d trieu dinh cac
Nho si tham chinh ngay mot ddng de rdi
chiem vai trd chu dao vao cudi thdi Tran.
Cdn ddi vdl cac tang ldp nhan dan, Phat
giao van "sau re, ben gd'c" va khdng de
thay the nhfl ndi dung cac tfl lieu vdn bia
da dan d tren. Den cudi thdi Trdn, sd
ngfldi xua't gia van kha ddng, cflng kha
nhieu rudng da't va tien bac cho nha
chfla. Dd cung la nguyen nhan dan den
chinh sach ciia trieu dinh "Thai bdt cac
tang dao chfla den ndm mfldi tudi trd len
thi chd ve ban tuc" vae ndm 1396'^'^',
nhflng lai tuyen nhflng ngfldi thdng hieu
kinh giao cho lam chflc dfldng ddu thu
(tflc ngfldi dau muc cua Tdng dd) va bd
sung vad cac tri cung, tri quan, tri tfl nhfl
ghi chep trong sd cfl./.

42
Chu thich:

Nghien curu Ton giao. 5o'7-2005


'

' '

1. Ngu\in DiJ. Trnxen ki man luc. Nxb. Van Nghe. Hdi Nghien ciru Giang day Van hpc Tp. Hd Chi Minh.
1988^ tr. 146.
2. Dai \ let su ki todn thu. tap II. Nxb KHXH. Ha Ndi 1971. tr. 11.
3. Tha vdn Ly Trdn. tap II. qu\'en Thuang. Nxb KHXH. Ha Ndi 1989. tr. 29.
-r
4. Thi'ch Phudc Son (dich vk chii giai). Tam td thuc Inc. Vien Nghien ciiu Phat hpc Viet Nam, 1995.
5. Tran Thai Tdng cd cac tac pham: Thien tdng chi nam. Khda hu luc gdm 3 quyen va mdt thi tap in trong
The vdn Ly Trdn. tap II. quyen Thuang. Nxb KHXH, Ha Ndi 1989. Tran Thanh Tdng cd: Cdm xuc khi doc
Dai Tue ngi'f Inc. Cdm xuc khi dpc Phdt su dai minh luc. Tu thudt. Chdn tdm. Smh tu. Tap vdn. Thien tdng
lieu ngd ca. Ki gid minh. Phdng nguii. Xem: Thi'ch Thanh Dat. Thien phdi True Lam thai Trdn. Luan an Tien
sT Lich sir. Ha Ndi 2000. tr. 37. Trin NTian Tdng cd: Thien Ldm thiei ciniy ngu Inc. Den Huang Hdi An thi tdp.
Tdng gid todi sif. Thach Thdt mi ngi'f.
6. Nai Trin Tliu Dp tu hanh \'ao may nam cudi ddi nay la chiia Cii Tu d An Thi, tinh Hung Yen. Hien nai day
cdn bai "Van te Thai suTran Thu Dp" bang chO Han. Xem: NguySn Minh Tudng. Phdt hien bdi "^'dn te'Thdi
suTrdii Thii Dp " viet bdng chi'f Hdn tai Idng Ci'i Tu - An Thi - Hung Yen. ban thao .
7. Phan Huy Chii: Lich trieu hien chuang loai chi. tap 1. muc Nhan vat chf. Nxb KHXH. Ha Ndi 1992. tr.
228.
8. Bia Ong Lau Phiic Minh tir lan dau tien dupe Le Quy Ddn nhac tdi trong muc Thien chuang. sach Kien van
tieu luc. Trong NhiJng phat hien mdi vd Khao cd hpc nam 1989. Ta Ngpc Liin da gidi thieu bia nay.
9. Hoang Van Lau. Bia chua Phuc Minh - Ong Lcni. trong: \'dn khdc Hdn Ndm Viet Nam. tap II. thdi TrSn.
tap Ha. National Chung Cheng Uni\'ersity Chia Yi. Vien Nghien ciiu Han Ndm. Ha Noi 2002, tr.527: Nguydn
Quang .\n. Nguyin Thanh (chu bien). Tdi lieu dia chi Thdi Binh. Trung tam UNESCO Thdng tin tu lieu lich
su vk ykn hda Viet Nam. Ha Ndi 2006, tr.l2.
10. Nguydn Quang ,4n Nguydn Thanh (Chii bien). Tdi lieu dia chi Thdi Binh. Sdd. tr. 12.
11. Hoang Van Lau: Bia chua Phuc Minh- Ong Ldii. trong: \'dn khdc Hdn Ndm Viet Nam. Sdd. tr.527;
Nguydn Quang .An. Nguydn Thanh (chii bidn). Tdi lieu dia chi Thdi Binh. Sdd. tr. 12.
12. Trong bia. cd ghi cac nidn dai "Kien Gia Bfnh Ngo", "Trin gia thii nhi de"" (vua thii hai nha Tran), nhung
ro rang cd mau thuin: Kien Gia la nidn hieu ciia Ly Hue Tdng, tu nam 1211 ddn nam 1224. khdng cd nam
"Bfnh Ngp"". Thai Ly Hud Tdng la thdi ki suy \i cue dd cua tridu Ly. ndi chien lidn mien, tridu dinh rdi loan,
khd cd thd ndi la "dai suy hung hda". Vua thii hai nha Trin ia Trin Thai Tdng, len ngdi nam 1225. truydn
ngdi nam 1258. cd 3 men hidu la Kien Trung (1225-1258). Thien LJng Chfnh Binh (1232-1250) va Nguyen
Phong (1251-1258). Trong dd. cd nam Bfnh Ngo. la nam 1246. thudc men hieu Thien Ung Chfnh Binh. Theo
Dai Viet su ki todn thu (Ban ky, quydn V, td 6b). nam Kien Trung thii 7 (1231), Thai Tdng xudng chidu cho
trong nudc hd chd nao cd dUih tram ddu phai dap tirang Phat dd thd. Nhu the. \iec "dai suy hung hda" trong
nhung nam sau dd la cd thuc. Tii dd. cd thd su\' ra nam Bfnh Ngp ddi vua thii hai nha Trin d trong bia la nam
1246 vk dd cung cd thd la nam khac bia ma nhai nay. Theo: Hoang Van Giap. Bui ma nhai mii Cd Phong.
trong: \ 'an khdc Hdn Ndm \ iet Nam. tap II, Thdi Trdn. quydn Thuong. Sdd, tr.27.
13. Hoang Van Giap. Bia ma nhai mii Cd Phong, trong: \dn khdc Hdn Ndm Viet Nam. tap II. thdi Tran.
quydn Tliuong. Sdd. tr.27.
14. Xem them: Bdi ki thdp Lmh Teciia Truong Han Sieu. Bdi tha de tren nui Due Thuy cua Pham Su Manh.
15. Trinh Khac Manh. Thdnh chi ciia Thuang hodng. trong: \'dn khdc Hdn Nam \'iet Nam. tap II. thai Trin.
quyen Thuang. Sdd. tr.347.
16. Hoang Van Giap. Vdn bia thdp Hien Dieu chua Kim Cuang. trong: \'dn khdc Hdn Ndm Viet Nam. tap II,
thdi Trin. tap Ha. Sdd, tr.473.
17. Van bia md ta: "Phfa Ddng la xdm lang nha cua ddng diic. phia Nam gin sdng Idn chay tdi bidn ddng that
mdnh mdng hi:ing vT. Phfa Tay cd ddng sdng Kmh len loi gaia ling giua nui tao ndn canh dep cho nhidu \ung
lan can. phia Bac gin vdi dudng Idn gin vdi cua bien Thin Dau.^li nai nghi ngai cho du khach". Din theo'^:
Nguydn Thi Phuang. Bia Dai bi chua Siing Nghiem nidVdn Ldi. trong: Vdn khdc Hdn Ndm Viet Nam. tap II.
thdi Tran, tap Ha. Sdd. tr. 544.
18. Nguydn Thi Phupng: Bia Dai bi chiia Simg Nghiem iiiuVdn Ldi. trong: Vdn khdc Hdn Nom Viet Nam. tap
II. thdi Trin. tap Ha. Sdd. tr, 544. Xem thdm: Thanh Hda dnh bi ki thi vdn loai bien . ki hidu Vh\ 1739: Thcr
vdn Ly Trdn . tap 3. Nxb KHXH. Ha Npi 1978, tr.130-134.
19. Bd Phat chiia Dai Bi hien cd ban dap. luu trir tai Vien Nghien cuu Han Ndm (mdi suu tam. chua dang ki
sdhieu).
20. Hoang Van Lau. Be Phdt chua Dai Bi. sd 32, trong: \dn khdc Hdn Ndm \iet Nam. tap II. thai Trin tap
Ha. Sdd.ir.561.

^Jguy6n Thi Phuang Chi. Phdt gido vd mdi lien he vdi xd hgi...

43

21. Bia dupe Nguydn Dinh Chidn va Nguydn Van Hoan phat hien vi da gidi thieu trong NhCoig phdt hien mdi
ve Klido cd hpc ndm 1977. Nam 1979, Nguydn Dinh Chien va Ngd The Long da dich \'an bia ra tieng Viet, cd
mdt sd nhan xet budc diu. Thac ban van bia hien luu trir d Vien Nghidn ctiru Han Ndm. sd hidu 30274. Trong
bia xuat hien mdt sd chir Ndm nhu: "A", "Na Ndn", "Thing Dai". "Me Am", cd the' cd nhidu y nghia cho
nhirng ngudi nghidn cuu lich sir chir Ndm.
22. Xem: Lam Giang. Bia chua Sung Khdnh, trong: Vdn khdc Hdn Ndm Viet Nam. tap II, thdi Trin, tap Ha.
Sdd, tr.495-496.
23. Bia duac phat hien d chiia Dien Phuc (tuc gpi la chiia Tre) thudc xa Tan Dan, huyen Phii Xuydn. tinh Hi
Tay, nam 1994. Hien bia gin trdn tudng bdn phai, phfa ngoai chiia. Ban rap bia do Dd Tlii Hio thirc hien nam
1994. mdt sd chir khdng dpc duac vi bia bi mdn. Hien thac ban van bia km trir tai Vien Nghidn ciru Hin Ndm
(chua cd sd dang kf). Xem: Dd Thi Hao. Bia chiia Dien Phi'ic, trong: Vdn khdc Hdn Ndm Viet Nam. tap II,
thdi Trin, quyen Thucrng. Sdd, tr.213-214.
24. Dd Thi Hao. Bia chua Dien Phuc. trong: Vdn khdc Hdn Ndm Viet Nam. tap II. thdi Trin, quydn Thupng.
Sdd, tr.213-214.
25. Trin Nghia. Mdt bi'fc "ky hoa " ve xd hpi nudc ta thai Trdn - Bdi tha "An Nam tue su" ciia Trdn Phu. Tap
chf van hoc, sd 1/1972, tr.l 10.
26. Vien Nghe thuat. Ml thudt thdi Trdn. Nxb Van hoi. Ha Ndi 1977. tr.40-42.
27. Nguydn Dir. Truyen ki man Inc. Nxb. Van Nghe. Hdi Nghien cun Giang day Van hpc TP. Hd Chf Minh.
1988.tr. 146-147.
28. Nguydn Lang. Viet Nam Phdt gido sif tudn. tap I-II-IU. Nxb. Van hpc. H i Ndi. 2000, tr.376. Xem thdm:
Pham Xuan Nam. Thdu hda Phdt gido An Dp vd Phcit gido Trung Hoa sdng tao Thien True Ldm Yen Tir Dai
Viet. Tap chi Nghidn ciru Lich sir, sd 3/2008. tr.3-13.
29. Nguydn Duy Hinh. Tim hieu y nghia xd hdi ciia phdi Trite I^m thai Trdn. trong: Tim hieu .ra hdi \'iei
Nam thdi Ly Trdn. Nxb KHXH. Ha Ndi 1981. tr.689-690: vi Nguydn Duy Hinh. Hd tu tudng Trin. Tap chf
Nghidn ciiru Lich sir, sd 4/1986, tr.36-45.
30. Hai thidn phai Ti Ni Da Luu Chi va Thao Dudng truydn thiia dirac 19 ddi va 5 ddi den day ddu hiu nhu
khdng cdn. Duy chi cd Thidn phai Vd Ngdn Thdng duoc tiep ndi den Trin Nhan Tdng sang lap Thien phai
Triic Lam Ydn Tir. Theo: Thfch Thdng Phuang. Trdn Nhdn Tdng vdi Thien phdi True Ldm. Nxb Tdn giio.
2008. tr.59.
31. Xem: Lam Giang. Bia chua Khai Nghiem. trong: Vdn khdc Hdn Ndm Viet Nam. tap II. thdi Trin, quydn
Thuang. Sdd. tr.300.
32. Nguydn Tii Thu (chii bidn). Lich su tu tudng Viet Nam, tap I. Nxb KHXH. Ha Ndi 1993. tr.215-216.
33. Xem thdm: Nguydn Van Hdng. Tue Trung Thuang si -Tri tue Viet Nam. Thien Viet Nam. Tap chf Nghidn
cti'u Lich sir, sd 1/1993, tr. 29-34.
^
. _^,^
34. Rudng chtia tir xua dd'n nay chua bao gid bi nhi nudc danh thue.
' ' " . . ;
. . u ; i
H / ! ')
35. D(//V7ef.s-(i/t;'?ofl/if/i-, tapll. NxbKHXH. H i N p i 1971,ti-. 217. " - - ^ .i'.df. : / 0.! ' ' ^

' rl: 119..

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