Addition: a + b = integer
Multiplication: a . b
Addition: a + b = b + a
Multiplication: a . b = b . a
Addition: (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
Multiplication: (a . b) . c= a . (b . c)
Addition: a + 0 = a
Multiplication: a . 1 = 1 . a = a
Addition: a + (a) = 0 = (a) + a
Multiplication: a (1/a) = 1 = (1/a)a with a 0
Addition: a(b + c) + ab + ac
Multiplication: (a +b)c = ac + bc
Properties of Equality
1. Reflexive property
2. Symmetric property
3. Transitive property
4. Substitution property
5. Addition/Subtraction
6. Multiplication/Division
7. Cancellation property
:a=a
: if a = b, then b = a
: if a = b and b = c, then a = c
: if a = b, then a can be replaced by b in any
expression involving a
: if a = b, then a + c = b + c
: if a = b, then a c = b c
: if a = b, then ac = bc
: if a = b, then a/c = b/c, with c 0
: if a + c = b + c, then a = b
: if ac = bc and c 0, then a = b
Properties of Exponent
1. am . an = am+n
2. am/an = amn
3. (am)n = amn
4. (ab)m = ambm
5. (a/b)m = am/bm
6. am/n =
7. am = 1/am
8. ao = 1, a 0
Special Products
1. Sum and Difference of same terms
Or Difference of two squares
2. Square of binomial
3. Cube of binomial
4. Differnce of two cubes
5. Sum of two cubes
: (x + y)(x y) = x2 y2
: (x + y)2 = x2 + 2xy + y2
: (x y)2 = x2 2xy + y2
: (x + y)3 = x3 + 3x2y + 3xy2 + y3
: (x y)3 = x3 3x2y + 3xy2 y3
: x3 y3 = (x y)( x2 + xy + y2)
: x3 + y3 = (x + y)( x2 xy + y2)
: (x + y + z)2 = x2 + y2 + z2 +2xy +
2xz + 2yz
6. Square of binomial
Present
X
5 years hence
x+5
Work Problems
Suppose that a person can do a certain work in 5 days. This means that the said person
can finish 1/5 of the work in one day. Thus, his rate is 1/5 of the work per day.
Mixture Problem
The easiest way to solve a mixture problem is to draw a rectangle or a square which will
illustrate the content of the mixture as shown in the following illustration.
Conside a 5 cubic meter mixture containing 65% alcohol and 35% gasoline
35% gasoline
65% alcohol
V = 5m3
The quantity of the alcohol is (0.65) (5) = 3.25 cu. meters while the quantity of the
gasoline is (0.35) (5) = 1.75 cu. meters.
Digit Problems
Let h, t and u be the hundreds, tens and units digit, respectively. A threedigit number
must be represented in the following manner.
Number = h (100) + t (10) + u
A twodigit number is represented by:
Number = t (10) + u
Motion Problem
In algebra, the problems pertaining to a motion neither deals only with a uniform
velocity, i.e, no acceleration nor deceleration in the process. The following is the
relationship between the distance, time and velocity.
D = Vt
V=D/t
t=D/V
or
S = n/2 [ 2a1 + ( n 1 ) d]
Where:
a1 = first term
an = last term
n = number of terms
d = common difference
Geometric Progression (G.P.):
It is said to be geometric progression if its succeeding terms have a common ratio.
The corresponding sum of all the terms in geometric progression is called geometric
series.
Harmonic Progression:
A sequence of numbers whose reciprocals form an arithmetic progression.
PLANE TRIGONOMETRY
Trigonometry is the study of triangles by applying the relations between the
sides and the angles. The term trigonometry comes from the Greek words trigonon
which means triangle and metria meaning measurements.
Plane Trigonometry deals with triangles in the two dimensions of the plane while
Spherical Trigonometry concerns with triangles extracted from the surface of a
sphere.
A. PLANE TRIGONOMETRY
1. Solutions to right triangles:
Trigonometric functions:
side opposite
hypotenuse
side adjacent
cos =
hypotenuse
side opposite
tan =
side adjacent
side adjacent
cot =
side opposite
hypotenuse
sec =
side adjacent
hypotenuse
csc =
side opposite
sin =
45
1
45
30
C
a
tan 1 ( A B)
a b
2
a b tan 1 ( A B)
2
3. Fundemental trigonometric identities:
A. Reciprocal relations:
1
cscA
1
cosA =
secA
1
tanA =
cotA
1
tanA
1
secA =
cosA
1
cscA =
sinA
sinA =
cotA =
B. Pythagorean relations:
Sin2A + cos2A = 1
1 + cot2A = csc2A
1 + tan2A = sec2A
C. Sum of angles formulas:
Sin (A+B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B
Cos (A+B) = cos A cos B  sin A sin B
F. Powers of functions:
sin 2 A = 21 (1 c o s2A )
c o s2 A =
tan 2 A
1
2
(1 c o s2A )
1 c o s2A
1 c o s2A
c o s A 1 c o sA
2
2
tan A 1co sA sinA
2
sinA 1 c o sA
sinA sinB2sin 1 ( A B) c o s 1 ( A B)
2
2
c o sA c o sB 2co s 1 ( A B) c o s 1 ( A B)
2
2
sin( A B)
tanA tanB
c o sA c o sB
I. Difference of two functions:
1
1
sinA sinB 2co s ( A B) sin ( A B)
2
2
1
1
c o sA c o sB 2sin ( A B) sin ( A B)
2
2
sin( A B)
tanA tanB
c o sAco sB
J. Product of two functions:
2sinAsinB co s ( A B) co s ( A B)
2sinAco sBsin( A B) sin( A B)
2co sAco sB co s ( A B) co s ( A B)
PLANE AREA
A. TRIANGLES:
1. Given: base and altitude
h
A 1 b h
2
B
A= 1 a b sin
2
3. Given: 3 sides
Using herons formula
A
s ( s a)( s b)( s c)
Where: s
a bc
2
A a b c
4r
A rs
Where: s
a bc
2
A= 1 d1d2sin
2
a b c+d
2
A C BD
2
2
Where: s
Polyhedron
No. of
Faces
Faces
No. of
Edges
No. of
Vertices
Tetrahedron
triangle
Hexahedron
square
12
Octahedron
triangle
12
Dodecahedron
12
pentagon
30
20
Icosahedron
20
triangle
30
12
volume
1 3
e 2
12
e3
1 3
e 2
3
e3
(15 7 5)
4
5 3
e (3 5)
12
Volume of cube:
V a3
Surface area of cube:
A 6a 2
Prism is a polyhedron with two faces (bases) parallel and congruent and whose
remaining faces (lateral faces) are parallelograms.
Right prism is one which has its lateral faces perpendicular to the base.
Oblique prism is one which has its lateral faces not perpendicular to the base.
Truncated prism is a portion of a prism contained between the base and a plane that is
not parallel to the base.
Volume of prism:
V Bh Ke
Lateral area of prism:
A epk
where:
B = area of the base
h = altitude of the prism
K = area at right section
e = lateral edge
Pk = perimeter of right section
Cylinder is a solid bounded by a closed cylindrical surface and two parallel planes.
Volume of cylinder:
V Bh Ke
Lateral area of cylinder:
A epk
where:
B = area of the base
h = altitude of the cylinder
Volume of prismatoid:
L
V ( A1 4 Am A2)
6
This formula is known as Prismoidal formula
Volume of truncated prism:
A(a b c)
V
3
Sphere is a solid bounded by a closed surface every point of which is equidistant from a
fixed point called center.
Volume of sphere:
4
V R3
3
Surface area of sphere:
A 4 R 2
Zone is that portion of the surface of a sphere included between two parallel planes.
Area of zone:
A 2 Rh
Spherical segment is a solid bounded by a zone and the planes of the zones base.
Volume of spherical segment:
h2
(3R h)
3
Spherical sector is a solid generated by rotating a sector of a circle about an axis
which passes through the center of the circle but which contains no point inside the
sector.
V
where:
Volume of torus:
V 2 2 Rr 2
Lateral area of torus:
A 4 2 Rr
y axis
1st Quadrant
x (abscissa)
P (x,y)
2nd Quadrant
y (ordinate)
0 origin
3rd Quadrant
x axis
4th Quadrant
y axis
P1(x1,y1)
P2(x2,y2)
0 origin
x axis
Slope of a Line
y 2 y1
x 2 x1
tan m
Slope, m
Straight Line
 a line that does not change in direction
General Equation: Ax By C 0 or x by c 0
Slope of Line = tan m
Parallel Lines:
m1=m2
y axis
L1
0 origin
Perpendicular Lines:
L2
x axis
m2
1
m1
y axis
L1
0 origin
L2
x axis
y y1 m( x x1)
where:
m = slope
x1,y1 are the coordinates of a point on the line
2. Slope Intercept Form (Given slope, m and y intercept, b)
y mx b
where:
m = slope
b = intercept on y  axis
3. Intercept Form (Given x intercept a and y intercept b)
x y
1
a b
where:
a = intercept on x  axis
b = intercept on y  axis
4. Two Point Form [Given two points P1(x1,y1) and P2(x2,y2)]
y y1 y 2 y 1
x x1 x 2 x1
Ax1 By1 C
A2 B 2
L1 Ax By C 1 0
L 2 Ax By C 2 0
d
C 2 C1
A2 B 2
General Equation:
x 2 Cx Dy E 0
y 2 Cx Dy E 0
Standard Equations, Vertex at Origin V(0,0):
Opening upward: x 2 4ay
Opening downward: x 2 4ay
Opening to the right: y 2 4ax
Opening to the left: y 2 4ax
General Equation: Ax 2 By 2 Cx Dy E 0
c a
Eccentricity, e = 1.0
a d
2
2
2
a b c
ae a 2 b 2
Directrix, d
a
e
2b 2
Latus Rectum =
a
Standard Equation, Center at Origin:
x2 y 2
1 (axis horizontal)
a 2 b2
x2 y2
1 (axis vertical)
b2 a 2
Standard Equation, Center at (h,k)
( x h) 2 ( y k ) 2
1 (axis horizontal)
a2
b2
( x h) 2 ( y k ) 2
1 (axis vertical)
b2
a2
HYPERBOLA
Definition: Locus of points whose distance from a fixed points is more than the
distance from fixed line.
General Equation:
Ax 2 Cy 2 Dx Ey F 0 (axis horizontal)
Cy 2 Ax 2 Dx Ey F 0 (axis vertical)
c a
Eccentricity, e ? 1.0
a d
ae a 2 b 2
c 2 a 2 b2
Directrix, d
a
e
Latus Rectum =
2b 2
a
1 (axis horizontal)
a 2 b2
y 2 x2
1 (axis vertical)
a 2 b2
Standard Equation, Center at (h,k):
( x h) 2 ( y k ) 2
1 (axis horizontal)
a2
b2
( y k ) 2 ( x h) 2
1 (axis vertical)
a2
b2
Equation of Asymptote:
y k m ( x h)
where:
(h,k) is the center
m = a/b if the axis is vertical
m = b/a if the axis is horizontal
POLAR COORDINATE SYSTEM
Sign Convention:
is positive (+) if measured counterclockwise
D r 12 r 2 2 2r 1r 2 cos( 2 1)
Relation of Polar Coordinates and Cartesian Coordinates:
Polar Point (r, ):
where:
r = radius of vector
= polar angle
x2 y 2 r 2
y
tan
x
x r cos
y r sin
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
(Limits and Derivatives)
Derivatives of simple functions.
INTEGRAL CALCULUS
Integrals of simple functions.
Rational functions.
Irrational functions.
Logarithms
Exponential functions
Trigonometric functions
Hyperbolic functions
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
Differential Equation
 an equation containing derivatives or differentials
Type of diferential equations:
Type 1.VARIABLE SEPARABLE
This is a type of differential equation which can be put in the form:
F(x) dx + G(y) dy = 0
That is, the variable can be separated.
Type 2. HOMOGENEOUS DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
This is a type of differential equation in which all the terms are of the same degree.
Type 3 EXACT DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
This is a type of differential equation which when put in the form
F(x,y) dx + G(x,y) dy =0
A function can be found which has for its total differential the expression
F dx + G dy.
Type 4. Linear Differential Equation
A type of differential equation which can be put in the standard form:
dy + P(x) y dx = Q(x) dx
Order of a Different Equation:
 the order of the highest derivative that occurs in the equation
Example:
First Order
: dy = 2x2 + 5x + 3
dx
Second Order
Third Order
: d3y = 3x2 + 6x + 2
dx3
First Degree
: x d2y + (dy)
dx2 (dx)
Second Degree
: x (d2y) 2 + (dy)
(dx2)
(dx)
= 15
3
= 15
where: dP
dt
P
k
4. Flow Problems
dQ = rate of gainrate of loss
dt
where: Q
= force
= mass of the body
= rate of change of velocity
FLUID MECHANICS
GENERAL FLOW EQUATION
Q = Area x Velocity = A x V
Where :
A = area, m2
V = velocity, m/sec
= coefficient of discharge
= area of nozzle
= height of liquid above nozzle
(Darcy Formula)
2. hf = fLV2
2gD
where: hf
f
L
V
g
D
BERNOULLIS THEOREM:
Neglecting friction, the sum of the pressure head, velocity head and elevation head of a
point is equal to the sum of the pressure head, velocity head and elevation head of
another point.
P1 + V1 + Z1 = P2 + V22 + Z2
p
2g
p
2g
Pressure head = P
p
Velocity head = V2
2g
Elevation head = Z
CONTINUITY EQUATION:
Q1 = Q2
A1V1 = A2V2
BUOYANCY
Archimedes Principle:
A body partly or wholly submerged in a liquid is buoyed up by a force equal to the
weight of the liquid displaced.
W = FB
FB = V x p
where : FB
W
V
V
p
= buoyant force
= weight of the body
= volume of the body submerged
= volume of the liquid displaced
= density of the liquid
PERIPHERAL COEFFICIENT
Peripheral Coefficient = Peripheral Velocity = DN
Velocity of Jet
2gh
VISCOSITY
Viscosity resistance to flow or the property to resist shear deformation
1. Absolute or dynamic viscosity viscosity which is determined by direct measurement
Endurance Limits or Fatigue Limits (Se , Sn) = maximum stress that will not cause
failure when the force is reversed indefinitely.
Residual Stress internal, inherent, trapped, lockedup body stress that exists within a
materials as a results of things other than external loading such as cold working,
heating or cooling, etching, repeated stressing and electroplating.
DEFINITION OF TERMS:
Strength of materials deals with the relations between the external forces applied to
elastic bodies and the resulting deformations and stresses.
Stress is a force per unit area and is usually expressed in pounds per square inch. If
the stress tends to stretch or lengthen the material, a compressive stress; and if to tear
the material, a shearing stress.
Unit strain is the amount by which a dimension of a body changes when the body is
subjected to a load, divided by the original value of the dimension.
Proportional limit is the point on a stressstrain curve at which it begins to deviate
from the straightline relationship between stress and strain.
Elastic limit is the maximum stress to which a test specimen may be subjected and
still return to its original length upon the release of the load.
Yield Point is the point on the stressstrain curve at which there is a sudden increase
in strain without a corresponding increase in stress.
Yield Strength is the maximum stress that can be applied without permanent
deformation of the test specimen. This is the value of the stress at the elastic limit for
materials for which there is an elastic limit. Yield Strength is usually 0.1 to 0.2 percent of
the original dimension.
Ultimate strength (also called tensile strength) is the maximum stress value obtained
in the stressstrain curve.
Modulus of elasticility, E (also called Youngs Modulus) is the ratio of unit stress to
unit strain within hte proportional limit of a material in tension or compression.
Modulus of elasticility in shear, G is the ratio of unit stress to unit strain within
proportional limit of a material shear.
Poissons Ratio is the ratio of lateral strain to longitudinal strain for a given material
subjected to uniform longitudinal stresses within the proportional limit.
2. COMPRESSIVE STRESS
F
St
F
A
SC
F
A
3. SHEARING STRESS
4. BEARING STRESS
SB
L
F
SS
A
5. TORSIONAL STRESS
Where: T = torque
J = polar moment of inertia
c = distance of farthest fiber from
neutral axis
c = r of D/2 for circular shaft
SS
Tc
J
or
SS
16T
(for circular shaft)
D3
C
NA h
b
Mc
I
Where:
Sf
M = moment
c = distance of farthest fiber from neutral axis (NA)
F
LD
Y
L
F
Stress
A
L
E = Modulus of Elasticity
(Young's Modulus)
F
stress
A
strain Y
L
Y
FL
L
S
AE
E
Where:
Y = elongation or shortening
L = length
F = force applied
A = crosssectional area
S = stress
E = Modulus of Elasticity (Young's Modulus)
= 30,000,000 psi for steel (206,786 MPa)
8. THERMAL ELONGATION AND STRESS
Y kL(t 2  t1 )
SE
Y
kE(t 2 t1 )
L
Where:
Y = elongation due to temperature change, m
k = coefficient of thermal expansion, m/mC
t1 = initial temperature, C
t2 = final temperature, C
S = stress
COMBINED AND INDUCED STRESSES
1. Combined Axial and Flexural Stress
F Mc
A
I
Fb
F
Mc
Tc
andSS
I
J
St 1
St 2 4SS 2
2 2
Relation between shearing and tensile stress based on the theories of failure:
S t max Sty
S t max
Sty
2
VARIABLE STRESS
1 Sm S a
N S y Sn
Where:
N
Sy
Sn
Sm
= factor of safety
= yield point
= endurance limit
= mean stress
S Smin
Sm max
2
Smax Smin
2
DEFLECTION OF BEAMS:
Y
PL3
3EI
R = P
V = P
M = PL
P
a
Pa2 (3L a)
6EI
wL4
8EI
w (N/m)
R = W = wL
V = wL
w (N/m)
wL2
2
WL4
15EI
R = W = wL
V = wL
WL
3
ML2
2EI
Y
P
L/2
PL3
48EI
L/2
R1 = R 2 =
PI
2
P
wL2
V andM
2
8
Deflection at x:
P
a
Pb(L2 b2 )
9 3EIL
L2 b2
3
w (N/m)
5wL4
38EI
wL
2
wL
wL2
V
andM
2
8
R1 = R2 =
PL3
Y
192EI
P
L/2
L/2
R1 = R 2 =
P
2
V
P
2
P2
atthecenterspan
8
wL4
384EI
wL
R1 = R 2 =
2
wL
V
2
wL
M
atends)
8
Y
L
w (N/m)
A
L
w (N/m)
A
R2
Deflection at x:
B
R1
5wL4
Y
926EI
X = 0.57L
5wL
5wL
and R2
8
8
2
wL
9wL2
and
M
M
8
128
R2
Legends:
P
R
w
W
L
x
E
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
I
V
M
Y
=
=
=
=
concentrated loads, N
reactions, N
uniform load, N/m
total uniform load, N
length of beam, m
distance from support sat any section, m
modulus of elasticity, psi
(30,000,000 psi for steel)
moment of inertia, m4
maximum vertical shear, N
maximum bending moment, Nm
maximum deflection, m
Y 1 a
2
1 a3
y 6
a
y
a4
12
1
0.289a
A
Y 1 d
2
I
bd3
12
1 bd2
y
6
1
0.289d
A
Y
d
d
2
d4
I
64
1 d
A 4
THERMODYNAMICS
DEFINITIONS:
1 d3
y 32
Thermodynamics is the study of heat and work and those properties of substance
that bear a relation to heat and work.
Working Substance a substance to which heat can be stored and from which heat
can be extracted.
a. Pure Substance a working substance whose chemical composition remains
the same even if there is a change in phase; Ex. Water, ammonia, Freon12
b. Ideal Gas a working substance which remains in gaseous state during its
operating cycle and whose equation of state is PV = mRT ; Ex. Air, O2, N2, CO2.
PROPERTIES OF A WORKING SUBSTANCE
1. Mass and Weight
Mass a property of matter that constitutes one of the fundamental physical
measurements or the amount of matter a body contains. Units of mass are in lb m, slugs,
kgm, or in kg.
Weight the force acting on a body in a gravitational field, equal to the product of its
mass and the gravitational acceleration of the field. Units of weight are in lb f, kgf, N or
kN.
2. Volume
Volume the amount of space occupied by, or contained in a body and is measured
by the no. of cubes a body contains. Units of volume are in ft 3, Gallons, liters, cm3, or
m3 .
3. Pressure force per unit area. Units of pressure are measure in psi, kg/cm 2,
kN/m2 or kPa.
Absolute Pressure = Gauge Pressure + Absolute Atmospheric Press
kPaa = Kpag + 101.325
Psia = Psig + 14.7
1 Atm Pressure = 0 kPag, 0 psig
= 101.325 kPa
= 1.033 kg/cm2
= 29.92 in Hg
= 760 mm Hg
= 14.7 psia
1 bar = 100 kPa
Pressure of Perfect Vacuum = 101.325 kPag
= absolute zero pressure
4. Temperature
Temperature the degree of hotness or coldness of a substance.
Relations of Temperature Scales. oC and oF:
C
5
F 32
9
9
C 32
5
Temperature at which molecules stop moving
= 273.oC = 460oF
F
Absolute Temperatures
K C 273
R F 460
Temperature Change or Temperature Difference:
5
F
9
9
F C
5
C
K C
R F
Mass
kg / m 3
V olume
Specific Colume,
Specific Weight,
V olume 1 3
m / kg
Mass
W eight
kN / m 3
V olume
Density of Air
(Relative Density)
Density of Air = 1.2 kg/m3 at 101.325 kPa and 21.1C.
6. Internal Energy, , kJ/kg
Internal energy heat energy due to the movement of the molecules within the
substance brought about its temperature.
Internal energy is zero if temperature is constant.
7. Flow Work, W, kJ/kg
Flow work work due to the change in volume.
W = F x L = PA x L = Pv
Where: P = pressure, kPa
V = specific volume, m3/kg
8. Enthalpy, h, kJ/kg
Enthalpy sum of the internal energy of a body and the product of pressure and
specific volume.
Enthalpy = Internal Energy + Flow Work
h = u + Pv
9. Entropy, s,
kJ
kg K
kJ
kJ
or
kg C
kg K
kJ
kJ
or
kg C
kg K
1 kcal = 4.187 kJ
1 Nm = 1 J
1000 J = 1 kJ
Work
hp, watts or kW
Time
1 MHp
= 0.736 kW
1.014 MHp = Hp
1 Boiler Hp = 33,480 Btu/hr
= 35,322 kJ/hr
1 watt = J/sec
TURBINE
W = m h1 h2
W = m h1 h2
T = absolute temperature, K
Basic Properties of an Ideal Gas:
8.3143 kJ
M kg K
1545 ft lb
R=
M lb R
R=
Cp Cv = R
Cp
Cv
=k
where:
R = gas constant
M = molecular weight
Cp = specific heat at constant pressure
Cv = specific heat at constant volume
k = specific heat ratio
Properties of Air:
M = 28.97 kg air/mole of air
ft lb
kJ
R = 53.3
= 0.287
lb R
kg K
Cp 0.24
k = 1.4
Btu
kcal
kJ
= 0.24
= 1.0
lb F
kg C
kg C
Cv 0.171
Btu
kcal
kJ
= 0.171
= 0.716
lb F
kg C
kg C
T2
P
 mRln 2
T1
P1
V1
V
= 2
T1
T2
P1 = P 2
(Charles Law)
Work Done = P1 (V2 V1)
Heat Added = mCp(T2 T1)
Entropy Change = mCpln
Constant Volume
T2
T1
P1
P
= 2
T1
T2
V1 = V 2
(Charles Law)
Work Done = 0
Heat Added = mCv(T2 T1)
Entropy Change = mCvln
Constant Temperature
(Boyle's Law)
T1 = T2P1V1 = P2V2
V2
V1
V2
V1
T2
T1
PVk = C,
P
T2
= 2
T1
P1
V2
V1
P1V1k = P2V2k
k1
k
V
T2
= 1
T1
V2
Work Done = =
P1V1 P2 V2
k1
Heat Added = 0
Entropy Change = 0
Polytropic Process
PVn = C,
P1V1n = P2V2n
k1
k
P
T2
= 2
T1
P1
n1
n
Work Done =
Heat Added =
V
T2
= 1
T1
V2
n1
P1V1  P2 V2
n1
mCv n  k T2 T1
n1
ma
mb
mc
+
+
mT
mT
mT
Va
Vb
Vc
+
+
VT
VT
VT
Vb = volume that gas b would occupy
at pressure P and Temperature T
Vc = volume tha gas c would occupy
at pressure P and Temperature T
Va
(P)
V
Pb
Vb
(P)
V
ma
m
m
Cpa b Cpb b Cpc
mT
mT
mT
Cv
ma
m
m
Cv a b Cv b b Cv c
mT
mT
mT
Pc
Vc
(P)
V
PURE SUBSTANCE
Pure Substance  is a working substance that has a homogenous an invariable
chemical composition even though there is a change of phase.
Saturation Temperature the temperature at which vaporization takes place at a given
pressure, this pressure is being called the saturation pressure for the given time
temperature.
Superheated Vapor vapor whose temperature is higher than the saturated
temperature at the given pressure.
Degrees Superheat difference between actual temperature and saturation
temperature.
Subcooled Liquid liquid whose temperature is lower than the saturated temperature
at a given pressure.
Compressed Liquid liquid whose pressure is higher than the saturated pressure at a
given pressure.

Water
81.33 C
100 C
151.86 C
Ammonia
46.73 C
33.52 C
4.08 C
Freon 12
45.19 C
29.79 C
15.59 C
Temp Press
Specific
Volume
Vf V g
Vfg = Vg  Vf
Ufg = Ug  Uf
Mixture
Internal
Energy
Uf Ufg Ug
Enthalpy
Entropy
hf hfg hg
sf sfg sg
hfg = hg  hf
sfg = sg  sg
=
=
1 x = wetness
Properties of Mixture: v = Vf + xVfg
u = uf + xufg
h = hf + xhfg
s = sf + xsfg
T
Critical Point
Super Heated
Vapor Region
Subcooled Liquid
Region
Saturated Vapor
Saturated Liquid
Line
Mixture Region
The Mollier Diagram (hs) of steam is usually useful in determining the final enthalpy of
steam after an isentropic process.
Processes Involving Pure Substances:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
(hf + hfg)1 = h2
Process
Constant Pressure
Heating or Cooling of Liquid
kJ
kg C
Evaporation or condensation
(P = C and T = C)
Constant volume (V = C)
Q = m(u2 u1)
Constant Entropy (S = C)
Q = m(h2 h1)
Constant Enthalpy (h = C)
(Throttling)
Q =0
T
T1 = T4
4
WORK NET
T3 = T2
S
S3 = S4
S1 = S2
QA
2
4
3
WP
T1  T2 = T4 T3
QA = T1(S1 S4)
and
S1 S 4 = S 2 S 3
QR
QA
QR
T1(S1 S4 )
T T
T TL
nT 1 2
nT H
or
T1
TH
nT
Rankine Cycle
Gasoline Engine
(Spark Ignition)
Diesel Engine
Diesel Cycle
Gas Turbine
Brayton Cycle
Refrigeration System
Refrigeration Cycle
ENGINEERING MECHANICS
Mechanics is the oldest branch of physical science which deals with the state of rest of
motion of bodies under the action of forces
Branches of mechanics:
A. Statics deals with bodies in the state of rest.
B. Dynamics or kinetics deals with bodies in motion under the action of forces.
C. Kinematics refers to the study of motion without reference to the forces which
causes the motion.
Statics
Conditions of equilibrium:
1. Graphical condition: Under this condition, the forces or vectors are transformed in
a force polygon. For equilibrium, the force polygon must close.
F1
F3
F2
F1
F3
F2
concurrency
F3
3. Analytical condition: If forces or vectors are in equilibrium, then it must satisfy the
three static equations, namely
Fx = 0
Fy = 0
Mx = 0
FRICTION
Friction is defined as the limited amount of resistance to sliding between the surfaces of
two bodies in contact.
P
W
F
N
R
N
F= n
F
tan =
Parabolic cable: When the loading is uniformly distributed horizontally, the cable is
analyzed as a parabolic cable.
a.) Tension at the lowest point, H:
H= _wL2_
8d
b.) tension at the support, T:
S= length
T= H2 +
(wL) 2
( 2 )
L= span
MOMENT OF INERTIA
Another term for moment of inertia is second moment of area
1. Centroidal moment of inertia ( with respect to an axis passing through the
centroid):
a. Rectangle
b. Triangle
c. Circle
d. Ellipse
b. Triangle
For composite figures and for axis not at the centroid nor base, moment of
inertia may be calculated using transfer formula, which is as follows;
I = Ig + Ad2
Dynamics
A. Rectilinear Translation
1. Horizontal motion
V0
S
S= V0 + _1_ at2
2
V= V0 + at
2. Vertical Motion
V0
Y
a
Y= V0 + gt2;
If
V= V0
V
initial velocity, V0 = 0, it is said to be a free falling body, thus,
Y = _1_ gt2
2
B. Curvilinear translation
1. Projectile or trajectory
Projectile has an equation that of a parabola. The general equation of a projectile is,
y = x tan ___gx2___
2Vo2cos2
The vertical component of the velocity decreases as it goes up and is 0 at
maximum point of the projectile and increases as it goes down, while the horizontal
component is constant.
2. Rotation
vo (x, y)
S=r;
V = r ;
a=r
Where: S, V and a are linear dimensions, , and are angular distance, velocity and
acceleration, respectively,
Also,
= ot + t2
o + t
2 = o2 + 2
D. Centrifugal Force
ENGINEERING ECONOMICS
Engineering Economics the study of the cost factors involve in engineering projects,
and using the result of such study in employing the most efficient costsaving
techniques without affecting the safety and soundness of the project.
Investment the sum of total of first cost (fixed capital) and working capital which is
being put up in a project with the aim of getting a profit.
Fixed Capital  part of investment which is required to acquire or set up the business.
Working Capital the amount of money set aside as part of the investment to keep the
project or business continuously operating.
Demand the quantity of a certain commodity that is bought at a certain price at a given
place and time.
Supply  the quantity of a certain commodity that is offered for sale at certain price at a
given place.
Perfect Competition a business condition in which a product or service is supplied by
a number of vendors and there is no restriction against additional vendors entering the
market.
Monopoly as business condition in which as unique product or service is available
from only one supplier and the supplier can prevent the entry of all others into the
market.
Oligopoly a condition in which there are so few suppliers of a product or service that
action by one will almost result in similar action by the others.
Law of Supply and Demand: Under conditions of perfect competition, the price of the
product will be such that the supply and demand are equal.
Law of Diminishing Returns: When the use of one of the factors of production is
limited, either in increasing cost or by absolute quantity, a point will be reached beyond
which an increase in the variable factors will result in a less than proportionate increase
in output.
INTEREST
Interest money paid for the use of borrowed money.
SIMPLE INTEREST is the interest paid on the principal (money lent) only.
I = Pni
S = P + 1 = P + Pni
S = P (1 + ni)
COMPOUND INTEREST when simple interest that is due is not paid, the amount is
added to the interestbearing principal, the interest calculated on this new principal is
called compound interest.
S = P(1+ I)
P=
1+i
Cash Flow Diagram  a graphical representation of cash flows drawn on a time scale.
S
0
5..n
P
Discount = S P
Rate of discount =
d=
SP
S
Deferred annuity: first payment occurs later than at the end of the first period.
ORDINARY ANNUITY:
S
0
5n
R.R
1 i n 1
P=R
n
i 1+i
where:
1 i n 1
S=R
ANNUITY DUE
n=5
S
0
n=4
1 i 4 1
P=R+R
4
i 1+i
S=P 1+i
DEFERRED ANNUITY
S
0
P
n=3
n=5
1+i
P=
5
i 1+i
1 i
S=P 1+i
P=
R
i
R = periodic payments
i = interest rate per period
UNIFORM GRADIENT
ARITHMETIC UNIFORM GRADIENT if the increase in succeeding periods is
constant.
R
R+A
R+2A
R+3A
R+nA
Present Worth is:
1 i n 1
P=R
n
i 1+i
1a n
1+i 1a
1 i n 1
1+i n 1
S=P 1+i =R
A
i
i2
R
R+A (1+r)
R+A (1+r) 2
R+A (1+r) 3
R+A (1+r) n
Present Worth is:
1 i n 1
P=R
n
i 1+i
1a n
A
1+i 1a
S=P 1+i
FCSV
n
Annual Depreciation
First Cost
FCSV
Annual depreciation =
1 i
i
Where:
1+i
FC (Annual Dep)
3. SumofTheYearsDigits Method
SYD = 1+2+3+.+n
=
where:
n n+1
2
n= useful life
Dep1 = FCSV
SYD
n1
Dep2 = FCSV
SYD
n3
Dep3 = FCSV
SYD
SV
FC
FCSV
No. of units Capacity
FCSV
No. of units Capacity
FCSV
Annual Depreciation = 1+i 1
i
n
Annual Depreciation =
Average interest =
FCSV
n
i n+1
FCSV i SV
2 n
CAPITALIZED COST
Capitalized Cost the sum of the first cost and the present worth of all cost of
replacement, operation and maintenance for a long time.
1. For Perpetual Life:
Capitalized Cost = FC +
OM
i
2. For Life n:
Capitalized Cost = FC +
OM
FCSV
n
i
1+i 1
Bond Value:
P=Fr
where:
1+i 1
n
i 1+i
1+i
i = investment rate
SELECTION OF ALTERNATIVES
1. Present Economy
This involves selection of alternatives in which interest or time value or money is not
a factor.
2. RATE OF RETURN
Rate of Return=
Net Profit
Total Investment
3. PAYOUT PERIOD
Payout Period=
4. ANNUAL COST
Annual Cost= Depreciation + Interest on Capital + Operation and Maintenance +
Other out of pocket Expenses
5. Present Worth
This is applicable when the alternatives involve future expenses whose present
value can be easily determined.
5. FUTURE WORTH
This is applicable when the alternatives involve expenses whose future worth is
more suitable basis of comparison.
REPLACEMENT STUDIES
1. Rate of Return
Rate of Return =
2. Annual Cost
Annual Cost = Depreciation + Investment on Capital + Operation and
Maintenance + Other out of pocket Expenses