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Nghien cuu T6n giao.

So7 &8- 2009

73

CHINH SACH CAM DAO CUA TRIEU NGUYEN


TRONG BOI CANH KHU VlTC: QUA SO SANH VOfI TRIEU TIEN
NGUYEN QUANG HlfNG'*'

N
tai

ghien cflu c h i n h sach cam dao cua


trieu N g u y e n k h d n g cdn la mdt de

mdi'".

Tuy

nhien,

ndi

tdi

L TONG

QUAN VE

CHINH

SACH

CAM D A O Dl/CJl T R I E U N G U Y E N

nhflng

nguyen n h a n cam dae, che tdi nay nhieu


n h a nghien cflu thfldng n h a n m a n h tdi

Cdng giao d Viet N a m ed be day Ijch sfl


g i n n a m the ki. Khac vdi nhieu qud'c gia

mdi q u a n he gifla t r u y e n giae vdi chu

Ddng N a m A khac, gifla Cdng giao vdi cac

nghia thflc d a n t r o n g bdi c a n h Viet N a m

tdn giao b i n

the kl XIX. "Van de nghi le", t a m diem la

k h o a n d u n g tdn giao cua ngfldi Viet it cd

xung khac Nho giao - Cdng giao ve the

nhflng van de m a n g tinh xung dot. Ngfldc

gidi q u a n va tfl tfldng he nhfl mdt li do ed

lai, q u a n he gifla Giae hpi Cdng giao vdi

ban dan

chinh q u y e n b a n xfl lai k h d n g may sudn

tdi viee cam

dad

cua

trieu

Nguyen, dfldc ndi tdi t r e n g met sd nghien


cflu, nhflng chfla dfldc d a n h gia thda dang.
T h e m vae dd, n h i e u nghien cflu ve lich sfl
t r u y e n giae d Viet N a m it cd sfl se s a n h
vdi bdi c a n h k h u vflc.
T r e n g met sd' cdng trinh, chung tdi
da p h a n tich nhflng khac biet cua Cdng
giao vdi v a n hda, tin ngfldng b i n xfl ve le
nghi va c h u a n mflc xa hdi nhfl met li do
cd b a n k h i e n trieu Nguyen cam dao'^'.
Q u a se s a n h bdi c a n h eua Viet N a m vdi
khu vflc, n h a t la vdi viee cam dao cua
Chosen, t r i e u dai p h o n g kien cudi cflng
cua Trieu Tien'^', bai viet mud'n k h i n g
dinh, thfl n h a t , cam dao la dieu

khd

t r i n h khdi va dd k h d n g cdn la hien tfldng


ca biet cua r i e n g Viet N a m . Thfl hai, "van
de nghi l i " la met li do cd b a n khien cac
n h a nfldc p h e n g kien d ca Viet N a m va
Trieu Tien cam dao'''*.

xfl d Viet N a m de tinh

*. PCS., TS., Khoa Triet hpc, Dai hoc Khoa hpc


Xa hdi va Nhan van, DHQG Ha Ndi.
1. Xem: Phan Phai Hiidn. Viet Nam gido sir. tap 1-11.
Ddng Chiia Cuu The, Sai Gdn, 1958-1960: Patrick
Tuck, Trench Missionaries and hnpenuhsm in \ leliumi
(1857-1914). Liverpool University Press, 1987; Cao
Huy Thuan. Dao Thien chua vd cliii nghia thuc ddn tai
Viet Nam. Luan an tien ,sT quo'c gia khoa hpc chi'nh tri
Dai hoc Paris. Huong Que, Lx)s Angeles, 1988; Trucmg
Ba Can. Cdng gido Ddng Trong thdi Gidm muc
Pigneau (1771-1799), TP Hd Chf Minh. 1992: Nguydn
Van Kiem. Sir du nhap ciia dao Thien chiia gido vdo
Viet Nam tir the kl X^'ll deii the ki XIX Hoi khoa hoc
lich sir Viet Nam. 2001; v.v...
2. Xem: Nguyen Quang Hung. Cdng gido Viet Nam
thdi ki trieu Nguyin (1802-1883), Nxb Tdn giao. Ha
Ndi, 2007.
3. Do bdi canh lich sir, hien cd hai each gpi quoc gia
thd'ng nhat tren loan bd ban dao Tridu Tien, ten quoc te
la Korea. CH DCND Tridu Tien sir dung each gpi Tridu
Tien, cdn Dai Han Dan Quoc sir dung each gpi Han
Qude. Dd tranh hidu lam, bai viet sir dung each goi
Trieu Tien de chi quoc gia thdng nhai nay trong lich sir.
cdn ten goi Han Quoc chi Nam Tndu Tien hien nay.
4. Quan he giua truyen giao vdi chii nghia thuc dan
nhu mdt nguyen nhan co ban cua viec cim dao duoi
trieu Nguydn nam ngoai pham vi bai viet nay vi vaii
de da dupe dd cap iihidu trong cac cdng trinh tren.

74

Nghien cun Ton giao. So 7 & 8-2009

se. Thdi ki tien tbupc dia, dfldng nhfl


Cdng giad cang dfldc truyen b i rdng rai
trdng cae t i n g ldp xa hdi bad nhieu thi
p h i n flng cua chinh quyen b i n xfl cang
nghjeh chieu bay nhieu. Cdng giae da hi
cam dean tfl the ki XVII-XVIII bdi ea
chua Trinh d Dang Ngoai va chfla
Nguyen d Dang Trdng. Alexandre de
Rhedes thuat lai met chi du cam dae cua
Trinh Trang nam 1630, tflc ehi may nam
sau khi Cdng giao dfldc dng va met sd'
thfla sai Ddng Ten tich cfle truyen ba d
Dang Ngoai. "Chua [Trinh Trang-NQH]
gian chung tdi vi chflng tdi bat tan tdng
phai h dj cac vd mpn. Chua gdi mdt van
thfl tai hai va kha chua xdt khdng p h i n
chieu mdi thjnh tinh tdi nay chua van ed
ddi vdi chung tdi. Van thfl nay dfldc thio
tfldng tfl nhfl sau; "Dad nad (hd cac ngfldi)
cac ngfldi giang treng nfldc ta? Cae ngfldi
truyen eho t h i n dan ta chi dflpc lay met
vd ma ta thi mud'n cd nhieu de sinh nhieu
con trung thanh vdi ta. Tfl nay cac ngfldi
bay gat di dflng giang dao dd nfla; neu
cac ngfldi khdng tuan lenh thi ta se chem
d i u cac ngfldi va ngan cam cae ngfldi tfl
nay chd tiep tuc lam dieu ta cam"*^'.

giae dan vdi cdng ddng ngfldi Viet cdn lai,


cd the dan da't nfldc tdi chd lam nguy'^'.

Cac chua Nguyin cung cd thai dp


tfldng tfl ddi vdi Cdng giao bdi sfl khae
biet cua tdn giac mdi vdi eac quan niem
truyen thd'ng ve le nghi va gia tri xa hdi.
Nam 1663, Hien Vfldng tflng ndi; "Ta la
chua Dang Trong. Cac t h i n dan chiu sfl
eai trj eua ta chfl khdng phai cua Chua
Trdi" va ra lenh chem d i u mdt ngfldi
Cdng giad cd ten thanh la Phaold khi
ngfldi nay ndi r i n g trflde bet dng ta la tin
dd eua Chua Trdi, sau mdi la t h i n dan
cua chua''. Chua Vo Vfldng cung xung
khic vdi Cdng giae trong "van de nghi li".
Ong thay nguy ep tach rdi gifla cdng ddng

Cd dieu, viee truyen giae khi dd chu


yeu gan vdi cac boat ddng thfldng mai
gifla Viet Nam va Chau Au. van de an
ninh chfla trd t h a n h sdng cdn del vdi ddc
lap va chu quyen dan tdc. Them vae dd.
eae chua Trinh va chua Nguyen tuy xung
khac vdi Cdng giao trong "van de nghi le",
nhflng c i n budn ban va mua vu khi cua
cac thfldng gia Chau Au, phuc vu chie'n
tranh, nen cae cudc cam dao khdng gay
gat va khdng thflpng xuyen**'.
Anh em Tay Sdn cflng e ngai trflde anh
hfldng bdi sfl lan rdng Cdng giad ddi vdi
van hda Nho giae. "Tfl khi cac nfldc
Phfldng Tay len lut dfla dad eua hp vao
trong vflPng qud'c nay, ta tiec r i n g sfl tdn
thd Dfle Khdng Td mdi ngay mdi giam va
h i u nhfl da bean toan bj bd rdi, bdi tac
tai bdi nhflng ldi le Ifla d i e va du dd cua
nhflng ngfldi ngoai qud'c dang thu but
ldng ngfldi va lam me heac dan chung
5. Alexandre de Rhodes. Lich sir vuang qud'c Ddng
Ngodi, ban dich tir tieng Phap cua Hdng Nhue, TP.
Hd Chf Minh, 1994, tr. 124.
6. Xem: Mac Ducmg. Ngirai Viet Nam Thien Chiia
gido a Mien Nam nudc ta tir the ki X^'ll den the ki
XIX Trong: Mot sd vdn de lich sir dao Thien Chiia
trong lich sir ddn ldc Viet Nam, TP. Hd Chi Minh.
1988, tr. 69.
7. Xem: Thu cua thiia sai Neugebauer Jcsephi R.P..
ngay 18/7/1749. Trong: Duwendag, Hans U., P:P.
Missionarioriim Sac. .lesii. Brieffen. Schrifften und
Reise-Beschreibungen. Sechs und dreissigster Theil.
Brieffe aiis dem Reich Cochinchina. Bonn. 1997. S.
289-297.
8. Thira sai Mettelio Saccano tiing viei ve cac cudc
cam d^o diu the ki XVII: "Ngudi ta cdn la gi li'nh
tmh hay thay ddi cua nha chiia, dd ndi ndng va cung
chdng diu di, va ngudi ta cung khong quen ring
mudn lay ldng nha chiia, chi cin mdt sd Id vit quy
gia va tdt hon het la mdt vai \ ien ngpc trai. Id vit ma
nha chiia mong mud'n va ua thfch hem ca, ai ma ding
cho nha chua Id vit dd thi mud'n xin gi cung dupe".
Din theo: Nguydn Hdng. Lich sir truyen gido d Viet
Nam. Quyen I, Sai Gdn, 1959, tr. 243.

75

Nguyin Quang Hirng. Chinh sdch cam dao ciia trieu Nguyen...
b i n g du mpi phUdng tien bi hiem, lam

cac c h u a n mflc dae dflc-chinh trj cua Nbe

cho con ngUdi k h d n g cdn sflc k h a n g cfl

giao se m a t di tinh hdp thflc neu Viet

nfla. Thay ldng d a n bi say me bdi mdt tdn

N a m trd t h a n h met qud'c gia Kitd giao.

giao Ifla d i e va k h u y n h loat, ta quyet hd

Nguyen A n h cflng da am chi dieu nay

trd chd dad li td't l a n h va c h a n thflc cua

t r e n g mdt l i n t r a n h luan vdi Pigneau de

tien n h a n va cae tien de, va triet tieu

Behaine xung q u a n h van de ngfldi Cdng

bean toan tdn giae xau xa nay"'^'.

giao vdi viec thd cflng td tien. Nd chd t h a y

Bfldc s a n g t h e ki XIX, t i n h h i n h t h a y

ngay c i k h i cudc chien gifla chua Nguyen

ddi khien cho nhflng cudc cam dao cang

va n h a Tay Sdn chfla nga ngu va cdn can

trd t h a n h gay gat. Mdt m a t , tfl s a u nhflng

tdi sfl trd giup cua cac thfla sai Chau Au

van

va

ddng

chfnh

trj

cua

Giam

muc

ngfldi

Cdng

giad.

Nguyen

Anh

Pigneau de B e h a i n e u n g hd Nguyen Anh

da k h d n g k h d a n nhfldng vdi ngfldi Cdng

t r e n g cudc chien chdng Tay Sdn d a n tdi

giad trdng "van de nghi le". Ong ndi: "Khi

Hiep fldc Versailles gifla Viet N a m va

tdi den cac budi cung le nay. tdi tfl n h u

P h a p n a m 1787, mdi lien he gifla truyen

rang: Neu td tien tdi cdn sdng. tdi mudn

giae va ehu n g h i a thflc dan vd'n m a n g

lam t a t c i mpi bdn p h a n c i n thiet vdi cac

tinh phd bien t r o n g lich sfl the gidi can

ngfldi (...) tdi mud'n the hien chd mpi

dai, nay hien dien d Viet N a m cang trd

ngfldi t h a y r a n g tdi khdng he quen td tien

nen re r a n g . Cflng vdi nguy cd xam Ifldc

va dem lai chd t h i n dan cua tdi mdt mau

cua cac nfldc Phfldng Tay ngay cang hien

mflc ve ldng hieu t h i o (...) nghi thflc trieu

hflu, cac thfla sai cflng trd nen cdng khai

dinh quy djnh r a t nhieu nhflng budi le

can thiep vae ndi t i n h d Viet N a m . Neu

nhfl vay, va tdi bat budc tfl t h a n p h i i cd

, nhfl d the ki XVII-XVIII, cac thfla sai

m a t cflng vdi t a t c i q u a n chflc cua tdi,

C h a u Au cdn t u a n t h u l u a t p h a p cua

Neu nhieu ngfldi trdng sd' hp di thee dao,

trieu dinh, thi hp da k h d n g cdn lam nhfl

khdng the cflng lam nhfl nhflng ngfldi

vay d the ki XIX. Viec sau n a m 1825, cac

khac t r e n g nhflng trfldng hdp ma tdi cd

thfla sai C h a u Au van len lut tdi Viet

mat, tdi se budc phai thflc hien nhflng

N a m t r u y e n dae dfl M i n h M a n g khdng

nghi le ay g i n nhfl mdt minh va nhfl the

cho phep hp tiep tuc den Viet Nam, cho

la lam suy giam uy the cua ngdi vua"'""

thay dieu dd.

Dd vay, mac dfl h a m dn sfl giup dd cua

M a t khae, viec eae v u a trieu N g u y i n

cac thfla sai C h a u Au va ngfldi Cdng giao,

chan hflng Nho giao, dfla N b e g i i e trd

nhflng khi len ngdi Gia Long da khdng

t h a n h qud'c giac, t h i sfl x u n g khac Cdng

mud'n a n h hfldng eua tdn g i a e n a y dfldc

giac vdi van hda, tdn giad b i n xfl trdng


cac van de le nghi va gia trj xa bdi cang
trd nen t r i m trpng. D i n g sau sfl khac
biet ve the gidi q u a n va tfl tfldng he gifla
Cdng g i i d va Nhd giao cdn la v a n de ve
tinh

cbinb

danh

hay

tinh

hdp

thflc

(legitimacy) cua Nho giao vdi tinh each la


chfnh dao. Mdt trieu dinh cai trj dfla tren

9. Louvet, L.E.. La Conchinchme religieiise, tome I.


Libraire de la Socite Asiatique, Paris, 1885, tome I,
tr. 517. Tri'ch theo: Trucmg Ba Cin. Cdng gido Ddng
Trong thai gidm muc Pigneau (1771-1799). TP Hd
Chi Minh, tr. 103-104. Theo Trucmg Ba Can, chua rd
thdi diem ban hanh cua chi du nay.
10. Henry Bernard. Le conflict de la religion
Annamite avec la religion d' Occident d Id com de
Gia Long. Ha Noi, 1941, tr. 9-11. Din theo: Nguydn
Vin Kiem. Sdd., ir. 194-197.

76

Nghien cun Ton giao. S67 <SL 8 - 2009

md rdng. Diiu le hiidng ddng ban hanh


nam Giap Ty 1804 phan anh tinh t h i n dd.
"Lai nhfl dae Gia Td la tdn giao nfldc
khac truyen vae nfldc ta, bja ra thuyet
thien dfldng dia ngue khien ke ngu phu
ngu phu chay vay nhfl dien, tiem nhiem
thanh quen, me ma khdng biet. Tfl nay ve
sau, dan cac tdng xa nad cd nha thd Gia
Td dc nat thi phii dfla ddn trinh quan
tran mdi dfldc tu bd, dflng nha thd mdi thi
deu cam. Nhflng dieu tren nay deu la nen
ed' ddi te cu, kinh gifl giae dieu. Neu cfl
quen thee thdi lang, can pham phep nfldc,
cd ngfldi phat giae thi xa trfldng phai dd
Iflu dl vien chau, dan hang, nang thi sung
djeh phu, nbe thi xd rci hay trflpng, de
bdt tdn phi che dan, ma gifl phong tuc
t h u i n hau""".

cam, mdt khi bi phat giae thi lien trj tdi


nang""^'. Dieu 7 trong Thap hudn diiu
ban hanh nam 1835 cd ten la Sflng ehinh
hpe che thay nha vua le ngai ve inb
hfldng eua Cdng giao ddi vdi thuan phong

Cd dieu vi ham dn Cdng giao va eae


thfla sai tflng ung hp chua Nguyen treng
cudc chien chd'ng nha Tay Sdn nen viec
truyen dae thdi Gia Long van dfldc tfl dd
va cdng khai. Den thdi Minh Mang, "van
de nghi le" the hien rd trdng npi dung ehi
du thang 11 nam 1832, tflc thang Gieng
nam 1833 thee dfldng lieh. "Dao Gia Td
nguyen tfl ngfldi Tay dfldng dem vae
truyen ba da lau, dan ngu p h i n nhieu bj
me heac ma khdng biet hdi. Thfl nghi: eai
thuyet thien dfldng, tdm lai chi la chuyen
hdang dfldng, khdng cd bang chflng. Hdn
nfla khdng kinh t h i n minh, ching thd
tien td, rat trai vdi chinh dao. Tham chi
lap rieng nha giing, tu tap nhieu ngfldi
(...) Dao ay lai quy la ta thuat hdn dad
nad bet (...) Vay truyen du (...) cd ai trflde
da trdt thee dad Gia Td, nay ne'u cam
phat Ifldng tam, biet sd, biet hdi, thi ehc
phep dfldc bay td vdi quan sd tai (...) neu
ke nad khdng chfla thdi cfl cdn dam len
lut tu tap nhau, cam tam vi pham lenh

mi tuc.

." i! ' '!:

t.'-

"Van de nghi le" cflng lai dfldc de cap


trong cac chi du eua Thieu Trj ban hanh
sau sfl kien Da Nang nam 1847. "Gia Td
la t i dae, tfl Tay dfldng den. Cai dae eua
chung khdng thd cha me, khdng kinh quy
t h i n , thac ra eai thuyet thien dfldng va
nfldc phep, de ngfldi ta nghe den thi me.
T i dad ay rat hai cho phong hda! Khoang
nam Minh Menh [1820-1840] nghiem
cam (...) Chi nghi: ta dae ay dam dudi vao
da sau, tieu dan ngu mudi, de me hoac
ma khd hieu biet. Ke thee dae ay heac u
me khdng tinh (...) Neu cd dae trfldng Gia
Td cdn ngam n g i m an giau d dia hat nao,
thi quan sd p h i i thfldng gia kiem sat (...)
lap nen giie hda, met nen dao dfle, mdt
ldi pheng tue, kee lai thdi t h u i n mi, cung
hfldng phuc thai binh, ha chang td't lam
thay! Ne'u cdn ke nao pham phap, tat bat
tdi khdng tha dflde""^'.
Ca den thdi Tfl Dfle khi nguy cd xam
Ifldc cua Phap da hien hien rat rd rang,
viec bid ve ddc lap va ehu quyen cua dan
tdc da trd thanh van de sd'ng cdn, nhflng
"van de nghi le" van la met nguyen nhan
cd b i n khien trieu dinh cam dao. Nd dfldc
de cap rd rang trcng chi du nam 1851
dfldc ban hanh sau nhflng sfl vu cua
Hdng Bao lien q u a n tdi ngai vang eua
11. Dai nam thuc luc chinh bien. Tap 3. De nhii ki,
Nxb Sir hpc. Ha Ndi, 1963, tr. 168-169.
12. Dai nam thuc luc chinh bien. Tip 9. De nhi ki.
Minh Menh nim thii mudi ba, Nxb Khoa hoc Xa hdi,
HaNpi, 1964, tr. 235-236.
13. Dai Nam thuc luc chinh bien. Tap 26. Dd tam ky.
Nxb Khoa hpc Xa hdi. Ha Ndi 1972, tr. 176.

Nguydn Quang Hung. Chinh sdch cam dao cua trieu Nguyin...

11

nha vua. "Tdn giao cua Giesu den tfl Tay va chua Nguyin d the ki XVII-XVIII chu
dfldng; khdng thd cung dng ba va t h i n yeu xuat phat tfl bat ddng cua hp ddi vdi
linh, lam cho ngfldi ta me mudi bing tdn giad mdi treng "van de nghi le".
thuyet thien dfldng, dja ngue va nfldc
thanh. Nhflng ke truyen dae du biet la II. CHINH SACH CAM DAO CUA
luat nfldc ta khdng dung thfl ta thuyet dd, V U d N G TRIEU CHOSON
nhflng van rao giang ve sfl khd nan cua
Ljch sfl va van hda cua Trieu Tien cd
Giesu, Chua cua hp, du dd nhflng ke ngu
nhieu diem tfldng ddng vdi Viet Nam"^'.
ddt, san sang lieu chet ma khdng hdi ban.
Tfl hang nghin nam trflde Cdng nguyen,
That la mdt sfl thd bi lam sac! That la
tren ban did Trieu Tien da hinh thanh
met sfl Ifla gat ki quae lam sao! Thdi
che dp thj tdc, bd lac, d i n din tdi nhflng
Minh Mang da tflng ban nhieu chi du
the ki cudi trflde Cdng nguyen xuat bien
cam nhflng dieu n h i m nhi nay; bat cfl ke
ba vfldng qud'c Silla, Gdguryee va Baekje.
nad khdng bd dao deu hi xd phat nghiem
Day cdn gpi la thdi ki Tam Qud'c. Nam
khac. Dfldi thdi Thieu Trj cung da tflng cd
676, vfldng qud'c Silla de bep 2 vfldng
nhieu chi du dfldc ban hanh de trfl tiet
qud'c kia, xay dflng mdt nha nfldc tbdng
thfl ta dad nay (...) Nen tang cua van
nhat (Unified Silla) tren ban die Trieu
mmh chung ta la gifl ne nep, pheng tuc.
Tien. Trieu dai Silla tan ra sau may the
Nhflng t h u i n phong mi tuc nay dang bj
kl tdn tai va nam 936, trieu dai Goryeo
de dpa bdi sfl truyen ba thfl ta thuyet mat
(Cao Ly) dfldc thanh lap, lay thu dd la
ngfldi da thu nay (...)""". C i kbi Phap
Guyok (nay la Binh Nhfldng). Nam 1392,
xam Ifldc Viet Nam thi viec cac thfla sai
sau mdt cudc cbinh bien, trieu dai Chdsdn
can dfl vac cac heat ddng ehinh trj khdng
(Trieu Tien) ra ddi, chuyen thd dd ve Han
phai la If do duy nha't trong xung dot gifla
Thanh (Seeul). Day cflng la trieu dai
trieu Nguyen va Giao hdi Cdng giae.
phdng kien tdn tai lau ddi nhat trdng ljch
Tong quan met sd' chi du cam dao sfl Trieu Tien, tdi nam 1910, kbi Nhat
trong gin ba the ki ta thay tuy sfl khac Ban xam Ifldc ban did Tneu Tien.
biet gifla Cdng giao, tdn giao thd phfldng
duy nhat Dfle Kitd vdi cac tdn giae, tin
ngfldng ban xfl ve le nghi va gia trj xa hdi
la dieu hoan toan khach quan nhflng nd
da trd thanh mdt nguyen nhan cam dao
cua cac trieu dinh phong kien Viet Nam.
Ngoai trfl viee d the ki XVI truyen giao
cdn mang tinh sd khai nen p h i n flng eua
chinh quyen b i n xfl cdn chfla rd rang,
"vin de nghi li" dfldng nhfl da xuat hien
ngay tfl budi d i u cua lieh sd truyen giao.
Trong bdi canh sfl de dpa xam Ifldc cua
phfldng Tay chfla trd thanh sd'ng cdn, cd
the ndi, viec cam dao cua cac chua Trjnh

14. Annales de la Propagation de la Foi (AFP),


1852, XXIV. tr. 11. Bin dich tieng Phip cua Giim
muc Retord. Tri'ch theo: Patrick Tuck J.N.. French
Catholic Missionaries .... Sdd., tr. 34-35. Trong Dai
Nam thirc luc khong thay dd cap tdi chi du nay.
15. Da cd mdt so cong trinh nghien ciiu so sanh lich
sir va van hda hai nudc. Xem: Ly Xuan Chung. Ddi
net ve tuang ddng vdn hda Viet Nam - Hdn Quae.
Trong: Nghien ciru Ddng Bdc A. so thing 9 nim
2007; Lee Churl-hee. Lich sir vd vdn hda Hdn Quoc
(so sdnh vdi Viet Nam). Trong: Nghien cim Ddng
Bdc A. sd thing 10 nim 2007; E. lU. Knordzdpva.
\'e vdn de tuang ddng vdn hda Hdn Quoc vd Viet
Nam (ban tieng Nga). Trong: Proceedings of the
Center for Korean Language and Culture. Issue 2.
edited by Anatoly G. Vasilyev, St. Pcterburg Center
for Oriental Studies, St. Peterburg State University.
St. Peterburg 1997.

78

Nghien curu Ton giao. So 7 & 8 - 2009

Van hda va tdn giao d Trieu Tien va Qud'c hien nay cei eae ngay Phat D i n va
Viet Nam cung ed nhieu diem tfldng ddng. Giang sinh cung ngang cac ngay le ldn
C i hai deu chiu anh hfldng sau nang cua khae nhfl Tet Nguyen Dan, tet Trung
van hda Trung Hoa. Phat giae da dflpc Thu, Ngay lap qud'c, vv... thi d Bac Trieu
truyen ba vae Trieu Tien tfl nam 372, Tien nhflng ngay le tren cbi dfldc td chflc
thdi Tam Qud'c, trd thanh qud'c giao dfldi trong pham vi Giao hdi Phat giao va
trieu dai Gcryeo. Trieu dai Chosen lai cdng ddng dan Chua.
coi Nho giio la qud'c giao mac dfl Phat
Cdng giao dflpc truyen ba vae Trieu
giie van ddng vai trd vd cflng quan trpng
Tien bdi eae thfla sai Phap thude Hdi
treng ddi sd'ng tam linh cua dan chung.
truyen
giio
Hai
ngoai
(Mission
Cflng gid'ng nhfl d Viet Nam, c i Nhc giad,
Etrangeres de Paris). Sd sich Trieu Tien
Dae giae va Phat giao d Trieu Tien
ghi lai Lee Sung-hun (Ly Quang Chung)
khdng tdn tai hoan tean biet lap ma ed
vdi ten thanh la Phaolo dfldc coi la ngfldi
sfl dung thdng vdi nhau, trd thanh nen
Trieu Tien d i u tien chiu phep rda d Bac
tang van hda tinh t h i n cua Trieu Tien
Kinh nam 1784. Day la md'e khdi dau ljch
hang chue the ki.
sd Cdng giad d Trieu Tien. Trd ve nfldc
Hien nay, tdn giao ddng vai trd vd cflng vdi hai ngfldi nfla la Yi Pyck va
cflng quan trpng treng ddi sd'ng xa hdi Chdng Yak-chcn, dng lap den thd trong
Trieu Tien. Vdi tren hai chue trieu tin dd, nha. Sau dd quay lai Bac Kinh, Lee SungPhat giao van la tdn giao chinh cua ci hun tham thfla sai J.J. de Grammont,
Bac Trieu Tien va Nam Trieu Tien vdi hpc giao li, ddng thdi khi trd ve nfldc, dng
bay chue trieu dan. Dflng thfl hai la dae mang thed nhieu saeh giac li, ddng tbdi
Tin Lanh vdi tren 8 trieu tin dd. Tiep den rda tdi cho nhflng ngfldi men md tdn giao
la Cdng giie vdi 15 dja phan va gin bd'n mdi. Trong sd' dd, Yi Pydk khdng chi ddng
trieu tin dd. Ca hai chi phai nay cua Kitd vai trd quan trpng trong viee xay dflng
giao gia tang d i n g ke sd' IflPng tin do tfl nha thd dau tien ma c i trcng viec truyen
sau chien tranh Trieu Tien (1950-1953). b i Phuc Am. Nhflng ngfldi Cdng giid diu
Cdn lai la cac tdn giae, tin ngfldng b i n tien eua Trieu Tien nay thay phien nbau
dja,
dac
biet
la
Shaman
giae tdi Bac Kinh, de nghi cac giim muc d dd
(Shamanism)'^*". Cflng gid'ng nhfl Viet cd thfla sai sang Trieu Tien truyen giao.
Nam, Kitd giao (Cdng giao va dae Tin Cen sd giae dan tan tdng tang len nhanh
Lanh) xet ve sd' Ifldng tin dd dflng thfl
hai sau Phat giao va gifla cic tdn giao d
Trieu Tien it ed nhflng van de mang tinh
xung dot. Nhfl vay, ngeai trfl mdt sfl
k h i c biet la d Viet Nam Cdng giid dflng
thfl hai sau Phat giad xet ve sd' Ifldng tin
dd cdn d Trieu Tien vi tri dd la dae Tin
Lanh, thi cac tdn giao cdn lai gifla Viet
Nam va Trieu Tien khdng cd sfl khac
biet nhieu. Trong khi chinh phu Han

16. Xem: Tdn giao Trieu Tien. Trong: Bach Khoa


thu md Vikipedia. Sau chien tranh Tridu Tien, dai bd
phin tin dd dao Tin Lanh va Cdng giio d midn Bic
di cu xudng phin phi'a Nam vT tuyen 38. Dudi chinh
the Bic Trieu Tidn, cic tdn giio bi han che git gao
tuy tren danh nghia Hien phip vin cdng nhin quydn
tu do tdn giao. Sd tin dd dao Tin Lanh va Cdng giao
d Bic Trieu Tien hien chi vii chue nghin ngudi. Ndu
tfnh rieng Han Qud'c thi hien cd 11 trieu tin dd Phit
giio, dao Tin Lanh cd 8 trieu, Cdng giao cd gin 4
trieu tfn dd. Mdt sd vi tdng thdng Han Quoc la ngudi
theo dao Tin Lanh, trong dd cd tdng thdng duang dai
Lee Myung Bak,

Nguyin Quang Htmg. Chinh sdch cd'm dao cua trieu Nguyen...

79

chdng va d a t tdi g i n 10.000 ngfldi vae

b a n thfl vdi d a n tdc, tu tap tin dd t h a n h

n a m 1800"".

b a n g d i n g ; r a n g Cdng giao t a p hdp sd' ldn

Cflng vdi sfl gia t a n g cua Cdng giao thi

thfldng gia, ndng d a n va phu nfl. lam xad

chfnh quyen b a n xfl cflng b i t d i u cd

trdn dad ddc va t r a c h nhiem xa hdi'"".

nhflng p h a n flng nghjeh chieu. Mac dfl sfl

Khi chi du n a m 1801 dfldc ban hanh,


h a n g loat ngfldi Cdng giad k h a p Trieu
Tien bj t r u y Iflng, bj giet hai va tfl day.
Sd' ngfldi Cdng giad bi giet hai len tdi
h a n g t r a m va sd' ngfldi bj tfl day chflng
k h e i n g t r e n mdt nghin, trong dd cd ca
linh muc Chou Wen-mu'^^'. "Cudc cam
dao n a m 1801 day Giao hdi cdn non tre
g i n nhfl ve con sd' khdng. Linh muc Chou
bj giet hai mac dfl dng b e a n toan cd the
t r a n h dfldc b a n g each chay sang T r u n g
Qud'c, nhflng dng da tfl dac de vinh d a n h
hdi t h a n h . Cflng vdi dng, nhieu chflc sac
giad hdi cflng td dao"'^''. Lee Sung-hun va
nbieu giao d a n tien khdi cua Trieu Tien
bi giet hai bdi chi du cam dae 1801.

khac biet gifla Cdng giao, tdn giae ddc


t h a n , vdi cac tdn giao, tin ngfldng b a n dia
ve le nghi va c h u a n mflc xa hdi la k h a c h
quan, nhflng sfl k h a e biet dd, n h a t la viee
ngfldi Cdng giad k h d n g dfldc phep thd
cung td tien da gay r a sfl q u a n ngai ldn tfl
phia trieu d i n h lay Nhd giad lam qud'c
giad"^'. Lee S u n g - h u n va mdt sd' giao dan
tien khdi bj b a t n a m 1785 vi nhflng b e a t
ddng t r u y e n ba tdn giao, trong dd cd Kim
Pem-u, ngfldi ma ft lau s a u trd t h a n h
chflng n h a n t d dad d i u tien cua Trieu
Tien. Chi du cam dae d i u tien cua trieu
dinh Cheson b a n b a n h n a m 1791 dfldi
trieu vua C h u n g j e n g (trj vi 1777-1800).
Nam dd, hai giao d a n tan tdng bj giet hai.
Nam 1795, linh mue Chou Wen-mu bj tfl
day, nhflng trdn thoat, eon ba giao dan

Dfldi thdi vua Hdnjdng (tri vi 18351850) cung xay ra cac cudc c i m dae gat
gad. Vad n a m 1 8 3 9 , v u a H d n j d n g b a n

Choe In-gil, Yun Yu-il va Chi H w a n g bj


h a n h binh"'. Dfldi trieu vua Sunjo (trj vi
1801-1835)'^' viec cam dao cang g i t gao
hdn. N a m 1801, mdt chi du cam dao mdi
cua vua dflpc b a n h a n h

thee dd viec

truyen ba ten giae mdi bj cam t r e n p h a m


vi tean qud'c. Trong chi du ed neu rd
nhflng diem sau: Cdng giao "Ifla gat" dan
chung vdi t h u y e t t h i e n dfldng, dia ngue;
r i n g ngfldi Cdng giad tdn s u n g "nhflng
ngfldi cha tinh t h i n " , "giam muc" rieng
cua hd k h a c vdi t r u y e n thd'ng; d i

pha

mfldi dieu r a n t r e n g Kinh T h a n h va bay


bi tich eua Cdng giae; q u a n niem ve eai
sd'ng va cai chet cua ngUdi Cdng giao
khac vdi q u a n niem t r u y e n thd'ng Trieu
Tien; q u a n he vdi ca nhflng gia dinh sa
nga va nhflng ke bj cdng ddng chdi bd.

17. Dallel. Histoire de I'eglise de Coree, tome I,


1874, Victor Palme, Paris, pp. 7-10. Din theo: Choi
Suk- Woo, Korean Catholicism Yesterday and
Today. Trong: Korea .loiinial. Vol. 24, No. 8,
August 1984. tr. 6.
18. Vd nhung khac biet din tdi xung ddt giiJa Nho
giao va Cong giao, xem: Ch'oe Ki-bok, ITie
Abolition of Ancestral Riles and Tablets by
Catholicism in the Choson Dynasty and the Basic
Meaning of Confucian Ancestral Rites. Trong:
Korea .Journal, Vol. 24, No. 8, August 1984.
19. Dallet. Histoire de I'eglise de Coree. tome 1. 1874.
Victor Palme, Pans, pp. 27, 31 va 73. Din theo: Choi
Suk- Woo. Sdd.. p. 7.
20. Vua Sunjo (1790-1834) la vua thu 23 cua tridu
dai Choson.
21. Collected Writtings concerning to Defense of
Orthodoxy against Heterodoxy, ed. Yi Manchae.
Kyongsong, Pyogwi-sa, Vol. II, Bk. 5, p. 16ab. Din
theo: Grant S. Lee. Persecution and Succes of Roman
Catholic Church in Korea. In: Korea .loiinial. Vol.
28, No. 1, January, 1988, p. 20.
22. Grant S. Lee. Sdd., p. 20.
23. Oioi Suk- Woo. Sdd.. p. 8.

80

Nghien cun Ton giao. So7 & 8 - 2009

banh chi du cam dad vdi ndi dung nhfl


sau; "Vua Chungjong. tien de cua ta, la
Thien Td da phai phien ldng trflde viec
Sung-hun mang ve nfldc du loai sach Tay
Phfldng va tuyen truyen cai ma dng ta gpi
la "dao Chfla". Dung nhflng each tinh vi
chfla tflng cd tfl trflde tdi gid va hoan tean
bat hdp phap ma khdng tien tri nao cd
the dfl dean ndi. [tdn giao nay] lan rdng
va n i y nd. me hoac va danh Ifla mpi
ngfldi bang each giang giai ve cai the gidi
cua nhflng ke mpi rp va sue sinh. Vua
Chungjong nhan ra dieu dd (...) va chi
trflng phat nhflng ke c i m d i u . tha bdng
nhflng ke ea theo vdi hi vpng hp se hdi
eii (...) Hay can trpng, hdi eae t h i n dan
eua ta, q u i n t h i n cua ta. Tram truyen
chd cac ngfldi nhfl cha giing che con. anh
giai che em vay. Hay tim each cflu
nhflng ke hi me heac khdi ndi nguy khdn
(...) Ke nad khdng nghe thi giet di de
canh bao Ifl quy ae naj' dflng bao gid
xuat d i u Id dien nfla"'""".

Cdng giae Trieu Tien da cd 2 nha in eac


saeh giao h bang tieng Trieu Tien.

Chi du cam dac 1839 n h i m true tiep


vac eac thfla sai Chau Au. Rieng trong
nam 1839 cd ba thfla sai Phap. treng dd
cd Giam muc Imbert va tren hai tram tin
dd bj giet hai. Treng sd' nhflng ngfldi bj
giet cd ba linh mue b i n xfl d i u tien tflng
thee hpc tai Macae'"^'. Nam 1846. diin ra
mdt ddt cam dae mdi. Linh mue b i n xfl
d i u tien cua Trieu Tien - Kim Tae Gon,
tflng tu nghiep d Macao, cung nhieu giao
dan bj bflc hai.
Dfldi thdi \'ua Ch'dljdng (tri vi 18501864). Cdng giad dflpc thfla hfldng mdt thdi
ki tfldng ddi thanh binh. Hoang toe td ra
khoan dung vdi Cdng giae. Nhieu thfla sai
ngeai quoc tiep tuc tdi truyen dao ma
khdng bj cam doan. Cac sach giao li dfldc in
an cdng khai. Vao nam 1859, Giae hdi

Bdi canh chinh tri trong nfldc d Trieu


Tien trd nen phflc tap sau viec vua
Ch'cljong chet ma khdng ed ai ndi ngdi.
Sau dd Taewen-gun (trj vi 1864-1873),
met ngfldi treng hoang tdc dfldc cfl nhiep
chinh khi mdi 12 tudi, tiep tuc thi banh
chinh sach ddng cfla vdi Phfldng Tay.
Thang 1 nam 1866 xa\' ra sfl kien tau
Nga tdi Wdnsan ddi giao thfldng hai nfldc
cung nhfl che phep cac thfldng gia Nga
trfl ngu ndi day. Ngfldi Nga de dpa se
tran qua bien gidi neu ddi hdi tren khdng
dfldc dap flng. Trieu dinh Taewen-gun
lung tdng. chfla biet xfl tri the nao. Gifla
lue dd. hai chflc sac Cdng giae. Nam
Cheng-sam va Hong Pong-ju nhan cd hdi
dd mudn trieu dinh thfla nhan tdn giao
mdi. Hp de nghj trieu dinh Taewen-gun
ciu vien Anh va Phap, de Giam muc
Berneux ddng vai trd lam ciu ndi vdi hai
nude nay de ngan chan i n h hfldng cua
ngfldi Nga. Nhflng rdi dd mdt sfl hieu lim
gifla cae ben, dfl dinh tren da khdng
thanh. Trieu dinh nghi kj ngfldi Tay
PhflPng. ehc rang hp ed tham vpng xam
Ifldc Trieu Tien. Thang 2/1866 khi Giam
mue Berneux tdi hcang cung thi bi bat
giam va xfl tfl. Met cudc khung being
chinh tri xiy ra trong vfldng trieu.
Taewen-gun dfldi ap Iflc cua cac q u i n
24. Lak Geoon George Park. The History of
Protestant Mission m Korea 1832-1910. Seoul
Yonsei University Press, Seoul 1970, p. 37-38 va
Park To-shik. Fairth of the Manyrers. St. Paul
Publishing Co.. Seoul. 1983, p. 36-37. Din theo:
Grant S. Lee. Sdd., p. 21.
25. Lak Geoon George Park. The History of
Protestant .Mission in Korea 1832-1910. Seoul
Y'onsei University Press, Seoul 1970, p. 37-38 va
Park To-shik. Fairth of the Martyrers. St. Paul
Publishing Co.. Seoul, 1983. p. 71. Din theo: Grant S.
Lee. Sdd., p. 21.

81

Nguyin Quang Hung. Chinh sdch cam dao cua trieu Nguyen...
t h i n da thi h a n h chinh sach cam dae t a n

Giam muc B. B r u g u i e r e cua Hdi thfla sai

khd'c hdn bao gid het. Mdt sd' thfla sai

P a n s cei sdc dja p h a n . D a n g tiec, vi giam

P h a p da hi h a n h h i n h . Chflng t r e n 8

muc tien khdi cua Trieu Tien nay da chet

nghin ngfldi Cdng giao, tflc g i n met n d a

t r e n dfldng tfl T r u n g Qud'c s a n g Trieu

sd d a n Cdng giao Trieu Tien khi dd, bj

Tien vi b e n h tat. S a u n a m 1836. cd them

bflc bai'^**'. Cdng ddng Kitd hflu bj thiet

mdt sd' thfla sai cua Hdi thfla sai Paris

hai n a n g ne. T r e n g m e t chudi cac sfl kien,

dfldc cd tdi Trieu Tien.

trieu dinh thi h a n h m e t loat chinh sach


bai Phfldng Tay. Khi t h a n g 8/1866. t a u
My dd tfldng S e r m a n chi huy, cap cang
Inchon, m e t sd' t h u y t h u My cung chju
chung sd'phan.

Bat chap viee cam dae cda trieu dinh


ngay cang g i t gae. n a m 1845 cd them hai
thfla sai P h a p v a n tiep tuc len lut tdi
t r u y e n giao tai Trieu Tien. Dd la Giam
muc

Viec eac thfla sai P h a p hi trieu dinh

mdi

Ferreel

va

dfldc
Linh

phong

Jean

mue M a n e

Joseph
Antoine-

Choson bach h a i da k h i e n P h a p ndi gian.

Nicolas Daveluy. Sd' cac thfla sai C h a u

Trong t h a n g 10 va 11/1866, dd dd'c Pierre

Au tdi t r u y e n d a e v a n k h d n g ngflng t a n g

G u s t a v e Reze, Tong tfl lenh q u a n vien

trong nhflng n a m sau dd cflng vdi sd

cbinb P h a p d Vien Ddng, chd t a u cbie'n

Ifldng tin dd. Tdi 1863 d T n e u Tien cd 2

d a n h p h a eac c a n g bien. Chflng 800 quan

giam muc va 8 l m h muc. Sd' tin dd d a t

P h a p thflc hien chie'n dieh q u a n sfl chd'ng

tdi 19.748 ngfldi'"'.

vfldng trieu Choson, dd bd len G a n g h w a


(Inchon, cda ngd Seeul bien nay), phong
tda k h u vflc sdng Han, ban pha

kinh

t h a n h . Cudc d u n g dp da xay ra lam phia


P h a p 6 ngfldi chet, ba chue ngfldi

bj

thfldng. Phia Trieu Tien cflng 6 ngfldi hi


thiet m a n g , h a n g chue ngfldi bj thfldng.
T r i thfl viee met so t h u y t h u bj bflc bai,
Tfldng My S e r m a n de nghj t h a n h

lap

chie'n djeh q u a n sfl lien q u a n P h a p - My


de trflng p h a t t r i e u dinh Taewen-gun. Vi
Iflc Ifldng mdng va d a n g bj ldi cudn vad
cudc xam Ifldc Viet N a m , cudi cflng q u a n
P h i p thoai lui.

Tfl n a m 1876, dfldi ap Iflc cua ngeai


bang trieu dinh Chosen da cham

dflt

chinh sach be q u a n tda c i n g , md cfla vdi


Phfldng Tay. Viec t r u y bflc dae khdng cdn
gay gat. Trieu dinh Cbdsdn khdng dfldc
hoan toan tfl chu. Vao nhflng nam 1882
va 1886, trieu dinh ki ket cac Hda fldc vdi
My va P h a p md cda giao thfldng trong dd
cd k h o a n eho p h e p tfl de truyen dae. Cac
thfla sai P h a p dfldc tfl dc tdi t r u y e n dae.
N h a thd ldn dfldc xay cat d Mycng-ddng,
Seeul. Tiep t h e e dd, mdt Dai chung vien
dfldc xay dflng d Ydngsan, Seeul. Tfl cudi
t h e kl XIX, N h a t B i n ngay cang can

Sau mdi cudc cam dao. ngfldi Cdng

thiep sau vae cdng viec ndi bp cua Trieu

giao Trieu Tien lai t u t a p lai, t h a n h lap

Tien. Che tdi kbi N h a t B i n xam Ifldc

hdi dean, cd dai dien s a n g giao p h a n B i c

Trieu Tien n a m 1905, nhin chung viec

Kinh de nghi Be t r e n phai cac thfla sai

t r u y e n giae dfldc k h a tfl dd va cdng k h a i .

s a n g Trieu Tien t r u y e n dao. Vdi nhflng


nd Iflc cda hp, n a m 1831, giao p h a n Trieu
Tien dfldc t h a n h lap, dec lap vdi giad
phan

\Vhc Kinh. Tda T h a n h bd nbiem

26. Yu Hong-yol. A Revised History of Korean


Catholic Church, Vol. 2, Catholic Publishing House,
p. 216. Seoul. Din theo: Choi Suk Woo. .Sdd.. p. 8.
27.GrantS. Lee. Sdd.p. 21.

82

Nghien cun Ton giao. So 7 & 8 - 2009

Tfl cudi the ki XIX khi dao Tin Lanh b i t


d i u dfldc truyen ba vad Trieu Tien, it gap
nhflng cudc bach dac tfl phia nha cim
quyen.

nhflng phe nhdm, nghjeh dang. Thii ndm.


Cdng giae dflpc truyen ba bdi eac thfla
sai ngoai qud'c ludn cd vfl cho sfl tfl do
tdn giao, khien nha cam quyen lo ngai
cdng ddng dan Chua biet lap vdi cdng
ddng dan tdc'^'".

Ve li dd cam dad cua trieu dinh


Chcsdn, giad sfl Grant S. Lee nhan manh
viee ngfldi Cdng giad trflde Cdng ddng
Vatican II (1962-1965) khdng dflpc phep
thd cung td tien la met trd ngai ldn ddi
vdi viec truyen giae'^*'. Cac giae dan
Trieu Tien ngay tfl d i u da nhieu l i n de
nghi be tren cua hp cho phep hp tiep tue
dfldc duy tri nghi le truyen thd'ng nay.
"Tam diem trong xung dot giao li lien
quan tdi viee thd cung td tien. Cae nha
Nho che rang lap trfldng cua Cdng giae
la khdng the chap nhan dfldc, la dj giac
vi nd di ngfldc lai cac tap tue va chuan
mflc xa hdi trdng khi ngfldi Cdng giad thi
chd rang viec thd cflng td tien la sfl sflng
bai met ta t h i n , tflc vi pham dieu ran
thfl nhat"<'^'.
Nha nghien cflu Choi Suk Woe dfla ra
may nguyen nhan sau; thii nhdt, ngfldi
Cdng giad tm vad Dfle Chua Trdi van
nang tren ci vua chfla va cha, me minh.
Nhfl vay, vd hinh chung, Cdng giae trd
thanh thach thflc ddi vdi vua. Thii hai,
Nhd giad vdi tfl each la qud'c giac, cci
minh la chinh dac duy nhat, khdng chap
nhan tdn giao, tin ngfldng nae khae
nghjeh chieu vdi nd. Thii ba, dfldi trieu
dai Chosen chfla cd sfl tach biet gifla tdn
giae va ehinh tri, ngfldc lai, trieu dinh
lay tdn giae (cu the la Nbe giie) lam nen
t i n g tinh t h i n cua xa hdi, de vay, coi sfl
truyen ba Cdng giao nhfl met sfl thach
thflc uy quyen cua minh. Thii tii, sfl ldn
xdn cda chinh tri vdi tdn giao se gian
tiep lien can tdi tranh chap chinh tri va
chuyen che khdng che phep tdn tai

III. MOT SO NHAN XET VA KET


LUAN

: ,> ,;Mi

Xet ve phfldng dien thdi gian ta thay d


ca Viet Nam va Trieu Tien, Cdng giic bj
cam truyen ba ngay tfl nhflng thap ki
d i u tien khi viec truyen giac dfldc tien
hanh met each he thd'ng va tdn giao mdi
cd ngudn gd'c tfl Phfldng Tay bat d i u cd
anh hfldng trong cac t i n g ldp xa hdi.
C i d Viet Nam va Trieu Tien, nhflng
nguyen nhan cam dae deu lien quan tdi
mdi lien he gifla truyen giie vdi ehu
nghia thflc dan. Cdng giae cd ngudn gdc
tfl Phfldng Tay, dd cac thfla sai Chau Au
tdi rac giing. Trdng bdi c i n h lien tiep cd
eae cudc vieng tham cua cae tau Anh, My,
Phap, v.v... vdi ehinh sach "ngeai giao
phae ham", ddi md cda giae thfldng, cam
dao dfldc cci la bien phap n h i m b i e ve
chu quyen va dec lap dan tdc trflde nguy
cd xam Iflpc cua Phfldng Tay. Trdng khi d
Viet Nam, mdi quan he gifla truyen giao
vdi ehu nghia thflc dan de lai nhflng he
luy trong ca thdi ki thude dja va hau
thude dja thi d Trieu Tien tinh binh
da thay ddi khi Nhat B i n xam Ifldc. cdng
ddng ngfldi Cdng giad va Tm Lanh d
Trieu Tien la nhflng ngfldi tien phong
treng viee doan ket xa hdi, t h a m gia cic
28. Ve viec Tda Thanh trudc Cdng ddng Vatican II
khdng cho phep tin dd thd ciing td tidn va nhirng he
luy ddi vdi viec truydn giao d Han Qude, xem them:
Ch'oeKi-bok. Sdd., tr. 44-51.
29. Grant S. Lee. Sdd., p. 19.
' ' '^
30. Choi Suk- Woo. Sdd., tr 7.

Nguyin Quang Hung. Chinh sdch cam dao ciia trieu Nguyin...
phong trao dau tranh chd'ng sfl dd hd cua
Nhat Ban, gianh dpc lap dan tdc nda diu
the ki XX.
Dieu dang ndi la d ca Viet Nam va
Tneu Tien, "van de nghi li" la mdt If do
cd ban khien trieu dinh phong kien cam
dao gat gao. Van de khdng dflng lai bdi sfl
khac biet trong quan niem ve the gidi
quan va gia tri xa hdi cua Cdng giae ddi
vdi cac tdn giae ban xfl, ma la tinh cbinb
danh, hdp thflc (legitimacy) cua Nho giao
vdi tinb each la qud'c giae bj de dpa bdi sfl
lan rdng eua Cdng giae. Mdt vfldng trieu
cai tri dfla tren nhflng chuan mflc dao
dflc-chinh tri eua Nho giao se mat di tinh
hdp hien neu da sd' dan chdng dfldc Kitd
giao hda. "Van de nghi le", nhfl vay,
khdng dflng lai d khia canh tdn giao-van
hda, ma mang ca tinh chat van hda-chinb
tri. Ddi vdi Trieu Tien, nguy cd de dpa
xam Iflde eua Phfldng Tay hien hflu,
nhflng khdng dfldc thflc hien nhfl d Viet
Nam, sfl can dfl cua cic thfla sai va giae
dan vad cac cbinb bien chinh trj cflng d
mflc dp khiem td'n hdn bdi sd' Ifldng ngfldi
Cdng giad tdi cudi the ki XIX chf vai chue
nghin. Mac dfl mdi quan he gifla truyen
giao vdi chu nghia thflc dan d Trieu Tien

>\)i

'ji\ -;-

83

khdng rd rang nhfl d Viet Nam do viec


Phap va eac nfldc Phfldng Tay it quan
tam xam Ifldc Trieu Tien, nhflng mflc dp
cam dae eua trieu dinh Choson khdng
kem gi dfldi trieu Nguyen. 103 ngfldi tfl
dad trdng khding thdi gian 1838-1866 (10
thfla sai Phap va 93 giao dan va linh muc
Tneu Tien) dfldc Tda Thanh phong thanh
nam 1984 minh chflng cho dieu dd. N^'u
ta se sd' ngfldi Cdng giad bj bflc hai tren
tdng sd' dan Cdng glad mdi nfldc thi ti le
ngfldi Cdng giao bj bflc hai d Trieu Tien
cdn cad hdn d Viet Nam!
Tdm lai, mdi quan he gifla truyen giae
va chu nghia thflc dan la met li do cd ban
dan tdi viec cam dae cua ca tneu Nguyen
d Viet Nam va trieu Chosen d Trieu Tien.
Cam dad dfldc cac trieu dinh phong kien
bai nfldc xem la mdt bien phap bae ve
nen dec lap trflde nguy cd de dpa cda
Phfldng Tay. Neu nhfl d Viet Nam, mdi
quan he nay la rd rang, khdng the phu
nhan thi d Trieu Tien, dfldng nhfl ndi trdi
len hang diu lai la "van de nghi le". Nd
cho thay cdng cudc hdi nhap van hda theo
tinh t h i n Cdng ddng Vatican II ma Giao
hdi Cdng giao hai nfldc dang cd xuy cang
cap thiet hdn bad gid bet./.