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SEBU8311-03

April 2012

Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
400A and 400D Industrial Engines
GG (Engine)
GH (Engine)
GJ (Engine)
GK (Engine)
GL (Engine)
GM (Engine)
GN (Engine)
GP (Engine)
GQ (Engine)
GS (Engine)
GT (Engine)
GU (Engine)
GV (Engine)

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

Important Safety Information


Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the Safety Alert Symbol and followed by a Signal Word such as
DANGER, WARNING or CAUTION. The Safety Alert WARNING label is shown below.

The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:


Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by NOTICE labels on the product and in
this publication.
Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors have the most current information available.

When replacement parts are required for this


product Perkins recommends using Perkins
replacement parts.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

Table of Contents

3
Table of Contents

Index Section
Index ..................................................................... 94

Foreword ................................................................. 4

Safety Section
Safety Messages .................................................... 5
General Hazard Information ................................... 7
Burn Prevention ...................................................... 8
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention .............. 8
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........ 10
Before Starting Engine ........................................... 11
Engine Starting ...................................................... 11
Engine Stopping .................................................... 11
Electrical System .................................................. 12

Product Information Section


Model Views ......................................................... 13
Product Identification Information ........................ 23

Operation Section
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 25
Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 28
Features and Controls .......................................... 29
Engine Starting ..................................................... 30
Engine Operation .................................................. 33
Engine Stopping ................................................... 34
Cold Weather Operation ....................................... 35

Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities .................................................... 39
Maintenance Recommendations .......................... 58
Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................ 60

Warranty Section
Warranty Information ............................................ 93

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

4
Foreword

Foreword
Literature Information
This manual contains safety, operation instructions,
lubrication and maintenance information. This
manual should be stored in or near the engine area
in a literature holder or literature storage area. Read,
study and keep it with the literature and engine
information.
English is the primary language for all Perkins
publications. The English used facilitates translation
and consistency.
Some photographs or illustrations in this manual
show details or attachments that may be different
from your engine. Guards and covers may have
been removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing
improvement and advancement of product design
may have caused changes to your engine which are
not included in this manual. Whenever a question
arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please
consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor for the latest available information.

Safety
This safety section lists basic safety precautions.
In addition, this section identifies hazardous,
warning situations. Read and understand the basic
precautions listed in the safety section before
operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and
repair on this product.

Operation
Operating techniques outlined in this manual are
basic. They assist with developing the skills and
techniques required to operate the engine more
efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques
develop as the operator gains knowledge of the
engine and its capabilities.
The operation section is a reference for operators.
Photographs and illustrations guide the operator
through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating
and stopping the engine. This section also includes a
discussion of electronic diagnostic information.

Maintenance
The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.
The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped
by service hours and/or calendar time maintenance
intervals. Items in the maintenance schedule are
referenced to detailed instructions that follow.

SEBU8311-03

Recommended service should be performed at the


appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance
Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment
of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval
Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe,
dusty, wet or freezing cold operating conditions,
more frequent lubrication and maintenance than is
specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may
be necessary.
The maintenance schedule items are organized for
a preventive maintenance management program. If
the preventive maintenance program is followed, a
periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation
of a preventive maintenance management program
should minimize operating costs through cost
avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled
downtime and failures.

Maintenance Intervals
Perform maintenance on items at multiples of
the original requirement. We recommend that the
maintenance schedules be reproduced and displayed
near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also
recommend that a maintenance record be maintained
as part of the engine's permanent record.
Your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor can assist you in adjusting your
maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your
operating environment.

Overhaul
Major engine overhaul details are not covered in
the Operation and Maintenance Manual except
for the interval and the maintenance items in that
interval. Major repairs should only be carried out by
Perkins authorized personnel. Your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor offers a variety of options
regarding overhaul programs. If you experience
a major engine failure, there are also numerous
after failure overhaul options available. Consult with
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
information regarding these options.

California Proposition 65 Warning


Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
are known to the State of California to cause cancer,
birth defects, and other reproductive harm. Battery
posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead
and lead compounds. Wash hands after handling.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

5
Safety Section
Safety Messages

Safety Section

Warning label (A) is installed in different locations.


The location will change according to the physical
size of the engine.
i02959960

Safety Messages
There may be several specific warning signs on your
engine. The exact location and a description of the
warning signs are reviewed in this section. Please
become familiar with all warning signs.
Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Clean
the warning signs or replace the warning signs if
the words cannot be read or if the illustrations are
not visible. Use a cloth, water, and soap to clean
the warning signs. Do not use solvents, gasoline, or
other harsh chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh
chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures the
warning signs. The warning signs that are loosened
could drop off of the engine.
Replace any warning sign that is damaged or
missing. If a warning sign is attached to a part of the
engine that is replaced, install a new warning sign on
the replacement part. Your Perkins dealer or your
distributor can provide new warning signs.

(A) Universal Warning

Do not operate or work on this equipment unless


you have read and understand the instructions
and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance
Manuals. Failure to follow the instructions or
heed the warnings could result in serious injury
or death.

Illustration 1

g01154807

Typical example

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6
Safety Section
Safety Messages

SEBU8311-03

g01324126

Illustration 2
(A) Location of warning label
(1) 402D-05
(2) 403D-07

(3) 403D-11
(4) 403D-15, 403D-15T and 403D-17
(5) 404D-15

(6) 404D-22, 404D-22T and 404D-22TA

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

7
Safety Section
General Hazard Information

i02328435

General Hazard Information

Report all necessary repairs.


Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the
equipment.
Ensure that the power supply is disconnected before
you work on the bus bar or the glow plugs.
Perform maintenance on the engine with the
equipment in the servicing position. Refer to the
OEM information for the procedure for placing the
equipment in the servicing position.

Pressure Air and Water


Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris
and/or hot water to be blown out. This could result in
personal injury.
Illustration 3

g00104545

Attach a Do Not Operate warning tag or a similar


warning tag to the start switch or to the controls
before you service the equipment or before you
repair the equipment.

The direct application of pressurized air or


pressurized water to the body could result in personal
injury.
When pressurized air and/or water is used for
cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective shoes,
and eye protection. Eye protection includes goggles
or a protective face shield.
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum
water pressure for cleaning purposes must be below
275 kPa (40 psi).

Fluid Penetration
Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long
after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can
cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to
escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.
Illustration 4

g00702020

Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other


protective equipment, as required.
Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.

Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts


until pressure has been relieved or personal injury
may occur. Do not disassemble any hydraulic
components or parts until pressure has been relieved
or personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEM
information for any procedures that are required to
relieve the hydraulic pressure.

Make sure that all protective guards and all covers


are secured in place on the engine.
Keep the engine free from foreign material. Remove
debris, oil, tools, and other items from the deck, from
walkways, and from steps.
Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.
Drain all liquids into a suitable container.
Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
Use all cleaning solutions with care.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

8
Safety Section
Burn Prevention

SEBU8311-03

Coolant
When the engine is at operating temperature, the
engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under
pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or
to the engine contain hot coolant.
Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
severe burns. Allow cooling system components to
cool before the cooling system is drained.
Check the coolant level after the engine has stopped
and the engine has been allowed to cool.
Illustration 5

g00687600

Always use a board or cardboard when you check


for a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can
penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause
serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can
cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,
you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment
from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.

Containing Fluid Spillage


Care must be taken in order to ensure that fluids
are contained during performance of inspection,
maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the
engine. Make provision to collect the fluid with a
suitable container before any compartment is opened
or before any component is disassembled.

Only use the tools that are suitable for collecting

fluids and equipment that is suitable for collecting


fluids.

Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the


filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch
with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can
cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact
the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.

Oils
Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause
personal injury. Do not allow hot oil to contact the
skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact
the skin.

Batteries
Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal
injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or
the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for servicing
batteries. Wash hands after touching the batteries
and connectors. Use of gloves is recommended.

Only use the tools that are suitable for containing

fluids and equipment that is suitable for containing


fluids.

Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.

i02813488

Fire Prevention and Explosion


Prevention

i02143195

Burn Prevention
Do not touch any part of an operating engine.
Allow the engine to cool before any maintenance
is performed on the engine. Relieve all pressure
in the air system, in the hydraulic system, in the
lubrication system, in the fuel system, or in the
cooling system before any lines, fittings or related
items are disconnected.

Illustration 6

g00704000

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SEBU8311-03

All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures


are flammable.
Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot
surfaces or onto electrical components can cause
a fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property
damage.
A flash fire may result if the covers for the engine
crankcase are removed within fifteen minutes after
an emergency shutdown.
Determine whether the engine will be operated in an
environment that allows combustible gases to be
drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could
cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,
property damage, or engine damage could result.

9
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention

Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure


connections, recommended wiring, and correctly
maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing
or sparking.
Inspect all lines and hoses for wear or for
deterioration. The hoses must be correctly routed.
The lines and hoses must have adequate support
and secure clamps. Tighten all connections to the
recommended torque. Leaks can cause fires.
Oil filters and fuel filters must be correctly installed.
The filter housings must be tightened to the correct
torque.

If the application involves the presence of combustible


gases, consult your Perkins dealer and/or your
Perkins distributor for additional information about
suitable protection devices.
Remove all flammable combustible materials or
conductive materials such as fuel, oil, and debris from
the engine. Do not allow any flammable combustible
materials or conductive materials to accumulate on
the engine.
Store fuels and lubricants in correctly marked
containers away from unauthorized persons. Store
oily rags and any flammable materials in protective
containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for
storing flammable materials.
Do not expose the engine to any flame.
Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust
components from oil or fuel spray in case of a line,
a tube, or a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be
installed correctly.

Illustration 7

g00704059

Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do


not smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not
refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always
stop the engine before refueling.

Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable


fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain
flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks
thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to
welding or flame cutting.
Wiring must be kept in good condition. All electrical
wires must be correctly routed and securely attached.
Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any wires
that are loose or frayed before you operate the
engine. Clean all electrical connections and tighten
all electrical connections.
Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.
Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than
the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses
and/or circuit breakers.

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10
Safety Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention

SEBU8311-03

Repair any lines that are loose or damaged. Leaks


can cause fires. Consult your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor for repair or for replacement parts.
Check lines, tubes and hoses carefully. Do not use
your bare hand to check for leaks. Use a board or
cardboard to check for leaks. Tighten all connections
to the recommended torque.
Replace the parts if any of the following conditions
are present:

End fittings are damaged or leaking.


Outer coverings are chafed or cut.
Wires are exposed.
Outer coverings are ballooning.
Illustration 8

g00704135

Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open


flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do
not smoke in battery charging areas.
Never check the battery charge by placing a metal
object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or
a hydrometer.
Incorrect jumper cable connections can cause
an explosion that can result in injury. Refer to
the Operation Section of this manual for specific
instructions.

Flexible part of the hoses are kinked.


Outer covers have embedded armoring.
End fittings are displaced.
Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields
are installed correctly. During engine operation, this
will help to prevent vibration, rubbing against other
parts, and excessive heat.
i02143194

Crushing Prevention and


Cutting Prevention

Do not charge a frozen battery. This may cause an


explosion.
The batteries must be kept clean. The covers
(if equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the
recommended cables, connections, and battery box
covers when the engine is operated.

Fire Extinguisher
Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be
familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.
Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire
extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations
on the instruction plate.

Lines, Tubes and Hoses


Do not bend high pressure lines. Do not strike high
pressure lines. Do not install any lines that are bent
or damaged. Do not clip any other items to the high
pressure lines.

Support the component correctly when work beneath


the component is performed.
Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,
never attempt adjustments while the engine is
running.
Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving
parts. Leave the guards in place until maintenance
is performed. After the maintenance is performed,
reinstall the guards.
Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan
blades will throw objects or cut objects.
When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in
order to avoid injury to the eyes.
Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects
are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no
one will be injured by flying debris.

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SEBU8311-03

11
Safety Section
Before Starting Engine

i02813489

Before Starting Engine


Before the initial start-up of an engine that is new,
serviced or repaired, make provision to shut the
engine off, in order to stop an overspeed. This may
be accomplished by shutting off the air and/or fuel
supply to the engine.
Overspeed shutdown should occur automatically for
engines that are controlled electronically. If automatic
shutdown does not occur, press the emergency stop
button in order to cut the fuel and/or air to the engine.
Inspect the engine for potential hazards.
Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,
underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the
area is free of personnel.
If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the
engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all
lights work correctly, if equipped.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not
disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are
provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The
circuits are also provided in order to help prevent
engine damage.
See the Service Manual for repairs and for
adjustments.

All protective guards and all protective covers must


be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Start the engine from the operator's compartment or
from the engine start switch.
Always start the engine according to the procedure
that is described in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Engine Starting topic in the Operation
Section. Knowing the correct procedure will help to
prevent major damage to the engine components.
Knowing the procedure will also help to prevent
personal injury.
To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)
and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped) is working
correctly, check the water temperature gauge and the
oil temperature gauge during the heater operation.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which can be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area,
vent the engine exhaust to the outside.
Note: The engine is equipped with an automatic
device for cold starting for normal conditions of
operation. If the engine will be operated in very cold
conditions, then an extra cold starting aid may be
required. Normally, the engine will be equipped with
the correct type of starting aid for your region of
operation.
The 400 Series engines are equipped with a glow
plug starting aid in each individual cylinder that heats
the intake air in order to improve starting.
i02590389

i02157354

Engine Stopping

Engine Starting
To avoid overheating of the engine and accelerated
wear of the engine components, stop the engine
according to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Engine Stopping topic (Operation Section).
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch
or to the controls, DO NOT start the engine or move
the controls. Consult with the person that attached
the warning tag before the engine is started.

Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped)


ONLY in an emergency situation. DO NOT use the
Emergency Stop Button for normal engine stopping.
After an emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine
until the problem that caused the emergency stop
has been corrected.

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12
Safety Section
Electrical System

SEBU8311-03

On the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine


that has been serviced, make provisions to stop the
engine if an overspeed condition occurs. This may be
accomplished by shutting off the fuel supply and/or
the air supply to the engine.
If equipped, in order to stop an electronically
controlled engine, cut the power to the engine.
i02176668

Electrical System
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery
circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit
is operating. A spark can cause the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries to ignite.
To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries, the
negative jump start cable should be connected
last from the external power source to the negative
terminal of the starting motor. If the starting motor
is not equipped with a negative terminal, connect
the jump start cable to the engine block.
Check the electrical wires daily for wires that are
loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical wires
before the engine is started. Repair all frayed
electrical wires before the engine is started. See
the Operation and Maintenance Manual for specific
starting instructions.

Grounding Practices
Correct grounding for the engine electrical system
is necessary for optimum engine performance
and reliability. Incorrect grounding will result in
uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable
electrical circuit paths.
Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in
damage to main bearings, to crankshaft bearing
journal surfaces, and to aluminum components.
Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame
ground straps can be damaged by electrical
discharge.
To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical
systems function correctly, an engine-to-frame
ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be
used. This path may be provided by way of a direct
engine ground to the frame.
All grounds should be tight and free of corrosion. The
engine alternator must be grounded to the negative
- battery terminal with a wire that is adequate to
handle the full charging current of the alternator.

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SEBU8311-03

13
Product Information Section
Model Views

Product Information
Section
Model Views
i02590436

Model View Illustrations


The following model views show typical features
of the 400 series engines. Due to individual
applications, your engine may appear different from
the illustrations.
Note: Individual components are detailed on the
404D-22T turbocharged engine only.

Illustration 9

g01299985

Typical view of the 402D-05 engine

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14
Product Information Section
Model Views

Illustration 10

SEBU8311-03

g01300431

Typical view of the 403D-15T engine

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SEBU8311-03

15
Product Information Section
Model Views

g01304893

Illustration 11
Front and right side view of the 404D-22T Engine
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Fuel shutoff solenoid


Number one fuel injector
Water pump
Lower engine oil filler cap

(5) Throttle lever


(6) Cover plate for the accessory drive
(7) Engine oil level gauge
(8) Engine oil cooler

(9) Engine oil filter


(10) Fuel injection pump
(11) Transfer pump
(12) Fuel filter

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16
Product Information Section
Model Views

SEBU8311-03

g01305224

Illustration 12
Front and left side view of the 404D-22T Engine
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
(17)
(18)

Top engine oil filler cap


Crankcase breather
Rear Lifting eye
Air inlet elbow
Valve mechanism cover
Turbocharger

(19) Water temperature regulator housing


(20) Starting motor solenoid
(21) Electric starting motor
(22) Alternator
(23) Engine oil pan
(24) Engine oil drain plug

i02959055

Engine Description
The 400 series engines are indirect injection engines.
The engines are controlled with a mechanically
actuated fuel injection pump. The engine cylinders
are arranged in-line.
The cylinder head assembly has one inlet valve and
one exhaust valve for each cylinder. Each cylinder
valve has a single valve spring.

(25)
(26)
(27)
(28)

Fan drive belt


Crankshaft pulley
Coolant temperature switch
Cooling fan

The pistons have two compression rings and an


oil control ring. It is important to ensure the correct
piston height so that the piston does not contact the
cylinder head. The correct piston height also ensures
efficient combustion of fuel that is necessary in order
to conform to requirements for emissions.
The crankshaft for a two cylinder engine has two
main bearing journals. The crankshaft for a three
cylinder engine has four main bearing journals. The
crankshaft for a four cylinder engine has five main
bearing journals. End play is controlled by the thrust
washers that are located on the rear main bearing.

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SEBU8311-03

The timing gears are stamped with timing marks in


order to ensure the correct assembly of the gears.
When the No. 1 piston is at top center compression
stroke, the teeth that are stamped on the crankshaft
gear and the camshaft gear will be in alignment with
the idler gear.

17
Product Information Section
Model Views

Engine Specifications
Note: The front end of the engine is opposite the
flywheel end of the engine. The left and the right side
of the engine are determined from the flywheel end.
The No. 1 cylinder is the front cylinder.

The crankshaft gear turns the idler gear which then


turns the camshaft gear and the gear for the engine
oil pump.
The fuel injection pump is mounted in the cylinder
block. The fuel injection pump is operated by lobes
on the camshaft. The fuel transfer pump is located
on the right hand side of the cylinder block. The
fuel transfer pump is also operated by lobes on the
camshaft.
The fuel injection pump conforms to requirements
for emissions. If any adjustments to the fuel injection
pump timing and high idle are required you must
refer to your Perkins distributoror your Perkins
dealer. Some fuel injection pumps have mechanical
governors that control the engine rpm. Some fuel
injection pumps have a governor that is electrically
controlled.
A gerotor oil pump is located in the center of the idler
gear. The engine oil pump sends lubricating oil to the
main oil gallery through a pressure relief valve and an
engine oil filter. The rocker arms receive pressurized
oil through an externally located oil line that runs from
the main oil gallery to the cylinder head.
Coolant from the bottom of the radiator passes
through the belt driven centrifugal water pump. The
coolant is cooled by the radiator and the temperature
is regulated by a water temperature regulator.
Engine efficiency, efficiency of emission controls, and
engine performance depend on adherence to correct
operation and maintenance recommendations.
Engine performance and efficiency also depend on
the use of recommended fuels, lubrication oils, and
coolants. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Maintenance Interval Schedule for more
information on maintenance items.

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18
Product Information Section
Model Views

SEBU8311-03

402D-05 Engine

403D-07 Engine

g01108476

Illustration 13

g00852304

Illustration 14

(A) Exhaust valves


(B) Inlet valves

(A) Exhaust valves


(B) Inlet valves

Table 1

Table 2

402D-05 Engine Specifications


Maximum Operating
Speed (rpm)

403D-07 Engine Specifications


Maximum Operating
Speed (rpm)

3600 rpm

3600 rpm

Cylinders and
Arrangement

In-Line two cylinder

Cylinders and
Arrangement

Bore

67 mm (2.64 inch)

Bore

67 mm (2.64 inch)

Stroke

72 mm (2.83 inch)

Stroke

72 mm (2.83 inch)

Displacement

0.762 L (46.500 in3)

Displacement
Aspiration
Compression Ratio
Firing Order
Rotation that is viewed
from the flywheel

0.507 L (30.939 in )
3

NA(1)
23.5:1
1-2
Counterclockwise

Aspiration

In-Line three cylinder

NA(1)

Compression Ratio

23.5:1

Firing Order

1-2-3

Rotation that is viewed


from the flywheel

Counterclockwise

Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Valve Lash Setting


(Exhaust)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Valve Lash Setting


(Exhaust)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Injection
(1)

Naturally Aspirated

Indirect

Injection
(1)

Indirect

Naturally Aspirated

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

19
Product Information Section
Model Views

403D-11 Engine

403D-15 Engine

g00852304

Illustration 15

g00852304

Illustration 16

(A) Exhaust valves


(B) Inlet valves

(A) Exhaust valves


(B) Inlet valves

Table 3

Table 4

403D-11 Engine Specifications


Maximum Operating
Speed (rpm)
Cylinders and
Arrangement

403D-15 Engine Specifications


Maximum Operating
Speed (rpm)

3600 rpm
In-Line three cylinder

Cylinders and
Arrangement

3000 rpm
In-Line three cylinder

Bore

77 mm (3.03 inch)

Bore

84 mm (3.31 inch)

Stroke

81 mm (3.19 inch)

Stroke

90 mm (3.54 inch)

Displacement

1.496 L (91.291 in3)

Displacement

1.131 L (69.018 in )
3

Aspiration

NA(1)

Aspiration

Compression Ratio

23:1

Compression Ratio

22.5:1

Firing Order

1-2-3

Firing Order

1-2-3

Rotation that is viewed


from the flywheel

Counterclockwise

Rotation that is viewed


from the flywheel

NA(1)

Counterclockwise

Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Valve Lash Setting


(Exhaust)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Valve Lash Setting


(Exhaust)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Injection
(1)

Naturally Aspirated

Indirect

Injection
(1)

Indirect

Naturally Aspirated

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

20
Product Information Section
Model Views

SEBU8311-03

403D-15T Engine

403D-17 Engine

g00852304

Illustration 17

g00852304

Illustration 18

(A) Exhaust valves


(B) Inlet valves

(A) Exhaust valves


(B) Inlet valves

Table 5

Table 6

403D-15T Engine Specifications


Maximum Operating
Speed (rpm)
Cylinders and
Arrangement

403D-17 Engine Specifications


Maximum Operating
Speed (rpm)

3000 rpm
In-Line three cylinder

Cylinders and
Arrangement

2600 rpm
In-Line three cylinder

Bore

84 mm (3.31 inch)

Bore

84 mm (3.31 inch)

Stroke

90 mm (3.54 inch)

Stroke

100 mm (3.94 inch)

Displacement
Aspiration

1.496 L (91.291 in )
3

T(1)

Displacement
Aspiration

1.66 L (101.3 in3)


NA(1)

Compression Ratio

22.5:1

Compression Ratio

23.1:1

Firing Order

1-2-3

Firing Order

1-2-3

Rotation that is viewed


from the flywheel

Counterclockwise

Rotation that is viewed


from the flywheel

Counterclockwise

Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Valve Lash Setting


(Exhaust)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Valve Lash Setting


(Exhaust)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Injection
(1)

Turbocharged

Indirect

Injection
(1)

Indirect

Naturally Aspirated

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

21
Product Information Section
Model Views

404D-15 Engine

404D-22 Engine

g00296424

Illustration 19

g00296424

Illustration 20

(A) Exhaust valves


(B) Inlet valves

(A) Exhaust valves


(B) Inlet valves

Table 7

Table 8

404D-15 Engine Specifications


Maximum Operating
Speed (rpm)
Cylinders and
Arrangement

404D-22 Engine Specifications


Maximum Operating
Speed (rpm)

3000 rpm
In-Line four cylinder

3000 rpm

Cylinders and
Arrangement

In-Line four cylinder

Bore

77 mm (3.03 inch)

Bore

84.0 mm (3.31 inch)

Stroke

81 mm (3.19 inch)

Stroke

100.0 mm (3.94 inch)

Displacement

2.216 L (135.229 in3)

Displacement
Aspiration

1.508 L (92.024 in )
3

NA(1)

Aspiration

NA(1)

Compression Ratio

23.5:1

Compression Ratio

23.3:1

Firing Order

1-3-4-2

Firing Order

1-3-4-2

Rotation that is viewed


from the flywheel

Counterclockwise

Rotation that is viewed


from the flywheel

Counterclockwise

Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Valve Lash Setting


(Exhaust)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Valve Lash Setting


(Exhaust)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Injection
(1)

Naturally Aspirated

Indirect

Injection
(1)

Indirect

Naturally Aspirated

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

22
Product Information Section
Model Views

SEBU8311-03

404D-22T Engine

404D-22TA Engine

g00296424

Illustration 21
(A) Exhaust valves
(B) Inlet valves

(A) Exhaust valves


(B) Inlet valves

Table 9

Table 10

404D-22T Engine Specifications


Maximum Operating
Speed (rpm)

g00296424

Illustration 22

404D-22TA Engine Specifications


Maximum Operating
Speed (rpm)

3000 rpm

2800 rpm

Cylinders and
Arrangement

In-Line four cylinder

Cylinders and
Arrangement

In-Line four cylinder

Bore

84.0 mm (3.31 inch)

Bore

84.0 mm (3.31 inch)

Stroke

100.0 mm (3.94 inch)

Stroke

100.0 mm (3.94 inch)

Displacement

2.216 L (135.229 in )

Displacement

2.216 L (135.229 in3)

Aspiration

T(1)

Aspiration

TA(1)

Compression Ratio

23.5:1

Compression Ratio

23.5:1

Firing Order

1-3-4-2

Firing Order

1-3-4-2

Rotation that is viewed


from the flywheel

Counterclockwise

Rotation that is viewed


from the flywheel

Counterclockwise

Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Valve Lash Setting


(Exhaust)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Valve Lash Setting


(Exhaust)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Injection
(1)

Turbocharged

Indirect

Injection
(1)

Indirect

Turbocharged aftercooled

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

23
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information

Product Identification
Information

The Serial Number Plate is located above the fuel


injection pump on the right side of the cylinder block.

i03657510

Engine Identification

The following information is stamped on the Serial


Number Plate: Engine serial number, Model, and
Arrangement number.
i02164876

Perkins engines are identified by a serial number.


This number is shown on a serial number plate that
is mounted above the fuel injection pump on the right
hand side of the engine block.
An example of an engine number is
GP*****U000001T.

Reference Numbers
Information for the following items may be needed to
order parts. Locate the information for your engine.
Record the information in the appropriate space.
Make a copy of this list for a record. Keep the
information for future reference.

G______________________________________________Engine family
P ____________________________________________Type of engine
*****______________________The list number of the engine
U ________________________________Country of manufacture
0 ___________________The first digit is a production code.
00001 ____________________________Engine Serial Number
T _____________________________________Year of Manufacture
Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors need all of
these numbers in order to determine the components
that were included with the engine. This permits
accurate identification of replacement part numbers.
i02157258

Serial Number Plate

Record for Reference


Engine Model _______________________________________________
Engine Serial number _____________________________________
Engine Low Idle rpm ______________________________________
Engine Full Load rpm _____________________________________
Primary Fuel Filter _________________________________________
Water Separator Element ________________________________
Secondary Fuel Filter Element __________________________
Lubrication Oil Filter Element ___________________________
Auxiliary Oil Filter Element _______________________________
Total Lubrication System Capacity _____________________
Total Cooling System Capacity _________________________
Air Cleaner Element _______________________________________
Fan Drive Belt ______________________________________________
Alternator Belt ______________________________________________

Illustration 23

g01094203

Typical serial number plate

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

24
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information

SEBU8311-03

i02959144

Emissions Certification Film

Illustration 24

g01478138

Typical example

Illustration 25

g01476654

Typical example

Perkins Shibaura Engines Limited will supply the


fuel label with every engine. Refer to illustration
25. The equipment manufacturer must install the
label to the equipment. This is recommended by
Perkins Shibaura Engines Limited. The label must be
attached to the equipment near the fuel inlet. This
will comply with the EPA regulations. The equipment
manufacturer may install another fuel label. If another
fuel label is used, the equipment manufacturer must
send a drawing or a photo of the label to Perkins
Shibaura Engines Limited through the Perkins
Distributor. This will ensure compliance of the label.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

25
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage

Operation Section

Some removals require lifting the fixtures in order to


obtain correct balance and safety.
To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes that
are on the engine.

Lifting and Storage


i02164186

Engine Lifting

Lifting eyes are designed and installed for specific


engine arrangements. Alterations to the lifting eyes
and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting
fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure
that correct lifting devices are provided. Consult
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
information regarding fixtures for correct engine
lifting.
i02593735

Engine Storage
If the engine will not be started for several weeks, the
lubricating oil will drain from the cylinder walls and
from the piston rings. Rust can form on the cylinder
walls. Rust on the cylinder walls will cause increased
engine wear and a reduction in engine service life.

Lubrication System
To help prevent excessive engine wear, use the
following guidelines:
Complete all of the lubrication recommendations that
are listed in this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Maintenance Interval Schedule (Maintenance
Section).

Illustration 26

g01097527

NOTICE
Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load
the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remember that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle
between the supporting members and the object becomes less than 90 degrees.
When it is necessary to remove a component at an
angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for
the weight.
Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use
an adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All
supporting members (chains and cables) should be
parallel to each other. The chains and cables should
be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being
lifted.

If an engine is out of operation and if use of the engine


is not planned, special precautions should be made.
If the engine will be stored for more than one month,
a complete protection procedure is recommended.
Use the following guidelines :

Completely clean the outside of the engine.


Drain the fuel system completely and refill

the system with preservative fuel. 1772204


POWERPART Lay-Up 1 can be mixed with
the normal fuel in order to change the fuel into
preservative fuel.

If preservative fuel is not available, the fuel system

can be filled with normal fuel. This fuel must be


discarded at the end of the storage period together
with the fuel filter elements.

Operate the engine until the engine reaches normal


operating temperature. Stop any leaks from fuel,
lubricating oil or air systems. Stop the engine and
drain the lubricating oil from the oil pan.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

26
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage

SEBU8311-03

Renew the canister(s) of the lubricating oil filter.

1. Ensure that the vehicle is on level ground.

Fill the oil pan to the Full Mark on the engine oil

2. Remove the filler cap of the cooling system.

level gauge with new, clean lubricating oil. Add


1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 to the oil in
order to protect the engine against corrosion. If
1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 is not available,
use a preservative of the correct specification
instead of the lubricating oil. If a preservative is
used, this must be drained completely at the end of
the storage period and the oil pan must be refilled
to the correct level with normal lubricating oil.

3. Remove the drain plug (1) from the side of the


cylinder block in order to drain the engine. Ensure
that the drain hole is not restricted.
4. Open the tap or remove the drain plug at the
bottom of the radiator in order to drain the radiator.
If the radiator does not have a tap or a drain plug,
disconnect the hose at the bottom of the radiator.
5. Flush the cooling system with clean water.

Cooling System
To help prevent excessive engine wear, use the
following guidelines:
NOTICE
Do not drain the coolant while the engine is still hot and
the system is under pressure because dangerous hot
coolant can be discharged.
If freezing temperatures are expected, check the
cooling system for adequate protection against
freezing. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Fluid Recommendations (Maintenance
Section).
NOTICE
To prevent frost damage, ensure that all the coolant is
removed from the engine. This is important if the system is drained after it has been flushed with water, or if
an antifreeze solution too weak to protect the system
from frost has been used.

6. Fit the drain plugs and the filler cap. Close the tap
or connect the radiator hose.
7. Fill the cooling system with an approved antifreeze
mixture because this gives protection against
corrosion.
Note: Certain corrosion inhibitors could cause
damage to some engine components. Contact the
Service Department of Perkins for advice.
8. Operate the engine for a short period in order to
circulate the lubricating oil and the coolant in the
engine.
9. Disconnect the battery. Put the battery into safe
storage in a fully charged condition. Before the
battery is put into storage, protect the terminals
against corrosion. 1734115 POWERPART
Lay-Up 3 can be used on the terminals.
10. Clean the crankcase breather if one is installed.
Seal the end of the pipe.
11. Remove the fuel injectors and spray 1762811
POWERPART Lay-Up 2 for one or two seconds
into each cylinder bore with the piston at BDC.
12. Slowly rotate the crankshaft for one complete
revolution and then replace the fuel injectors.

Induction System
Remove the air filter assembly. If necessary,

remove the pipes that are installed between


the air filter assembly and the turbocharger.
Spray 1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 into the
turbocharger. The duration of the spray is printed
on the container. Seal the turbocharger with
waterproof tape.

Illustration 27

g01298045

Typical example

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

27
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage

Exhaust System
Remove the exhaust pipe. Spray 1762811

POWERPART Lay-Up 2 into the turbocharger. The


duration of the spray is printed on the container.
Seal the turbocharger with waterproof tape.

General Items
If the lubricating oil filler is installed on the valve

mechanism cover, remove the filler cap. If the


lubricating oil filler cap is not installed on the valve
mechanism cover, remove the valve mechanism
cover. Spray 1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2
around the rocker shaft assembly. Replace the
filler cap or the valve mechanism cover.

Seal the vent of the fuel tank or the fuel filler cap
with waterproof tape.

Remove the alternator drive belts and put the drive


belts into storage.

In order to prevent corrosion, spray the engine with


1734115 POWERPART Lay-Up 3. Do not spray
the area inside the alternator.

When the engine protection has been completed in


accordance with these instructions, this ensures that
no corrosion will occur. Perkins are not responsible
for damage which may occur when an engine is in
storage after a period in service.
Your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor can
assist in preparing the engine for extended storage
periods.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

28
Operation Section
Gauges and Indicators

SEBU8311-03

Gauges and Indicators

1. Reduce the load and the engine rpm.


2. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
i02216960

Gauges and Indicators


Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of
the gauges that are described. For more information
about the gauge package, see the OEM information.
Gauges provide indications of engine performance.
Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.
Determine the normal operating range by observing
the gauges over a period of time.
Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicate
potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may
also be indicated by gauge readings that change
even if the readings are within specifications.
Determine and correct the cause of any significant
change in the readings. Consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for assistance.
NOTICE
If no oil pressure is indicated, STOP the engine. If
maximum coolant temperature is exceeded, STOP
the engine. Engine damage can result.
Engine Oil Pressure The oil pressure
should be greatest after a cold engine is
started. The typical engine oil pressure with
SAE10W30 is 207 to 413 kPa (30 to 60 psi) at rated
rpm.

3. Determine if the engine must be shut down


immediately or if the engine can be cooled by
reducing the load.
Tachometer This gauge indicates engine
speed (rpm). When the throttle control lever
is moved to the full throttle position without
load, the engine is running at high idle. The engine is
running at the full load rpm when the throttle control
lever is at the full throttle position with maximum
rated load.
NOTICE
To help prevent engine damage, never exceed the
high idle rpm. Overspeeding can result in serious
damage to the engine. The engine can be operated
at high idle without damage, but should never be
allowed to exceed high idle rpm.
Ammeter This gauge indicates the
amount of charge or discharge in the
battery charging circuit. Operation of the
indicator should be to the right side of 0 (zero).
Fuel Level This gauge indicates the fuel
level in the fuel tank. The fuel level gauge
operates when the START/STOP switch
is in the ON position.
Service Hour Meter The gauge indicates
operating time of the engine.

A lower oil pressure is normal at low idle. If the load


is stable and the gauge reading changes, perform
the following procedure:
1. Remove the load.
2. Reduce engine speed to low idle.
3. Check and maintain the oil level.
Jacket Water Coolant Temperature
Typical temperature range is 71 to 96C
(160 to 205F). The maximum allowable
temperature with the pressurized cooling system
at 90 kPa (13 psi) is 110C (230F). Higher
temperatures may occur under certain conditions.
The water temperature reading may vary according
to load. The reading should never exceed the boiling
point for the pressurized system that is being used.
If the engine is operating above the normal range
and steam becomes apparent, perform the following
procedure:

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

29
Operation Section
Features and Controls

Features and Controls


i02593769

Fuel Shutoff
The fuel shutoff solenoid is located on the fuel
injection pump. When the fuel shutoff solenoid is
activated, the solenoid moves the fuel rack to the
OFF position.

Illustration 28

g01305771

(1) Fuel shutoff solenoid

If an electronically controlled governor has been


installed the governor operates the fuel rack in order
to stop the engine.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

30
Operation Section
Engine Starting

SEBU8311-03

Engine Starting

Do not start the engine or move any of the controls


i02194223

Before Starting Engine

if there is a DO NOT OPERATE warning tag or


similar warning tag attached to the start switch or
to the controls.

Ensure that the areas around the rotating parts are


clear.

Before the engine is started, perform the required


daily maintenance and any other periodic
maintenance that is due. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, Maintenance Interval
Schedule for more information.

For the maximum service life of the engine, make a


thorough inspection within the engine compartment
before the engine is started. Look for the following
items: oil leaks, coolant leaks, loose bolts, and
excessive dirt and/or grease. Remove any excess
dirt and/or grease buildup. Repair any faults that
were identified during the inspection.

Inspect the cooling system hoses for cracks and


for loose clamps.

Inspect the alternator and accessory drive belts for


cracks, breaks, and other damage.

Inspect the wiring for loose connections and for


worn wires or frayed wires.

Check the fuel supply. Drain water from the water

separator (if equipped). Open the fuel supply valve


(if equipped).

NOTICE
All valves in the fuel return line must be open before
and during engine operation to help prevent high fuel
pressure. High fuel pressure may cause filter housing
failure or other damage.
If the engine has not been started for several weeks,
fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Air
may have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel
filters have been changed, some air pockets will be
trapped in the engine. In these instances, prime the
fuel system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Fuel System - Prime for more information
on priming the fuel system.

Engine exhaust contains products of combustion


which may be harmful to your health. Always start
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.

All of the guards must be put in place. Check for

damaged guards or for missing guards. Repair


any damaged guards. Replace damaged guards
and/or missing guards.

Disconnect any battery chargers that are not

protected against the high current drain that


is created when the electric starting motor is
engaged. Check electrical cables and check the
battery for poor connections and for corrosion.

Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components (if


equipped).

Check the engine lubrication oil level. Maintain the


oil level between the ADD mark and the FULL
mark on the engine oil level gauge.

Check the coolant level. Observe the coolant level


in the header tank (if equipped). Maintain the
coolant level to the FULL mark on the header
tank.

If the engine is not equipped with a header tank

maintain the coolant level within 13 mm (0.5 inch)


of the bottom of the filler pipe. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
level in the sight glass.

Observe the air cleaner service indicator (if

equipped). Service the air cleaner when the yellow


diaphragm enters the red zone, or when the red
piston locks in the visible position.

Ensure that any equipment that is driven by the

engine has been disengaged from the engine.


Minimize electrical loads or remove any electrical
loads.
i02665533

Starting the Engine

Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as


ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

Refer to the OEM manual for your type of controls.


Use the following procedure to start the engine.
1. Move the throttle lever to the low idle position
before you start the engine.
NOTICE
Do not operate the glow plugs for more than 60 seconds at one time. Damage to the glow plugs could occur.
2. Turn the engine start switch to the HEAT position.
Hold the engine start switch in the HEAT position
for 6 seconds until the glow plug indicator light
illuminates. This will activate the glow plugs and
aid in the starting of the engine.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine for more than 30 seconds.
Allow the electric starting motor to cool for two minutes
before cranking the engine again.
3. While the glow plug indicator light is illuminated,
turn the engine start switch to the START position
and crank the engine.
4. When the engine starts, release the engine start
switch.
5. Slowly move the throttle lever to the low idle
position and allow the engine to idle. Refer to
the Operation and Maintenance Manual, After
Starting Engine topic.

31
Operation Section
Engine Starting

i02177935

Starting with Jump Start


Cables

Improper jump start cable connections can cause


an explosion resulting in personal injury.
Prevent sparks near the batteries. Sparks could
cause vapors to explode. Do not allow jump start
cable ends to contact each other or the engine.
Note: If it is possible, first diagnose the reason for the
starting failure. Make any necessary repairs. If the
engine will not start only due to the condition of the
battery, either charge the battery, or start the engine
with jump start cables.
The condition of the battery can be rechecked after
the engine has been switched OFF.
NOTICE
Using a battery source with the same voltage as the
electric starting motor. Use ONLY equal voltage for
jump starting. The use of higher voltage will damage
the electrical system.
Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator can
be damaged. Attach ground cable last and remove
first.

Note: If the glow plug indicator light illuminates


rapidly for 2 to 3 seconds, or if the glow plug indicator
light fails to illuminate, a malfunction exists in the cold
start system. Do not use ether or other starting fluids
to start the engine.

When using an external electrical source to start the


engine, turn the generator set control switch to the
OFF position. Turn all electrical accessories OFF before attaching the jump start cables.

6. If the engine does not start, release the engine


start switch and allow the electric starting motor to
cool. Then, repeat steps 2 through step 5.

Ensure that the main power switch is in the OFF position before attaching the jump start cables to the engine being started.

7. Turn the engine start switch to the OFF position in


order to stop the engine.

1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn off


all the engine's accessories.
2. Connect one positive end of the jump start cable
to the positive cable terminal of the discharged
battery. Connect the other positive end of the jump
start cable to the positive cable terminal of the
electrical source.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

32
Operation Section
Engine Starting

SEBU8311-03

3. Connect one negative end of the jump start cable


to the negative cable terminal of the electrical
source. Connect the other negative end of the
jump start cable to the engine block or to the
chassis ground. This procedure helps to prevent
potential sparks from igniting the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries.
4. Start the engine.
5. Immediately after the stalled engine is started,
disconnect the jump start cables in reverse order.
After jump starting, the alternator may not be able to
fully recharge batteries that are severely discharged.
The batteries must be replaced or charged to the
correct voltage with a battery charger after the engine
is stopped. Many batteries which are considered
unusable are still rechargeable. Refer to Operation
and Maintenance Manual, Battery - Replace and
Testing and Adjusting Manual, Battery - Test.
i01903609

After Starting Engine


Note: In temperatures from 0 to 60C (32 to 140F),
the warm-up time is approximately three minutes. In
temperatures below 0C (32F), additional warm-up
time may be required.
When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the
following conditions:

Check for any fluid or for any air leaks at idle rpm

and at one-half full rpm (no load on the engine)


before operating the engine under load. This is not
possible in some applications.

Operate the engine at low idle until all systems

achieve operating temperatures. Check all gauges


during the warm-up period.

Note: Gauge readings should be observed and


the data should be recorded frequently while the
engine is operating. Comparing the data over time
will help to determine normal readings for each
gauge. Comparing data over time will also help
detect abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

33
Operation Section
Engine Operation

Engine Operation

i02330149

Fuel Conservation Practices


i02176671

Engine Operation
Correct operation and maintenance are key factors
in obtaining the maximum life and economy of
the engine. If the directions in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be
minimized and engine service life can be maximized.
The engine can be operated at the rated rpm after the
engine reaches operating temperature. The engine
will reach normal operating temperature sooner
during a low engine speed (rpm) and during a low
power demand. This procedure is more effective than
idling the engine at no load. The engine should reach
operating temperature in a few minutes.
Gauge readings should be observed and the data
should be recorded frequently while the engine
is operating. Comparing the data over time will
help to determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.

The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel


economy. Perkins design and technology in
manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in
all applications. Follow the recommended procedures
in order to attain optimum performance for the life
of the engine.

Avoid spilling fuel.


Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel
may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for
leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.

Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.


Use only the recommended fuels.

Avoid unnecessary idling.


Shut off the engine rather than idle for long periods of
time.

Observe the air cleaner service indicator frequently.


Keep the air cleaner elements clean.

Maintain the electrical systems.


One damaged battery cell will overwork the alternator.
This will consume excess power and excess fuel.

Ensure that the drive belts are correctly adjusted.


The drive belts should be in good condition.

Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are


tight. The connections should not leak.

Ensure that the driven equipment is in good


working order.

Cold engines consume excess fuel. Utilize heat


from the jacket water system and the exhaust
system, when possible. Keep cooling system
components clean and keep cooling system
components in good repair. Never operate the
engine without water temperature regulators.
All of these items will help maintain operating
temperatures.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

34
Operation Section
Engine Stopping

SEBU8311-03

Engine Stopping

i03756631

After Stopping Engine


i02334873

Stopping the Engine

Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate


the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow
the engine oil to return to the oil pan.

NOTICE
Stopping the engine immediately after it has been
working under load, can result in overheating and accelerated wear of the engine components.

Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level


between the MIN mark and the MAX mark on
the engine oil level gauge.

Avoid accelerating the engine prior to shutting it down.

If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair

Avoiding hot engine shutdowns will maximize turbocharger shaft and bearing life.

If the engine is equipped with a service hour meter,

Note: Individual applications will have different


control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures
are understood. Use the following general guidelines
in order to stop the engine.
1. Remove the load from the engine. Reduce the
engine speed (rpm) to low idle. Allow the engine
to idle for five minutes in order to cool the engine.
2. Stop the engine after the cool down period
according to the shutoff system on the engine and
turn the ignition key switch to the OFF position.
If necessary, refer to the instructions that are
provided by the OEM.
i01903586

Emergency Stopping
NOTICE
Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY use
ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices or
controls for normal stopping procedure.

any leaks and tighten any loose bolts.

note the reading. Perform the maintenance that


is in the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Maintenance Interval Schedule.

Fill the fuel tank in order to help prevent

accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill


the fuel tank.

NOTICE
Only use antifreeze/coolant mixtures recommended in
the Refill Capacities and Recommendations topic that
is in this Operation and Maintenance Manual. Failure
to do so can cause engine damage.

Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.


If freezing temperatures are expected, check

the coolant for correct antifreeze protection. The


cooling system must be protected against freezing
to the lowest expected outside temperature. Add
the correct coolant/water mixture, if necessary.

Perform all required periodic maintenance on all

driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in


the instructions from the OEM.

The OEM may have equipped the application with


an emergency stop button. For more information
about the emergency stop button, refer to the OEM
information.
Ensure that any components for the external system
that support the engine operation are secured after
the engine is stopped.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

35
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation

Cold Weather Operation


i02717265

Cold Weather Operation

Install the correct specification of engine lubricant


before the beginning of cold weather.

Check all rubber parts (hoses, fan drive belts, etc)


weekly.

Check all electrical wiring and connections for any


fraying or damaged insulation.

Perkins Diesel Engines can operate effectively in


cold weather. During cold weather, the starting and
the operation of the diesel engine is dependent on
the following items:

The type of fuel that is used


The viscosity of the engine oil
The operation of the glow plugs
Optional Cold starting aid

Keep all batteries fully charged and warm.


Fill the fuel tank at the end of each shift.
Check the air cleaners and the air intake daily.

Check the air intake more often when you operate


in snow.

Ensure that the glow plugs are in working order.

Refer to Testing and Adjusting Manual, Glow Plug


- Test.

Battery condition
This section will cover the following information:

Potential problems that are caused by cold weather


operation

Suggest steps which can be taken in order to

Personal injury or property damage can result


from alcohol or starting fluids.
Alcohol or starting fluids are highly flammable and
toxic and if improperly stored could result in injury
or property damage.

minimize starting problems and operating problems


when the ambient air temperature is between
0 to40 C (32 to 40 F).

The operation and maintenance of an engine in


freezing temperatures is complex . This is because
of the following conditions:

Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as


ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.

Weather conditions

For jump starting with cables in cold weather,

Engine applications
Recommendations from your Perkins dealer or
your Perkins distributor are based on past proven
practices. The information that is contained in
this section provides guidelines for cold weather
operation.

Hints for Cold Weather Operation


If the engine will start, operate the engine until a

minimum operating temperature of 81 C (177.8 F)


is achieved. Achieving operating temperature will
help prevent the intake valves and exhaust valves
from sticking.

The cooling system and the lubrication system

for the engine do not lose heat immediately upon


shutdown. This means that an engine can be shut
down for a period of time and the engine can still
have the ability to start readily.

refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,


Starting with Jump Start Cables. for instructions.

Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication


Oil
Correct engine oil viscosity is essential. Oil viscosity
affects the amount of torque that is needed to
crank the engine. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Fluid Recommendations for
the recommended viscosity of oil.

Recommendations for the Coolant


Provide cooling system protection for the lowest
expected outside temperature. Refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, Fluid Recommendations
for the recommended coolant mixture.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

36
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation

SEBU8311-03

In cold weather, check the coolant often for the


correct glycol concentration in order to ensure
adequate freeze protection.

Free operation of the valves is prevented.

Engine Block Heaters

Pushrods may become bent.

Engine block heaters (if equipped) heat the


engine jacket water that surrounds the combustion
chambers. This provides the following functions:

Other damage to valve train components can

Startability is improved.
Warm up time is reduced.
An electric block heater can be activated once
the engine is stopped. An effective block heater
is typically a 1250/1500 W unit. Consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for more
information.

Idling the Engine


When idling after the engine is started in cold
weather, increase the engine rpm from 1000 to 1200
rpm. This will warm up the engine more quickly.
Maintaining an elevated low idle speed for extended
periods will be easier with the installation of a hand
throttle. The engine should not be raced in order to
speed up the warm up process.
While the engine is idling, the application of a light
load (parasitic load) will assist in achieving the
minimum operating temperature. The minimum
operating temperature is 82 C (179.6 F).

Recommendations for Coolant


Warm Up
Warm up an engine that has cooled below normal
operating temperatures due to inactivity. This should
be performed before the engine is returned to full
operation. During operation in very cold temperature
conditions, damage to engine valve mechanisms can
result from engine operation for short intervals. This
can happen if the engine is started and the engine is
stopped many times without being operated in order
to warm up completely.
When the engine is operated below normal operating
temperatures, fuel and oil are not completely burned
in the combustion chamber. This fuel and oil causes
soft carbon deposits to form on the valve stems.
Generally, the deposits do not cause problems and
the deposits are burned off during operation at
normal engine operating temperatures.
When the engine is started and the engine is stopped
many times without being operated in order to warm
up completely, the carbon deposits become thicker.
This can cause the following problems:

Valves become stuck.

result.

For this reason, when the engine is started,


the engine must be operated until the coolant
temperature is 71 C (160 F) minimum. Carbon
deposits on the valve stems will be kept at a minimum
and the free operation of the valves and the valve
components will be maintained.
In addition, the engine must be thoroughly warmed in
order to keep other engine parts in better condition
and the service life of the engine will be generally
extended. Lubrication will be improved. There will be
less acid and less sludge in the oil. This will provide
longer service life for the engine bearings, the piston
rings, and other parts. However, limit unnecessary
idle time to ten minutes in order to reduce wear and
unnecessary fuel consumption.

The Water Temperature Regulator and


Insulated Heater Lines
The engine is equipped with a water temperature
regulator. When the engine coolant is below the
correct operating temperature jacket water circulates
through the engine cylinder block and into the
engine cylinder head. The coolant then returns to the
cylinder block via an internal passage that bypasses
the valve of the coolant temperature regulator. This
ensures that coolant flows around the engine under
cold operating conditions. The water temperature
regulator begins to open when the engine jacket
water has reached the correct minimum operating
temperature. As the jacket water coolant temperature
rises above the minimum operating temperature the
water temperature regulator opens further allowing
more coolant through the radiator to dissipate excess
heat.
The progressive opening of the water temperature
regulator operates the progressive closing of the
bypass passage between the cylinder block and
head. This ensures maximum coolant flow to
the radiator in order to achieve maximum heat
dissipation.
Note: Perkins discourages the use of all air flow
restriction devices such as radiator shutters.
Restriction of the air flow can result in the following:
high exhaust temperatures, power loss, excessive
fan usage, and reduction in fuel economy.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

37
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation

A cab heater is beneficial in very cold weather. The


feed from the engine and the return lines from the
cab should be insulated in order to reduce heat loss
to the outside air.

Insulating the Air Inlet and Engine


Compartment

When Group 2 diesel fuels are used the following


components provide a means of minimizing problems
in cold weather:

Glow plugs (if equipped)


Engine coolant heaters, which may be an OEM
option

When temperatures below 18 C (0 F) will be


frequently encountered, an air cleaner inlet that
is located in the engine compartment may be
specified. An air cleaner that is located in the engine
compartment may also minimize the entry of snow
into the air cleaner. Also, heat that is rejected by the
engine helps to warm the intake air.

Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option

Additional heat can be retained around the engine by


insulating the engine compartment.

A lower cloud point

Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option


There are three major differences between Group
1 fuels and Group 2 fuels. Group 1 fuels have the
following different characteristics to Group 2 fuels.

A lower pour point


i02322217

Fuel and the Effect from Cold


Weather
Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended
by Perkins. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Fluid Recommendations.
The following fuels can be used in this series of
engine.

Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Special Fuels
Perkins prefer only Group 1 and Group 2 fuels for
use in this series of engines.
Group 1 fuels are the preferred Group of Fuels for
general use by Perkins. Group 1 fuels maximize
engine life and engine performance. Group 1 fuels
are usually less available than Group 2 fuels.
Frequently, Group 1 fuels are not available in colder
climates during the winter.
Note: Group 2 fuels must have a maximum wear
scar of 650 micrometers (HFRR to ISO 12156-1).
Group 2 fuels are considered acceptable for issues
of warranty. This group of fuels may reduce the life
of the engine, the engine's maximum power, and the
engine's fuel efficiency.

A higher energy per unit volume of fuel


Note: Group 3 fuels reduce the life of the engine. The
use of Group 3 fuels is not covered by the Perkins
warranty.
Group 3 fuels include Low Temperature Fuels and
Aviation Kerosene Fuels.
Special fuels include Biofuel.
The cloud point is a temperature that allows wax
crystals to form in the fuel. These crystals can cause
the fuel filters to plug.
The pour point is the temperature when diesel fuel
will thicken. The diesel fuel becomes more resistant
to flow through fuel lines, fuel filters,and fuel pumps.
Be aware of these facts when diesel fuel is
purchased. Consider the average ambient air
temperature for the engine's application. Engines that
are fueled in one climate may not operate well if the
engines are moved to another climate. Problems can
result due to changes in temperature.
Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor
performance in the winter, check the fuel for waxing.
Low temperature fuels may be available for engine
operation at temperatures below 0 C (32 F). These
fuels limit the formation of wax in the fuel at low
temperatures.
For more information on cold weather operation, refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, Cold
Weather Operation and Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

38
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation

SEBU8311-03

i01903588

Fuel Related Components in


Cold Weather
Fuel Tanks
Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.
Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine.
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe.
Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel
directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is
equipped with this system, regular maintenance of
the fuel system filter is important.
Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage
tank at the following intervals: weekly, oil changes,
and refueling of the fuel tank. This will help prevent
water and/or sediment from being pumped from the
fuel storage tank and into the engine fuel tank.

Fuel Filters
It is possible that a primary fuel filter is installed
between the fuel tank and the engine fuel inlet. After
you change the fuel filter, always prime the fuel
system in order to remove air bubbles from the fuel
system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual in the Maintenance Section for more
information on priming the fuel system.
The micron rating and the location of a primary fuel
filter is important in cold weather operation. The
primary fuel filter and the fuel supply line are the most
common components that are affected by cold fuel.

Fuel Heaters
Note: The OEM may equip the application with fuel
heaters. If this is the case, disconnect an electric type
of fuel heater in warm weather in order to prevent
overheating of the fuel. If the type of fuel heater is a
heat exchanger, the OEM should have included a
bypass for warm weather. Ensure that the bypass is
operational during warm weather in order to prevent
overheating of the fuel.
For more information about fuel heaters (if equipped),
refer to the OEM information.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

39
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities

Maintenance Section

403D-07 Engine
Table 12

403C-07 Engine
Refill Capacities

Refill Capacities

Compartment or System
i02959059

Refill Capacities

Crankcase Oil Sump(1)

Minimum

Maximum

2.35 L
(2.5 qt)

3.05 L
(3.2 qt)

Total Lubrication System(2)


(1)

Lubrication System
The refill capacities for the engine crankcase
reflect the approximate capacity of the crankcase
or sump plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter
systems will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM
specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Maintenance Section for more information on
Lubricant Specifications.

These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase


oil sump which includes the standard factory installed oil filters.
Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require additional oil. Refer
to the OEM specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil
filter.
(2) The Total Lubrication System includes the capacity for the
Crankcase Oil Sump plus the capacity of factory installed oil
filters and other filters added to the lubrication system. Enter
the value for the capacity of the Total Lubrication System in
this row.

403D-11 Engine
Table 13

403D-11 Engine
Refill Capacities

402D-05 Engine
Table 11

Compartment or System
402D-05 Engine
Refill Capacities

Compartment or System
Crankcase Oil Sump(1)

Crankcase Oil Sump(1)

Minimum

Maximum

1.61 L
(1.7 qt)

2.01 L
(2.1 qt)

Total Lubrication System(2)


(1)

These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase


oil sump which includes the standard factory installed oil filters.
Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require additional oil. Refer
to the OEM specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil
filter.
(2) The Total Lubrication System includes the capacity for the
Crankcase Oil Sump plus the capacity of factory installed oil
filters and other filters added to the lubrication system. Enter
the value for the capacity of the Total Lubrication System in
this row.

Minimum

Maximum

3.4 L
(3.6 qt)

4.4 L
(4.6494
qt)

Total Lubrication System(2)


(1)

These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase


oil sump which includes the standard factory installed oil filters.
Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require additional oil. Refer
to the OEM specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil
filter.
(2) The Total Lubrication System includes the capacity for the
Crankcase Oil Sump plus the capacity of factory installed oil
filters and other filters added to the lubrication system. Enter
the value for the capacity of the Total Lubrication System in
this row.

403D-15 and 403D-15T Engines


Table 14

403D-15 and 403D-15T Engines


Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Crankcase Oil Sump(1)

Minimum

Maximum

4.5 L
(4.8 qt)

6 L
(6.3 qt)

Total Lubrication System(2)


(1)

These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase


oil sump which includes the standard factory installed oil filters.
Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require additional oil. Refer
to the OEM specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil
filter.
(2) The Total Lubrication System includes the capacity for the
Crankcase Oil Sump plus the capacity of factory installed oil
filters and other filters added to the lubrication system. Enter
the value for the capacity of the Total Lubrication System in
this row.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

40
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities

SEBU8311-03

404D-22, 404D-22T and 404D-22TA


Engines

403D-17 Engine
Table 15

Table 17

403D-17 Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Crankcase Oil Sump(1)

Minimum

Maximum

4.5 L
(4.8 qt)

6 L
(6.3 qt)

Total Lubrication System(2)


(1)

These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase


oil sump which includes the standard factory installed oil filters.
Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require additional oil. Refer
to the OEM specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil
filter.
(2) The Total Lubrication System includes the capacity for the
Crankcase Oil Sump plus the capacity of factory installed oil
filters and other filters added to the lubrication system. Enter
the value for the capacity of the Total Lubrication System in
this row.

404D-15 Engine
Table 16

404D-15 Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Crankcase Oil Sump(1)

Compartment or System
Crankcase Oil Sump(1)

Minimum

Maximum

8.9 L
(9.4 qt)

10.6 L
(11.2 qt)

Total Lubrication System(2)


(1)

More than one style of sump may be used on these engines.


Use these values to estimate the refill capacity. Use the engine
oil level gauge to fill the engine to the correct oil level. Record
the result in this table. These values are the approximate
capacities for the Crankcase Oil Sump which includes the
standard factory installed oil filters. Engines with auxiliary oil
filters will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications
for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter.
(2) The Total Lubrication System includes the capacity for the
Crankcase Oil Sump plus the capacity of factory installed oil
filters and other filters added to the lubrication system. Enter
the value for the capacity of the Total Lubrication System in
this row.

Cooling System

Minimum

Maximum

3.9 L
(4.1211 qt)

5.6 L
(5.9175
qt)

Total Lubrication System(2)


(1)

404D-22, 404D-22T and 404D-22TA Engines


Refill Capacities

These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase


oil sump which includes the standard factory installed oil filters.
Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require additional oil. Refer
to the OEM specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil
filter.
(2) The Total Lubrication System includes the capacity for the
Crankcase Oil Sump plus the capacity of factory installed oil
filters and other filters added to the lubrication system. Enter
the value for the capacity of the Total Lubrication System in
this row.

To maintain the cooling system, the Total Cooling


System capacity must be known. The approximate
capacity is for the engine cooling system. External
System capacities will vary among applications.
Refer to the OEM specifications for the External
System capacity. This capacity information will be
needed in order to determine the amount of coolant
that is required for the Total Cooling System.

402D-05 Engine
Table 18

402D-05 Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Engine Only

Liters

Quarts

1.1

1.2

External System Per OEM(1)


Total Cooling System(2)
(1)

The External System includes a radiator or an expansion


tank with the following components: heat exchanger and
piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the
capacity of the External System in this row.
(2) The Total Cooling System capacity includes the capacity of
the Engine plus the External System. Enter the value for the
capacity of the Total Cooling System in this row.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

41
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities

403D-07 Engine

404D-15 Engine

Table 19

Table 22

403D-07 Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Engine Only
External System Per
Total Cooling

404D-15 Engine
Refill Capacities

Liters

Quarts

1.2

1.3

OEM(1)

Liters

Quarts

2.4

2.5

OEM(1)

Total Cooling System(2)

(1)

The External System includes a radiator or an expansion


tank with the following components: heat exchanger and
piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the
capacity of the External System in this row.
(2) The Total Cooling System capacity includes the capacity of
the Engine plus the External System. Enter the value for the
capacity of the Total Cooling System in this row.

(1)

The External System includes a radiator or an expansion


tank with the following components: heat exchanger and
piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the
capacity of the External System in this row.
(2) The Total Cooling System capacity includes the capacity of
the Engine plus the External System. Enter the value for the
capacity of the Total Cooling System in this row.

404D-22, 404D-22T and 404D-22TA


Engines

403D-11 Engine
Table 20

Table 23

403D-11 Engine
Refill Capacities

Engine Only

Engine Only
External System Per

System(2)

Compartment or System

Compartment or System

Liters

Quarts

1.9

2.0

404D-22,404D-22T and 404D-22TA Engines


Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Engine Only

External System Per OEM(1)

External System Per

Total Cooling System(2)


(1)

The External System includes a radiator or an expansion


tank with the following components: heat exchanger and
piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the
capacity of the External System in this row.
(2) The Total Cooling System capacity includes the capacity of
the Engine plus the External System. Enter the value for the
capacity of the Total Cooling System in this row.

403D-15 and 403D-15T Engines

Liters

Quarts

3.6

3.8

OEM(1)

Total Cooling System(2)


(1)

The External System includes a radiator or an expansion


tank with the following components: heat exchanger and
piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the
capacity of the External System in this row.
(2) The Total Cooling System capacity includes the capacity for
the Engine plus the External System. Enter the value for the
capacity of the Total Cooling System in this row.

i02959104

Table 21

Fluid Recommendations

403D-15 and 403D-15TEngines


Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Engine Only

Liters

Quarts

2.6

2.7

External System Per OEM(1)


Total Cooling System(2)
(1)

The External System includes a radiator or an expansion


tank with the following components: heat exchanger and
piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the
capacity of the External System in this row.
(2) The Total Cooling System capacity includes the capacity of
the Engine plus the External System. Enter the value for the
capacity of the Total Cooling System in this row.

General Lubricant Information


Because of government regulations regarding the
certification of exhaust emissions from the engine,
the lubricant recommendations must be followed.

Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA)


Oils
The Engine Manufacturers Association
Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine Oil is
recognized by Perkins. For detailed information
about this guideline, see the latest edition of EMA
publication, EMA DHD -1.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

42
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities

SEBU8311-03

API Oils

Engine Oil

The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System by


the American Petroleum Institute (API) is recognized
by Perkins. For detailed information about this
system, see the latest edition of the API publication
No. 1509. Engine oils that bear the API symbol are
authorized by API.

Commercial Oils
The performance of commercial diesel engine
oils is based on American Petroleum Institute
(API) classifications. These API classifications are
developed in order to provide commercial lubricants
for a broad range of diesel engines that operate at
various conditions.
Only use commercial oils that meet the following
classifications:

EMA DHD-1 multigrade oil (preferred oil)


API CH-4 multigrade oil (preferred oil)
ACEAE5
In order to make the correct choice of a commercial
oil, refer to the following explanations:
g00546535

Illustration 29
Typical API symbol

Diesel engine oils CC, CD, CD-2, and CE have


not been API authorized classifications since 1
January 1996. Table 24 summarizes the status of
the classifications.
Table 24

API Classifications

(1)

Current

Obsolete

CF-4, CG-4, CH-4

CE

CF

CC, CD

CF-2(1)

CD-2(1)

The classifications CD-2 and American Petroleum Institute


CF-2 are for two-cycle diesel engines. Perkins does not sell
engines that utilize CD-2 and API CF-2 oils.

Terminology
Certain abbreviations follow the nomenclature of
SAE J754. Some classifications follow SAE J183
abbreviations, and some classifications follow the
EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine
Oil. In addition to Perkins definitions, there are other
definitions that will be of assistance in purchasing
lubricants. Recommended oil viscosities can be found
in this publication, Fluid Recommendations/Engine
Oil topic (Maintenance Section).

EMA DHD-1 The Engine Manufacturers


Association (EMA) has developed lubricant
recommendations as an alternative to the API oil
classification system. DHD-1 is a Recommended
Guideline that defines a level of oil performance for
these types of diesel engines: high speed, four stroke
cycle, heavy-duty, and light duty. DHD-1 oils may
be used in Perkins engines when the following oils
are recommended: API CH-4, API CG-4, and API
CF-4. DHD-1 oils are intended to provide superior
performance in comparison to API CG-4 and API
CF-4.
DHD-1 oils will meet the needs of high performance
Perkins diesel engines that are operating in many
applications. The tests and the test limits that are
used to define DHD-1 are similar to the new API
CH-4 classification. Therefore, these oils will also
meet the requirements for diesel engines that require
low emissions. DHD-1 oils are designed to control the
harmful effects of soot with improved wear resistance
and improved resistance to plugging of the oil filter.
These oils will also provide superior control of piston
deposits for engines with either two-piece steel
pistons or aluminum pistons.
All DHD-1 oils must complete a full test program
with the base stock and with the viscosity grade of
the finished commercial oil. The use of API Base
Oil Interchange Guidelines are not appropriate for
DHD-1 oils. This feature reduces the variation in
performance that can occur when base stocks are
changed in commercial oil formulations.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

DHD-1 oils are recommended for use in extended oil


change interval programs that optimize the life of the
oil. These oil change interval programs are based
on oil analysis. DHD-1 oils are recommended for
conditions that demand a premium oil. Your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor has the specific
guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.
API CH-4 API CH-4 oils were developed in order to
meet the requirements of the new high performance
diesel engines. Also, the oil was designed to
meet the requirements of the low emissions diesel
engines. API CH-4 oils are also acceptable for use
in older diesel engines and in diesel engines that
use high sulfur diesel fuel. API CH-4 oils may be
used in Perkins engines that use API CG-4 and API
CF-4 oils. API CH-4 oils will generally exceed the
performance of API CG-4 oils in the following criteria:
deposits on pistons, control of oil consumption, wear
of piston rings, valve train wear, viscosity control,
and corrosion.
Three new engine tests were developed for the API
CH-4 oil. The first test specifically evaluates deposits
on pistons for engines with the two-piece steel piston.
This test (piston deposit) also measures the control
of oil consumption. A second test is conducted
with moderate oil soot. The second test measures
the following criteria: wear of piston rings, wear of
cylinder liners, and resistance to corrosion. A third
new test measures the following characteristics with
high levels of soot in the oil: wear of the valve train,
resistance of the oil in plugging the oil filter, and
control of sludge.
In addition to the new tests, API CH-4 oils have
tougher limits for viscosity control in applications that
generate high soot. The oils also have improved
oxidation resistance. API CH-4 oils must pass an
additional test (piston deposit) for engines that use
aluminum pistons (single piece). Oil performance is
also established for engines that operate in areas
with high sulfur diesel fuel.
All of these improvements allow the API CH-4
oil to achieve optimum oil change intervals. API
CH-4 oils are recommended for use in extended oil
change intervals. API CH-4 oils are recommended
for conditions that demand a premium oil. Your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor has specific
guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.
Some commercial oils that meet the API
classifications may require reduced oil change
intervals. To determine the oil change interval, closely
monitor the condition of the oil and perform a wear
metal analysis.

43
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities

NOTICE
Failure to follow these oil recommendations can cause
shortened engine service life due to deposits and/or
excessive wear.

Total Base Number (TBN) and Fuel Sulfur


Levels for Diesel Engines
The Total Base Number (TBN) for an oil depends on
the fuel sulfur level. For engines that use distillate
fuel, the minimum TBN of the new oil must be
10 times the fuel sulfur level. The TBN is defined
by ASTM D2896. The minimum TBN of the oil
is 5 regardless of fuel sulfur level. Illustration 30
demonstrates the TBN.

Illustration 30

g00799818

(Y) TBN by ASTM D2896


(X) Percentage of fuel sulfur by weight
(1) TBN of new oil
(2) Change the oil when the TBN deteriorates to 50 percent of
the original TBN.

Use the following guidelines for fuel sulfur levels that


exceed 1.5 percent:

Choose an oil with the highest TBN that meets one


of these classifications: EMA DHD-1 and API CH-4.

Reduce the oil change interval. Base the oil

change interval on the oil analysis. Ensure that the


oil analysis includes the condition of the oil and a
wear metal analysis.

Excessive piston deposits can be produced by an oil


with a high TBN. These deposits can lead to a loss
of control of the oil consumption and to the polishing
of the cylinder bore.
NOTICE
Operating diesel engines with fuel sulphur levels over
0.5 percent will require shortened oil change intervals
in order to help maintain adequate wear protection.

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44
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SEBU8311-03

Table 25

Percentage of Sulfur in
the fuel

Oil change interval

Lower than 0.5

Normal

0.5 to 1.0

0.75 of normal

Greater than 1.0

0.50 of normal

Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations


The correct SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined
by the minimum ambient temperature during
cold engine start-up, and the maximum ambient
temperature during engine operation.
Refer to Table 26 (minimum temperature) in order
to determine the required oil viscosity for starting a
cold engine.
Refer to Table 26 (maximum temperature) in order
to select the oil viscosity for engine operation at the
highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.
Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that is
available to meet the requirement for the temperature
at start-up.
Table 26

Engine Oil Viscosity


Ambient Temperature

EMA LRG-1
API CH-4
Viscosity Grade

Minimum

Maximum

SAE 0W20

40 C (40 F)

10 C (50 F)

SAE 0W30

40 C (40 F)

30 C (86 F)

SAE 0W40

40 C (40 F)

40 C (104 F)

SAE 5W30

30 C (22 F)

30 C (86 F)

SAE 5W40

30 C (22 F)

40 C (104 F)

SAE 10W30

20 C (4 F)

40 C (104 F)

SAE 15W40

10 C (14 F)

50 C (122 F)

Synthetic Base Stock Oils


Synthetic base oils are acceptable for use in
these engines if these oils meet the performance
requirements that are specified for the engine.
Synthetic base oils generally perform better than
conventional oils in the following two areas:

Synthetic base oils have improved flow at low


temperatures especially in arctic conditions.

Synthetic base oils have improved oxidation

Some synthetic base oils have performance


characteristics that enhance the service life of the
oil. Perkins does not recommend the automatic
extending of the oil change intervals for any type of
oil.

Re-refined Base Stock Oils


Re-refined base stock oils are acceptable for
use in Perkins engines if these oils meet the
performance requirements that are specified by
Perkins. Re-refined base stock oils can be used
exclusively in finished oil or in a combination with
new base stock oils. The US military specifications
and the specifications of other heavy equipment
manufacturers also allow the use of re-refined base
stock oils that meet the same criteria.
The process that is used to make re-refined base
stock oil should adequately remove all wear metals
that are in the used oil and all the additives that
are in the used oil. The process that is used to
make re-refined base stock oil generally involves the
process of vacuum distillation and hydrotreating the
used oil. Filtering is adequate for the production of
high quality, re-refined base stock oil.

Lubricants for Cold Weather


When an engine is started and an engine is operated
in ambient temperatures below 20 C (4 F), use
multigrade oils that are capable of flowing in low
temperatures.
These oils have lubricant viscosity grades of SAE
0W or SAE 5W.
When an engine is started and operated in ambient
temperatures below 30 C (22 F), use a synthetic
base stock multigrade oil with an 0W viscosity grade
or with a 5W viscosity grade. Use an oil with a pour
point that is lower than 50 C (58 F).
The number of acceptable lubricants is limited in
cold weather conditions. Perkins recommends the
following lubricants for use in cold weather conditions:
First Choice Use oil with an EMA DHD-1
Recommended Guideline. Use a CH-4 oil that has
an API license. The oil should be either SAE 0W20,
SAE 0W30, SAE 0W40, SAE 5W30, or SAE 5W40
lubricant viscosity grade.
Second Choice Use an oil that has a CH-4
additive package. Although the oil has not been
tested for the requirements of the API license, the oil
must be either SAE 0W20, SAE 0W30, SAE 0W40,
SAE 5W30, or SAE 5W40.

stability especially at high operating temperatures.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

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45
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities

The Wear Rate Analysis monitors the wear of the


NOTICE
Shortened engine service life could result if second
choice oils are used.

Aftermarket Oil Additives


Perkins does not recommend the use of aftermarket
additives in oil. It is not necessary to use aftermarket
additives in order to achieve the engine's maximum
service life or rated performance. Fully formulated,
finished oils consist of base oils and of commercial
additive packages. These additive packages are
blended into the base oils at precise percentages in
order to help provide finished oils with performance
characteristics that meet industry standards.
There are no industry standard tests that evaluate
the performance or the compatibility of aftermarket
additives in finished oil. Aftermarket additives may
not be compatible with the finished oil's additive
package, which could lower the performance of the
finished oil. The aftermarket additive could fail to
mix with the finished oil. This could produce sludge
in the crankcase. Perkins discourages the use of
aftermarket additives in finished oils.

engine's metals. The amount of wear metal and


type of wear metal that is in the oil is analyzed. The
increase in the rate of engine wear metal in the
oil is as important as the quantity of engine wear
metal in the oil.

Tests are conducted in order to detect

contamination of the oil by water, glycol or fuel.

The Oil Condition Analysis determines the loss of

the oil's lubricating properties. An infrared analysis


is used to compare the properties of new oil to the
properties of the used oil sample. This analysis
allows technicians to determine the amount of
deterioration of the oil during use. This analysis
also allows technicians to verify the performance
of the oil according to the specification during the
entire oil change interval.
i02959102

Fluid Recommendations
(Coolant Specifications)

To achieve the best performance from a Perkins


engine, conform to the following guidelines:

General Coolant Information

Select the correct oil, or a commercial oil that meets

NOTICE
Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine
damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.

the EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel


Engine Oil or the recommended API classification.

See the appropriate Lubricant Viscosities table in


order to find the correct oil viscosity grade for your
engine.

At the specified interval, service the engine. Use


new oil and install a new oil filter.

Perform maintenance at the intervals that are


specified in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Maintenance Interval Schedule.

Oil analysis
Some engines may be equipped with an oil sampling
valve. If oil analysis is required the oil sampling valve
is used to obtain samples of the engine oil. The oil
analysis will complement the preventive maintenance
program.

NOTICE
If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an area
with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system
must be either protected to the lowest outside temperature or drained completely to prevent damage.
NOTICE
Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for
proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.
Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:

Contamination of the cooling system


Overheating of the engine
Foaming of the coolant

The oil analysis is a diagnostic tool that is used to


determine oil performance and component wear
rates. Contamination can be identified and measured
through the use of the oil analysis. The oil analysis
includes the following tests:

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46
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SEBU8311-03

Additives
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
proper operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature regulators.
Many engine failures are related to the cooling
system. The following problems are related to cooling
system failures: Overheating, leakage of the water
pump, and plugged radiators or heat exchangers.
These failures can be avoided with correct cooling
system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is
as important as maintenance of the fuel system and
the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as
important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating
oil.

Additives help to protect the metal surfaces of


the cooling system. A lack of coolant additives or
insufficient amounts of additives enable the following
conditions to occur:

Corrosion
Formation of mineral deposits
Rust
Scale
Foaming of the coolant
Many additives are depleted during engine operation.
These additives must be replaced periodically.

Coolant is normally composed of three elements:


Water, additives, and glycol.

Additives must be added at the correct concentration.


Overconcentration of additives can cause the
inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits can
enable the following problems to occur:

Water

Formation of gel compounds

Water is used in the cooling system in order to


transfer heat.

Reduction of heat transfer

Distilled water or deionized water is


recommended for use in engine cooling systems.
DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling
systems: Hard water, softened water that has been
conditioned with salt, and sea water.
If distilled water or deionized water is not available,
use water with the properties that are listed in Table
27.

Leakage of the water pump seal


Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages
Glycol
Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protection
against the following conditions:

Boiling
Freezing

Table 27

Acceptable Water
Property

Maximum Limit

Chloride (Cl)

40 mg/L

Sulfate (SO4)

100 mg/L

Total Hardness

170 mg/L

Total Solids

340 mg/L

Acidity

pH of 5.5 to 9.0

For a water analysis, consult one of the following


sources:

Local water utility company

Cavitation of the water pump


For optimum performance, Perkins recommends a
1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.
Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection
against the lowest ambient temperature.
Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a
temperature of 23 C (9 F).
Most conventional antifreezes use ethylene glycol.
Propylene glycol may also be used. In a 1:1 mixture
with water, ethylene and propylene glycol provide
similar protection against freezing and boiling. See
Tables 28 and 29.

Agricultural agent
Independent laboratory

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47
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities

Table 28

Ethylene Glycol
Concentration

Freeze Protection

50 Percent

36 C (33 F)

60 Percent

51 C (60 F)

NOTICE
Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that exceed 50 percent glycol because of propylene glycol's
reduced heat transfer capability. Use ethylene glycol
in conditions that require additional protection against
boiling or freezing.
Table 29

Propylene Glycol
Concentration

Freeze Protection

50 Percent

29 C (20 F)

To check the concentration of glycol in the coolant,


measure the specific gravity of the coolant.

Coolant Recommendations

In stationary engine applications and marine engine


applications that do not require anti-boil protection
or freeze protection, a mixture of SCA and water
is acceptable. Perkins recommends a six percent
to eight percent concentration of SCA in those
cooling systems. Distilled water or deionized water
is preferred. Water which has the recommended
properties may be used.
Table 30

Coolant Service Life


Coolant Type

Service Life

Perkins ELC

6,000 Service Hours or


Three Years

Commercial Heavy-Duty
Antifreeze that meets
ASTM D4985

3000 Service Hours or


Two Years

Perkins POWERPART
SCA

3000 Service Hours or


Two Years

Commercial SCA and


Water

3000 Service Hours or


Two Years

ELC

ELC____________________________Extended Life Coolant

Perkins provides ELC for use in the following


applications:

SCA___________________Supplement Coolant Additive

Heavy-duty spark ignited gas engines

ASTM__________________________________________American

Heavy-duty diesel engines

Society for Testing and Materials

The following two coolants are used in Perkins diesel


engines:
Preferred Perkins ELC
Acceptable A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze
that meets ASTM D4985 specifications
NOTICE
Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that only meets the ASTM D3306 specification. This type of
coolant/antifreeze is made for light automotive applications.
Perkins recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and
glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide
optimum heavy-duty performance as a antifreeze.
This ratio may be increased to 1:2 water to glycol if
extra freezing protection is required.

Automotive applications
The anti-corrosion package for ELC is different from
the anti-corrosion package for other coolants. ELC
is an ethylene glycol base coolant. However, ELC
contains organic corrosion inhibitors and antifoam
agents with low amounts of nitrite. Perkins ELC
has been formulated with the correct amount of
these additives in order to provide superior corrosion
protection for all metals in engine cooling systems.
ELC is available in a 1:1 premixed cooling solution
with distilled water. The Premixed ELC provides
freeze protection to 36 C (33 F). The Premixed
ELC is recommended for the initial fill of the cooling
system. The Premixed ELC is also recommended for
topping off the cooling system.
Containers of several sizes are available. Consult
your Perkins distributor for the part numbers.

Note: A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze that


meets ASTM D4985 specifications MAY require a
treatment with an SCA at the initial fill. Read the label
or the instructions that are provided by the OEM of
the product.

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SEBU8311-03

ELC Cooling System Maintenance


Correct additions to the Extended Life
Coolant
NOTICE
Use only Perkins products for pre-mixed or concentrated coolants.
Mixing Extended Life Coolant with other products reduces the Extended Life Coolant service life. Failure to
follow the recommendations can reduce cooling system components life unless appropriate corrective action is performed.
In order to maintain the correct balance between
the antifreeze and the additives, you must maintain
the recommended concentration of ELC. Lowering
the proportion of antifreeze lowers the proportion of
additive. This will lower the ability of the coolant to
protect the system from pitting, from cavitation, from
erosion, and from deposits.
NOTICE
Do not use a conventional coolant to top-off a cooling
system that is filled with Extended Life Coolant (ELC).
Do not use standard supplemental coolant additive
(SCA).
When using Perkins ELC, do not use standard SCA's
or SCA filters.

ELC Cooling System Cleaning


Note: If the cooling system is already using ELC,
cleaning agents are not required to be used at
the specified coolant change interval. Cleaning
agents are only required if the system has been
contaminated by the addition of some other type of
coolant or by cooling system damage.
Clean water is the only cleaning agent that is required
when ELC is drained from the cooling system.
Before the cooling system is filled, the heater control
(if equipped) must be set to the hot position. Refer
to the OEM in order to set the heater control. After
the cooling system is drained and the cooling system
is refilled, operate the engine until the coolant level
reaches the normal operating temperature and
until the coolant level stabilizes. As needed, add
the coolant mixture in order to fill the system to the
specified level.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that all fluids are
contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and the repair of the
product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable
containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
1. Drain the coolant into a suitable container.
2. Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations.
3. Flush the system with clean water in order to
remove any debris.
4. Use Perkins cleaner to clean the system. Follow
the instruction on the label.
5. Drain the cleaner into a suitable container. Flush
the cooling system with clean water.
6. Fill the cooling system with clean water and
operate the engine until the engine is warmed to
49 to 66C (120 to 150F).
NOTICE
Incorrect or incomplete flushing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal components.
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure to
completely flush the cooling system with clear water.
Continue to flush the system until all the signs of the
cleaning agent are gone.
7. Drain the cooling system into a suitable container
and flush the cooling system with clean water.
Note: The cooling system cleaner must be thoroughly
flushed from the cooling system. Cooling system
cleaner that is left in the system will contaminate the
coolant. The cleaner may also corrode the cooling
system.
8. Repeat Steps 6 and 7 until the system is
completely clean.
9. Fill the cooling system with the Perkins Premixed
ELC.

Changing to Perkins ELC


To change from heavy-duty antifreeze to the Perkins
ELC, perform the following steps:

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

ELC Cooling System Contamination


NOTICE
Mixing ELC with other products reduces the effectiveness of the ELC and shortens the ELC service life.
Use only Perkins Products for premixed or concentrate coolants. Failure to follow these recommendations can result in shortened cooling system component life.
ELC cooling systems can withstand contamination to
a maximum of ten percent of conventional heavy-duty
antifreeze or SCA. If the contamination exceeds ten
percent of the total system capacity, perform ONE of
the following procedures:

Drain the cooling system into a suitable container.

Dispose of the coolant according to local


regulations. Flush the system with clean water. Fill
the system with the Perkins ELC.

Drain a portion of the cooling system into a suitable

container according to local regulations. Then, fill


the cooling system with premixed ELC. This should
lower the contamination to less than 10 percent.

Maintain the system as a conventional Heavy-Duty


Coolant. Treat the system with an SCA. Change
the coolant at the interval that is recommended for
the conventional Heavy-Duty Coolant.

Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze and


SCA
NOTICE
Commercial Heavy-Duty Coolant which contains
Amine as part of the corrision protection system must
not be used.
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
correct operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature regulators.
Check the antifreeze (glycol concentration) in
order to ensure adequate protection against boiling
or freezing. Perkins recommends the use of a
refractometer for checking the glycol concentration.
Perkins engine cooling systems should be tested at
500 hour intervals for the concentration of SCA.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
An SCA that is liquid may be needed at 500 hour
intervals.

49
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities

Refer to Table 31 for part numbers and for quantities


of SCA.
Table 31

Perkins Liquid SCA


Part Number

Quantity

21825735

10

Adding the SCA to Heavy-Duty Coolant


at the Initial Fill
Commercial heavy-duty antifreeze that meets ASTM
D4985 specifications MAY require an addition of
SCA at the initial fill. Read the label or the instructions
that are provided by the OEM of the product.
Use the equation that is in Table 32 to determine the
amount of Perkins SCA that is required when the
cooling system is initially filled.
Table 32

Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty


Coolant At The Initial Fill
V 0.045 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.

Table 33 is an example for using the equation that


is in Table 32.
Table 33

Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To


The Heavy-Duty Coolant At The Initial Fill
Total Volume
of the Cooling
System (V)

Multiplication
Factor

Amount of
SCA that is
Required (X)

15 L (4 US gal)

0.045

0.7 L (24 oz)

Adding The SCA to The Heavy-Duty


Coolant For Maintenance
Heavy-duty antifreeze of all types REQUIRE periodic
additions of an SCA.
Test the antifreeze periodically for the concentration
of SCA. For the interval, refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, Maintenance Interval
Schedule (Maintenance Section). Test the
concentration of SCA.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the
test. The size of the cooling system determines the
amount of SCA that is needed.

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Use the equation that is in Table 34 to determine the


amount of Perkins SCA that is required, if necessary:
Table 34

Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty


Coolant For Maintenance
V 0.014 = X

LSD Low Sulfur Diesel


ULSD Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel
RME Rape Methyl Ester
SME Soy Methyl Ester
EPA Environmental Protection Agency of the

V is the total volume of the cooling system.

United States

X is the amount of SCA that is required.

Table 35 is an example for using the equation that


is in Table 34.
Table 35

Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To


The Heavy-Duty Coolant For Maintenance
Total Volume
of the Cooling
System (V)

Multiplication
Factor

Amount of
SCA that is
Required (X)

15 L (4 US gal)

0.014

0.2 L (7 oz)

Cleaning the System of Heavy-Duty


Antifreeze
Perkins cooling system cleaners are designed
to clean the cooling system of harmful scale
and corrosion. Perkins cooling system cleaners
dissolve mineral scale, corrosion products, light oil
contamination and sludge.

Clean the cooling system after used coolant is

drained or before the cooling system is filled with


new coolant.

Clean the cooling system whenever the coolant is

contaminated or whenever the coolant is foaming.

General Information
NOTICE
Every attempt is made to provide accurate, up to date
information. By use of this document you agree that
Perkins Engines Company Limited is not responsible
for errors or omissions.
NOTICE
These recommendations are subject to change without notice. Contact your local Perkins distributor for
the most up to date recommendations.

Diesel Fuel Requirements


Satisfactory engine performance is dependent on the
use of a good quality fuel. The use of a good quality
fuel will give the following results: long engine life and
acceptable exhaust emissions levels. The fuel must
meet the minimum requirements that are stated in
tables 36, 37 and 38.
NOTICE
The footnotes are a key part of the Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel Table. Read ALL of the
footnotes.

i02959101

Fluid Recommendations
(Fuel Specification)
Glossary
ISO International Standards Organization
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
HFRR High Frequency Reciprocating Rig for
Lubricity testing of diesel fuels

FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Esters


CFR Co-ordinating Fuel Research

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51
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Table 36

Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel

(1)

Property

UNITS

Requirements

ASTMTest

ISOTest

Aromatics

%Volume

35% maximum

D1319

ISO3837

Ash

%Weight

0.02% maximum

D482

ISO6245

Carbon Residue on
10% Bottoms

%Weight

0.35% maximum

D524

ISO4262

Cetane Number (2)

40 minimum

D613/D6890

ISO5165

Cloud Point

The cloud point must


not exceed the lowest
expected ambient
temperature.

D2500

ISO3015

Copper Strip
Corrosion

No. 3 maximum

D130

ISO2160

Density at 15 C
(59 F) (3)

Kg / M

801 minimum and 876


maximum

No equivalent test

ISO 3675 ISO 12185

Distillation

10% at 282 C
(539.6 F) maximum
90% at 360 C (680 F)
maximum

D86

ISO3405

Flash Point

legal limit

D93

ISO2719

Thermal Stability

Minimum of 80%
reflectance after aging
for 180 minutes at
150 C (302 F)

D6468

No equivalent test

Pour Point

6 C (42.8 F) minimum
below ambient
temperature

D97

ISO3016

Sulfur

%mass

The level of sulfur


that is in the fuel is
controlled by emissions
regulations. Refer to
Tables 37 and 38 for
more information.

D5453/D26222

ISO 20846 ISO 20884

Kinematic Viscosity (5)

MM2/S (cSt)

The viscosity of the


fuel that is delivered to
the fuel injection pump.
1.4 minimum/4.5
maximum

D445

ISO3405

Water and sediment

% weight

0.1% maximum

D1796

ISO3734

Water

% weight

0.1% maximum

D1744

No equivalent test

% weight

0.05% maximum

D473

ISO3735

mg/100mL

10 mg per 100 mL
maximum

D381

ISO6246

(1)(4)

Sediment
Gums and Resins

(6)

(continued)

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

52
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities

SEBU8311-03

(Table 36, contd)

Lubricity corrected
wear scar diameter at
60 C (140 F). (7)

mm

0.46 maximum

D6079

ISO12156-1

(1)

This specification includes the requirements for Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD). ULSD fuel will have 15 ppm (0.0015%) sulfur. Refer to
ASTM D5453, ASTM D2622, or ISO 20846, ISO 20884 test methods. This specification includes the requirements for Low Sulfur Diesel
(LSD). LSD fuel will have 500 ppm (0.05%) sulfur. Refer to following:ASTM 5453, ASTM D2622, ISO 20846, and ISO 20884 test
methods. Refer to Tables 37 and 38.
(2) A fuel with a higher cetane number is recommended in order to operate at a higher altitude or in cold weather.
(3) Via standards tables, the equivalent API gravity for the minimum density of 801 kg / m 3 (kilograms per cubic meter) is 45 and for the
maximum density of 876 kg / m3 is 30.
(4) Regional regulations, national regulations or international regulations can require a fuel with a specific sulfur limit. Consult all applicable
regulations before selecting a fuel for a given engine application. Perkins fuel systems and engine components can operate on high sulfur
fuels in territories that are non-emissions regulated. Fuel sulfur levels affect exhaust emissions. High sulfur fuels also increase the potential
for corrosion of internal components. Fuel sulfur levels above 0.5% may significantly shorten the oil change interval. For additional
information, refer to this manual, Fluid recommendations (General lubricant Information).
(5) The values of the fuel viscosity are the values as the fuel is delivered to the fuel injection pumps. Fuel should also meet the minimum
viscosity requirement and the fuel should meet the maximum viscosity requirements at 40 C (104 F) of either the ASTM D445 test
method or the ISO 3104 test method. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or
greater viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to lower the viscosity to 4.5
cSt at the fuel injection pump.
(6) Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).
(7) The lubricity of a fuel is a concern with low sulfur and ultra low sulfur fuel. To determine the lubricity of the fuel, use the ISO 12156-1
or ASTM D6079 High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) test. If the lubricity of a fuel does not meet the minimum requirements,
consult your fuel supplier. Do not treat the fuel without consulting the fuel supplier. Some additives are not compatible. These additives
can cause problems in the fuel system.

Viscosity
NOTICE
Operating with fuels that do not meet the Perkins recommendations can cause the following effects: Starting difficulty, poor combustion, deposits in the fuel injectors, reduced service life of the fuel system, deposits in the combustion chamber, and reduced service life of the engine.

Diesel Fuel Characteristics


Perkins Recommendation

Cetane Number
Fuel that has a high cetane number will give a shorter
ignition delay. This will produce a better ignition
quality. Cetane numbers are derived for fuels against
proportions of cetane and heptamethylnonane in the
standard CFR engine. Refer to ISO 5165 for the
test method.
Cetane numbers in excess of 45 are normally
expected from current diesel fuel. However, a cetane
number of 40 may be experienced in some territories.
The United States of America is one of the territories
that can have a low cetane value. A minimum cetane
value of 40 is required during average starting
conditions. A higher cetane value may be required
for operations at high altitudes or in cold weather
operations.

Viscosity is the property of a liquid of offering


resistance to shear or flow. Viscosity decreases with
increasing temperature. This decrease in viscosity
follows a logarithmic relationship for normal fossil
fuel. The common reference is to kinematic viscosity.
This is the quotient of the dynamic viscosity that is
divided by the density. The determination of kinematic
viscosity is normally by readings from gravity flow
viscometers at standard temperatures. Refer to ISO
3104 for the test method.
The viscosity of the fuel is significant because fuel
serves as a lubricant for the fuel system components.
Fuel must have sufficient viscosity in order to lubricate
the fuel system in both extremely cold temperatures
and extremely hot temperatures. If the kinematic
viscosity of the fuel is lower than 1.4 cSt at the fuel
injection pump damage to the fuel injection pump
can occur. This damage can be excessive scuffing
and seizure. Low viscosity may lead to difficult hot
restarting, stalling and loss of performance. High
viscosity may result in seizure of the pump.
Perkins recommends kinematic viscosities of 1.4 and
4.5 mm2/sec that is delivered to the fuel injection
pump.

Fuel with a low cetane number can be the root cause


of problems during cold start.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

53
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities

Density

Table 38

Density is the mass of the fuel per unit volume


at a specific temperature. This parameter has a
direct influence on engine performance and a direct
influence on emissions. This determines the heat
output from a given injected volume of fuel. This
is generally quoted in the following kg/m at 15 C
(59 F).
Perkins recommends a value of density of 841 kg/m
in order to obtain the correct power output. Lighter
fuels are acceptable but these fuels will not produce
the rated power.

Territory

Fuel Requirements from 2010

EPA

Ultra Low Sulfur (15 ppm) maximum

EC

Sulfur
The level of sulfur is governed by emissions
legislations. Regional regulation, national regulations
or international regulations can require a fuel with
a specific sulfur limit. The sulfur content of the fuel
and the fuel quality must comply with all existing local
regulations for emissions.
Tables 37 and 38 list the guidelines for the correct
sulfur level for specific territories. Consult all
applicable regulations before selecting the fuel for a
given engine application.
Table 37

Territory

Fuel Requirements from 2007

EPA

Low Sulfur (500 ppm) maximum

EC

NonRegulated
Territories

Sulfur/
Power

Low sulfur
(300 ppm)
maximum
for less than
or equal to
19 kW

Sulphur
(1000 ppm)
maximum
for greater
than 19 kW

Models

402D-05
and
403D-07

403D-11,
403D-15,
403D-15T,
403D-17,
404D-15.
404D-22,
404D-22T
and
404D-22TA

Sulfur limit of less than 4000 ppm

Non
Regulated
Territories

Sulfur/
Power

Ultra Low
sulphur
(10 ppm)
maximum
for less than
or equal to
37 kW

Low sulphur
(300 ppm)
maximum
for greater
than 37 kW

Models

402D-05,
403D-07,
403D-11,
403D-15,
403D-15T,
403D-17,
404D-15

404D-22,
404D-22T
and
404D-22TA

Sulfur limit of less than 4000 ppm

By using the test methods ASTM D5453, ASTM


D2622, or ISO 20846 ISO 20884, the content of
sulfur in low sulfur diesel (LSD) fuel must be below
500 PPM 0.05%. By using the test methods ASTM
D5453, ASTM D2622, or ISO 20846 ISO 20884,
the content of sulfur in ultra low sulfur (ULSD) fuel
must be below 15 PPM 0.0015%. The lubricity of
these fuels must not exceed wear scar diameter of
0.46 mm (0.0181 inch). The fuel lubricity test must be
performed on a HFRR, operated at 60 C (140 F).
Refer to ISO 12156-1 .
In some parts of the world and for some applications,
high sulfur fuels above 0.5% by mass might only
be available. Fuel with very high sulfur content
can cause engine wear. High sulfur fuel will have
a negative impact on emissions of particulates.
High sulfur fuel can be used provided that the local
emissions legislation will allow the use. High sulfur
fuel can be used in countries that do not regulate
emissions.
When only high sulfur fuels are available, it will
be necessary that high alkaline lubricating oil is
used in the engine or that the lubricating oil change
interval is reduced. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Fliud Recommendations
(Genernal Lubrication Information) for information
on sulfur in fuel.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

54
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities

Lubricity
This is the capability of the fuel to prevent pump
wear. The fluid's lubricity describes the ability of the
fluid to reduce the friction between surfaces that are
under load. This ability reduces the damage that is
caused by friction. Fuel injection systems rely on the
lubricating properties of the fuel. Until fuel sulfur limits
were mandated, the fuel's lubricity was generally
believed to be a function of fuel viscosity.
The lubricity has particular significance to the current
low viscosity fuel, low sulfur fuel and low aromatic
fossil fuel. These fuels are made in order to meet
stringent exhaust emissions. A test method for
measuring the lubricity of diesel fuels has been
developed and the test is based on the HFRR
method that is operated at 60 C (140 F). Refer to
ISO 12156 part 1 and CEC document F06-A-96 for
the test method.
Lubricity wear scar diameter of 0.46 mm (0.0181 inch)
MUST NOT be exceeded. The fuel lubricity test must
be performed on a HFRR, operated at 60 C (140 F).
Refer to ISO 12156-1 .
Fuel additives can enhance the lubricity of a fuel.
Contact your fuel supplier for those circumstances
when fuel additives are required. Your fuel supplier
can make recommendations for additives to use
and for the proper level of treatment. Refer to Fuel
Additive for more information.

Distillation

SEBU8311-03

Table 39

Fuel Groups

Classification

Group 1

Preferred fuels

Full life of the


Product

Group 2

Permissible fuels

These fuels
MAY cause
reduced
engine life and
performance

Group 3

Aviation fuels

These fuels
WILL cause
reduced
engine life and
performance

Group 4

Biodiesel

Group 1 Specifications (Preferred Fuels)


This group of fuel specifications is considered
acceptable:

EN590 DERV Grade A, B, C, E, F, Class, 0, 1, 2,


3, and 4

ASTM D975, Grade 2D S15, and Grade 2D S500


JIS K2204 Grades 1,2,3 and Special Grade 3

This grade of fuel must meet the minimum lubricity


requirements that are stated in table 36.

BS2869 Class A2 Off-Highway Gas Oil Red


Diesel

This is an indication of the mixture of different


hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of light weight
hydrocarbons can affect the characteristics of
combustion.

Note: BS2869 can only be used if the sulfur level


meets the specifications that are listed in tables 37
and 38. An analysis of a sample of fuel must be
conducted in order to check the sulfur level.

Classification of the Fuels

Note: The use of LSD fuel and the use of ULSD


fuel is acceptable provided that the fuels meet the
minimum requirements that are stated in tables 36,
37 and 38. The lubricity of these fuels must not
exceed wear scar diameter of 0.46 mm (0.0181 inch).
The lubricity test must be performed on a HFRR,
operated at 60 C (140 F). Refer to ISO 12156-1
. By using the test methods ASTM D5453, ASTM
D2622, or ISO 20846 ISO 20884, the content of
sulfur in LSD fuel must be below 500 PPM 0.05%. By
using the test methods ASTM D5453, ASTM D2622,
or ISO 20846 ISO 20884, the content of sulfur in
ULSD fuel must be below 15 PPM 0.0015%.

Diesel engines have the ability to burn a wide variety


of fuels. These fuels are divided into four general
groups: Ref to table 39

Group 2 Specifications (Permissible


Fuels)
This group of fuel specifications is considered
acceptable, but these fuels MAY reduce the engine
life and performance.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

55
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities

ASTM D975, Grade 1D S15, and Grade 1D S500

Group 4 Biodiesel

JP7 (MIL-T-38219)

Biodiesel is a fuel that can be defined as mono-alkyl


esters of fatty acids. Biodiesel is a fuel that can
be made from a variety of feedstock. The most
commonly available biodiesel in europe is Rape
Methyl Ester (REM). This biodiesel is derived from
rapeseed oil. Soy Methyl Ester (SME) is the most
common biodiesel in the United States. This biodiesel
is derived from soybean oil. Soybean oil or rapeseed
oil are the primary feedstocks. These fuels are
together known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME).

NATO F63
Note: JP7 and NATO F63 can only be used if the
sulfur level meets the specifications that are listed
in tables 37 and 38. An analysis of a sample of fuel
must be conducted in order to check the sulfur level.

Group 3 Specifications (Aviation Fuels)


This group of fuel specification must be used only
with the appropriate fuel additive. This fuel WILL
reduce engine life and performance.

NATO F34 (MIL-DTL-83133E)


NATO F35 (MIL-DTL-83133E)
NATO JP8 (MIL-DTL-83133E)
NATO F-44 (MIL-DTL-5624U)
NATO JP5 (MIL-DTL-5624U)
Jet A (ASTM D1655)
Jet A1 (ASTM D1655)
Note: All the above fuels can ONLY be used if the
sulfur level meets the specifications that are listed
in tables 37 and 38. An analysis of a sample of fuel
must be conducted in order to check the sulfur level.
Note: These fuels are only acceptable provided
that these fuels are used with an appropriate fuel
additive. These fuels must meet the requirements
that are stated in tables 36, 37 and 38. Fuel samples
should be analyzed for the compliance. These fuels
MUST NOT exceed lubricity wear scar diameter of
0.46 mm (0.0181 inch). The fuel lubricity test must be
performed on a HFRR, operated at 60 C (140 F).
Refer to ISO 12156-1 . Fuels must have minimum
viscosity of 1.4 centistokes that is delivered to the fuel
injection pump. Fuel cooling may be required in order
to maintain minimum viscosity of 1.4 centistokes that
is delivered to the fuel injection pump.

Raw pressed vegetable oils are NOT acceptable for


use as a fuel in any concentration in compression
engines. Without esterification, these oils gel in the
crankcase and the fuel tank. These fuels may not be
compatible with many of the elastomers that are used
in engines that are manufactured today. In original
forms, these oils are not suitable for use as a fuel
in compression engines. Alternate base stocks for
biodiesel may include animal tallow, waste cooking
oils, or a variety of other feedstocks. In order to use
any of the products that are listed as fuel, the oil
must be esterified.
Note: Engines that are manufactured by Perkins
are certified by use of the prescribed Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) and European Certification
fuels. Perkins does not certify engines on any other
fuel. The user of the engine has the responsibility
of using the correct fuel that is recommended by
the manufacturer and allowed by the EPA and other
appropriate regulatory agencies.
Recommendation for the use of biodiesel
The neat biodiesel must conform to EN14214
or ASTM D675 regulations. A maximum of 10%
mixture of biodiesel can be used in mineral diesel fuel.
The mineral diesel fuel must conform to EN590,
ASTM D975 or BS2869 Grade A2 regulations.
In North America, biodiesel and mixtures of biodiesel
must be purchased from the BQ9000 authorized
manufacturers and BQ9000 certified distributors.
In other areas of the world, the use of biodiesel that is
authorized and certified by an appropriate biodiesel
quality body is required.
Note: When biodiesel, or any blend of biodiesel is
used, the user has the responsibility for obtaining the
proper local exemptions, regional exemptions, and/or
national exemptions that are required for the use
of biodiesel in any Perkins engine that is regulated
by emissions standards. Biodiesel that meets
EN14214 is acceptable. The biodiesel must be
blended with an acceptable distillate diesel fuel at the
maximum stated percentages. However, the following
operational recommendations must be followed:

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56
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities

The oil change interval can be affected by the use

of biodiesel. Use Services Oil Analysis in order


to monitor the condition of the engine oil. Use
Services Oil Analysis also in order to determine the
oil change interval that is optimum.

Confirm that biodiesel is acceptable for use with


the manufacturer of the fuel filters.

In a comparison of distillate fuels to biodiesel,

biodiesel provides less energy per gallon by 5% to


7%. Do NOT change the engine rating in order to
compensate for the power loss. This will help avoid
engine problems when the engine is converted
back to 100 percent distillate diesel fuel.

The compatibility of the elastomers with biodiesel


is being monitored. The condition of seals and
hoses should be monitored regularly.

Biodiesel may pose low ambient temperature

problems for both storage and operation. At low


ambient temperatures, fuel may need to be stored
in a heated building or a heated storage tank. The
fuel system may require heated fuel lines, filters,
and tanks. Filters may plug and fuel in the tank may
solidify at low ambient temperatures if precautions
are not taken. Consult your biodiesel supplier for
assistance in the blending and attainment of the
proper cloud point for the fuel.

Biodiesel has poor oxidation stability, which

can result in long term problems in the storage


of biodiesel. The poor oxidation stability may
accelerate fuel oxidation in the fuel system.
This is especially true in engines with electronic
fuel systems because these engines operate at
higher temperatures. Consult the fuel supplier for
oxidation stability additives.

Biodiesel is a fuel that can be made from a variety


of feedstock. The feedstock that is used can
affect the performance of the product. Two of the
characteristics of the fuel that are affected are
cold flow and oxidation stability. Contact your fuel
supplier for guidance.

Biodiesel or biodiesel blends are not recommended


for engines that will operate occasionally. This
is due to poor oxidation stability. If the user is
prepared to accept some risk, then limit biodiesel
to a maximum of B5. Examples of applications that
should limit the use of biodiesel are the following:
Standby Generator sets and certain emergency
vehicles

SEBU8311-03

Biodiesel is an excellent medium for microbial

contamination and growth. Microbial contamination


and growth can cause corrosion in the fuel system
and premature plugging of the fuel filter. The
use of conventionalanti-microbial additives and
the effectiveness of conventional anti-microbial
additives in biodiesel is not known. Consult your
supplier of fuel and additive for assistance.

Care must be taken in order to remove water

from fuel tanks. Water accelerates microbial


contamination and growth. When biodiesel is
compared to distillate fuels, water is naturally more
likely to exist in the biodiesel.

Fuel for Cold Weather Operation


The European standard EN590 contains climate
dependant requirements and a range of options. The
options can be applied differently in each country.
There are 5 classes that are given to arctic climates
and severe winter climates. 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4.
Fuel that complies with EN590 CLASS 4 can be
used at temperatures as low as 44 C (47.2 F).
Refer to EN590 for a detailed discretion of the
physical properties of the fuel.
The diesel fuel ASTM D975 Grade 1-D S15 or S500
that is used in the united states of america may be
used in very cold temperatures that are below 18 C
(0.4 F).
In extreme cold ambient conditions, you may also
use fuels that are listed in the table 40. These fuels
are intended to be used in temperatures that can be
as low as 54 C (65.2 F).
Table 40

Light Distillate Fuels


Specification

Grade

MIL-DTL-5624U

JP-5

MIL-DTL-83133E

JP-8

ASTM D1655

Jet-A-1

(1)

(1)

The use of these fuels is acceptable with an appropriate fuel


additive and the fuels must meet minimum requirements that
are stated in Tables 36, 37 and 38 . Fuel samples should be
analyzed for the compliance. Fuels MUST NOT exceed 0.46
mm lubricity wear scar diameter that is tested on a HFFR .
The test must be performed at 60 C. Refer to ISO 12156-1.
Fuels must have minimum viscosity of 1.4 centistokes that
is delivered to the fuel injection pump. Fuel cooling may
be required in order to maintain minimum viscosity of 1.4
centistokes that is delivered to the fuel injection pump.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

57
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities

Mixing alcohol or gasoline with diesel fuel can produce an explosive mixture in the engine crankcase
or the fuel tank. Alcohol or gasoline must not be
used in order to dilute diesel fuel. Failure to follow
this instruction may result in death or personal injury.
There are many other diesel fuel specifications that
are published by governments and by technological
societies. Usually, those specifications do not review
all the requirements that are addressed in tables 36,
37 and 38. To ensure optimum engine performance,
a complete fuel analysis should be obtained before
engine operation. The fuel analysis should include
all of the properties that are stated in the tables 36,
37 and 38.

Fuel Additive
Supplemental diesel fuel additives are not generally
recommended. This is due to potential damage to
the fuel system or the engine. Your fuel supplier
or the fuel manufacturer will add the appropriate
supplemental diesel fuel additives.
Perkins recognizes the fact that additives may
be required in some special circumstances. Fuel
additives need to be used with caution. The additive
may not be compatible with the fuel. Some additives
may precipitate. This action causes deposits in the
fuel system. The deposits may cause seizure. Some
additives may be corrosive, and some additives may
be harmful to the elastomers in the fuel system.
Some additives may raise fuel sulfur levels above
the maximum that is allowed by the EPA or the
other regulatory agencies. Contact your fuel supplier
for those circumstances when fuel additives are
required. Your fuel supplier can recommend the
appropriate fuel additive and the correct level of
treatment.
Note: For the best results, your fuel supplier should
treat the fuel when additives are required. The treated
fuel must meet the requirements that are stated in
tables 36, 37 and 38.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

58
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Recommendations

SEBU8311-03

Maintenance
Recommendations

1. Stop the engine.


2. Wait for ten minutes.
i03751181

System Pressure Release


Coolant System

Do not loosen the high pressure fuel lines in order to


remove air pressure from the fuel system.

Engine Oil
To relieve pressure from the lubricating system, turn
off the engine.
i03751203

Pressurized system: Hot coolant can cause serious burn. To open cap, stop engine, wait until radiator is cool. Then loosen cap slowly to relieve
the pressure.
To relieve the pressure from the coolant system, turn
off the engine. Allow the cooling system pressure cap
to cool. Remove the cooling system pressure cap
slowly in order to relieve pressure.

Fuel System
To relieve the pressure from the fuel system, turn off
the engine.

High Pressure Fuel Lines (If Equipped)

Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid


penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
The high pressure fuel lines are the fuel lines that
are between the high pressure fuel pump and the
high pressure fuel manifold and the fuel lines that are
between the fuel manifold and cylinder head. These
fuel lines are different from fuel lines on other fuel
systems.
This is because of the following differences:

The high pressure fuel lines are constantly charged

Welding on Engines with


Electronic Controls
NOTICE
Because the strength of the frame may decrease,
some manufacturers do not recommend welding
onto a chassis frame or rail. Consult the OEM of the
equipment or your Perkins dealer regarding welding
on a chassis frame or rail.
Correct welding procedures are necessary in order
to avoid damage to the engine's ECM, sensors, and
associated components. When possible, remove
the component from the unit and then weld the
component. If removal of the component is not
possible, the following procedure must be followed
when you weld on a unit that is equipped with a
Perkins Electronic Engine. The following procedure
is considered to be the safest procedure to weld
on a component. This procedure should provide a
minimum risk of damage to electronic components.
NOTICE
Do not ground the welder to electrical components
such as the ECM or sensors. Improper grounding can
cause damage to the drive train, the bearings, hydraulic components, electrical components, and other
components.
Do not ground the welder across the centerline of the
package. Improper grounding could cause damage to
the bearings, the crankshaft, the rotor shaft, and other
components.

The internal pressures of the high pressure fuel

Clamp the ground cable from the welder to the component that will be welded. Place the clamp as close
as possible to the weld. This will help reduce the possibility of damage.

Before any service or repair is performed on the


engine fuel lines, perform the following tasks:

Note: Perform the welding in areas that are free from


explosive hazards.

with high pressure.

lines are higher than other types of fuel system.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

59
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Recommendations

1. Stop the engine. Turn the switched power to the


OFF position.
2. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the
battery. If a battery disconnect switch is provided,
open the switch.
3. Disconnect the J1/P1 and J2/P2 connectors from
the ECM. Move the harness to a position that will
not allow the harness to accidentally move back
and make contact with any of the ECM pins.

Illustration 31

g01143634

4. Connect the welding ground cable directly to the


part that will be welded. Place the ground cable as
close as possible to the weld in order to reduce the
possibility of welding current damage to bearings,
hydraulic components, electrical components, and
ground straps.
Note: If electrical/electronic components are used
as a ground for the welder, or electrical/electronic
components are located between the welder ground
and the weld, current flow from the welder could
severely damage the component.
5. Protect the wiring harness from welding debris
and spatter.
6. Use standard welding practices to weld the
materials.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

60
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule

SEBU8311-03

i04890317

Maintenance Interval Schedule

63
64
71

Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator Replace ............................................................... 70


Fuel Injector - Test/Change ................................... 78
Water Pump - Inspect ........................................... 92

71

Every 4000 Service Hours

74
79
89

Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test ............................... 61

Daily
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................
Driven Equipment - Check ....................................
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect .....
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean ...................
Engine Oil Level - Check ......................................
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain ...................................................................
Walk-Around Inspection ........................................

62
75
76
90

Every 3000 Service Hours

When Required
Battery - Replace ..................................................
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ..................
Engine - Clean ......................................................
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace ....................................................
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace ..................................................
Fuel System - Prime .............................................
Severe Service Application - Check .....................

Alternator - Inspect ...............................................


Engine Crankcase Breather - Replace .................
Engine Mounts - Inspect .......................................
Starting Motor - Inspect ........................................

68
70
74
75
76

Every 6000 Service Hours or 3 Years


Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) Change ............................................................... 65

Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years


Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change ............. 66

86
91

Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly


Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 87

Every 250 Service Hours or 6 Months


Alternator and Fan Belts - Inspect/Adjust ............. 62

Every 500 Service Hours


Fuel System Filter - Replace ................................ 84

Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year


Battery Electrolyte Level - Check ..........................
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add .................................................
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace ....................................................
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace ..................................................
Engine Oil and Filter - Change .............................
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ..................
Radiator - Clean ....................................................

64
69
71
74
76
87
88

Every 1000 Service Hours


Alternator and Fan Belts - Replace ....................... 63
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ...................... 78
Turbocharger - Inspect .......................................... 90

Every 2000 Service Hours


Aftercooler Core - Inspect ..................................... 61

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

61
Maintenance Section
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test

i03632383

Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test


(Air-To-Air Aftercooler)
1. Remove the core. Refer to the OEM information
for the correct procedure.
2. Turn the aftercooler core upside-down in order to
remove debris.

Personal injury can result from air pressure.


Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
3. Pressurized air is the preferred method for
removing loose debris. Direct the air in the
opposite direction of the fan's air flow. Hold the
nozzle approximately 6 mm (.25 inch) away from
the fins. Slowly move the air nozzle in a direction
that is parallel with the tubes. This will remove
debris that is between the tubes.
4. Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.
The maximum water pressure for cleaning
purposes must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use
pressurized water in order to soften mud. Clean
the core from both sides.
NOTICE
Do not use a high concentration of caustic cleaner to
clean the core. A high concentration of caustic cleaner
can attack the internal metals of the core and cause
leakage. Only use the recommended concentration of
cleaner.
5. Back flush the core with a suitable cleaner.
6. Steam clean the core in order to remove any
residue. Flush the fins of the aftercooler core.
Remove any other trapped debris.
7. Wash the core with hot, soapy water. Rinse the
core thoroughly with clean water.

10. Install the core. Refer to the OEM information for


the correct procedure.
11. After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate
the engine to high idle rpm. This will help in the
removal of debris and drying of the core. Stop the
engine. Use a light bulb behind the core in order
to inspect the core for cleanliness. Repeat the
cleaning, if necessary.
i03632416

Aftercooler Core - Inspect


Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the aftercooler for these items: damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and other
debris. Clean the aftercooler, if necessary.
For air-to-air aftercoolers, use the same methods that
are used for cleaning radiators.

Personal injury can result from air pressure.


Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate the
engine to high idle rpm. This will help in the removal
of debris and drying of the core. Stop the engine.
Use a light bulb behind the core in order to inspect
the core for cleanliness. Repeat the cleaning, if
necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a comb.
Note: If parts of the aftercooler system are repaired
or replaced, a leak test is highly recommended.
Inspect these items for good condition: Welds,
mounting brackets, air lines, connections, clamps,
and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.

8. Dry the core with compressed air. Direct the air in


the reverse direction of the normal flow.
9. Inspect the core in order to ensure cleanliness.
Pressure test the core. If necessary, repair the
core.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

62
Maintenance Section
Alternator - Inspect

SEBU8311-03

i02322311

Alternator - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of
the alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose
connections and correct battery charging. Check the
ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in
order to ensure correct battery performance and/or
correct performance of the electrical system. Make
repairs, as required.
Check the alternator and the battery charger for
correct operation. If the batteries are correctly
charged, the ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The
batteries should be kept warm because temperature
affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold,
the battery will not crank the engine. When the
engine is not run for long periods of time or if the
engine is run for short periods, the batteries may not
fully charge. A battery with a low charge will freeze
more easily than a battery with a full charge.
i02665597

Alternator and Fan Belts Inspect/Adjust

Illustration 32

g01003936

Typical example
(1) Burroughs Gauge

Install the gauge (1) at the center of the belt between


the alternator and the crankshaft pulley and check
the belt tension. The correct tension for a new belt is
400 N (90 lb) to 489 N (110 lb). The correct tension
for a used belt that has been in operation for 30
minutes or more at the rated speed is 267 N (60 lb)
to 356 N (80 lb).
If twin belts are installed, check and adjust the
tension on both belts.

Adjustment

Inspection
To maximize the engine performance, inspect the
belts for wear and for cracking. Replace belts that are
worn or damaged.
For applications that require multiple drive belts,
replace the belts in matched sets. Replacing only
one belt of a matched set will cause the new belt to
carry more load because the older belt is stretched.
The additional load on the new belt could cause the
new belt to break.
If the belts are too loose, vibration causes
unnecessary wear on the belts and pulleys. Loose
belts may slip enough to cause overheating.
To accurately check the belt tension, a suitable gauge
should be used.
Illustration 33

g01091158

Typical example
(1) Adjusting bolt
(2) Mounting bolts

1. Loosen mounting bolts (2) and adjusting bolt (1).

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

63
Maintenance Section
Alternator and Fan Belts - Replace

2. Move the alternator in order to increase or


decrease the belt tension.

i02322315

Battery - Replace

3. Tighten adjusting bolt (1). Tighten mounting bolts


(2). Refer to the Specifications Manual for the
correct torque settings.
i02166560

Alternator and Fan Belts Replace

Batteries give off combustible gases which can


explode. A spark can cause the combustible gases to ignite. This can result in severe personal injury or death.
Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in
an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in order to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks
near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are
serviced.

The battery cables or the batteries should not be


removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Switch the engine to the OFF position. Remove
all electrical loads.
Illustration 34

g01091158

2. Turn off any battery chargers. Disconnect any


battery chargers.

Typical example
(1) Adjusting bolt
(2) Mounting bolts

For applications that require multiple drive belts,


replace the belts in matched sets. Replacing only
one belt of a matched set will cause the new belt to
carry more load because the older belt is stretched.
The additional load on the new belt could cause the
new belt to break.
Note: When new belts are installed, check the belt
tension again after 20 hours of engine operation.
Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly Manual for
the installation procedure and the removal procedure
for the belt.

3. The NEGATIVE - cable connects the NEGATIVE


- battery terminal to the NEGATIVE - terminal
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from
the NEGATIVE - battery terminal.
4. The POSITIVE + cable connects the POSITIVE
+ battery terminal to the POSITIVE + terminal
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from
the POSITIVE + battery terminal.
Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a
battery. Dispose of used batteries to an appropriate
recycling facility.
5. Remove the used battery.
6. Install the new battery.
Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that
the engine start switch is OFF.
7. Connect the cable from the starting motor to the
POSITIVE + battery terminal.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

64
Maintenance Section
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check

SEBU8311-03

8. Connect the NEGATIVE - cable to the NEGATIVE


- battery terminal.
i02747977

i02323088

Battery or Battery Cable Disconnect

Battery Electrolyte Level Check


When the engine is not run for long periods of time or
when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order
to help prevent the battery from freezing. If batteries
are correctly charged, the ammeter reading should
be very near zero, when the engine is in operation.

All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which


can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a face
shield and protective clothing when working on or
near batteries.
1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte
level to the FULL mark on the battery.
If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled
water. If distilled water is not available use clean
water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
softened water.
2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with a
suitable battery tester.
3. Install the caps.
4. Keep the batteries clean.

The battery cables or the batteries should not be


removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the
ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position
and remove the key and all electrical loads.
2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal. Ensure
that the cable cannot contact the terminal. When
four 12 volt batteries are involved, two negative
connection must be disconnected.
3. Remove the positive connection.
4. Clean all disconnected connection and battery
terminals.
5. Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
remove material excessively. Excessive removal
of material can cause the clamps to not fit
correctly. Coat the clamps and the terminals with
a suitable silicone lubricant or petroleum jelly.

Clean the battery case with one of the following


cleaning solutions:

6. Tape the cable connections in order to help


prevent accidental starting.

Use a solution of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) baking soda

7. Proceed with necessary system repairs.

Use a solution of ammonium hydroxide.

8. In order to connect the battery, connect the


positive connection before the negative connector.

and 1 L (1 qt) of clean water.

Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

65
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change

i02595666

Cooling System Coolant


(Commercial Heavy-Duty) Change

1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.


Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations and
mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:

The engine overheats frequently.


Foaming is observed.
The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.

The fuel has entered the cooling system and the


coolant is contaminated.

Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only


clean water is needed.
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. This is a good opportunity to replace
the water pump, the water temperature regulator and
the hoses, if necessary.

Drain

Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.

Illustration 35

g01301065

Typical example

2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug (1)


on the engine. Open the drain cock or remove the
drain plug on the radiator.
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation
procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to
reclaim the coolant.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor.

Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug in the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

66
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change

3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the


cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 C (120 to 150 F).
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug on the engine. Open the drain cock
or remove the drain plug on the radiator. Allow
the water to drain. Flush the cooling system with
clean water.

Fill
1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
2. Fill the cooling system with Commercial
Heavy-Duty Coolant. Add Supplemental Coolant
Additive to the coolant. For the correct amount,
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Fluid Recommendations topic (Maintenance
Section) for more information on cooling system
specifications. Do not install the cooling system
filler cap.
3. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to high idle. Run the engine at high
idle for one minute in order to purge the air from
the cavities of the engine block. Stop the engine.
4. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level
within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the
pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level in the
expansion bottle (if equipped) at the correct level.
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. If
the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap
is damaged, discard the old cooling system filler
cap and install a new cooling system filler cap. If
the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the cooling system filler
cap. The correct pressure for the cooling system
filler cap is stamped on the face of the cooling
system filler cap. If the cooling system filler cap
does not retain the correct pressure, install a new
cooling system filler cap.

SEBU8311-03

6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for


leaks and for correct operating temperature.
i02595733

Cooling System Coolant (ELC)


- Change
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations and
mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:

The engine overheats frequently.


Foaming is observed.
The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.

The fuel has entered the cooling system and the


coolant is contaminated.

Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only


clean water is needed when the ELC is drained and
replaced.
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. This is a good opportunity to replace
the water pump, the water temperature regulator and
the hoses, if necessary.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

67
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change

Drain

Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.

Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.

2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug in the


engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 C (120 to 150 F).
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug on the engine. Open the drain cock
or remove the drain plug on the radiator. Allow
the water to drain. Flush the cooling system with
clean water.

Fill
1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
Illustration 36

g01301065

Typical example

2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug (1)


on the engine. Open the drain cock or remove the
drain plug on the radiator.
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation
procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to
reclaim the coolant.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor.

NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
2. Fill the cooling system with Extended Life
Coolant (ELC). Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Fluid Recommendations
topic (Maintenance Section) for more information
on cooling system specifications. Do not install the
cooling system filler cap.
3. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to high idle. Run the engine at high
idle for one minute in order to purge the air from
the cavities of the engine block. Stop the engine.
4. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level
within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the
pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level in the
expansion bottle (if equipped) at the correct level.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

68
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check

SEBU8311-03

5. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the


gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. If
the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap
is damaged, discard the old cooling system filler
cap and install a new cooling system filler cap. If
the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the cooling system filler
cap. The correct pressure for the cooling system
filler cap is stamped on the face of the cooling
system filler cap. If the cooling system filler cap
does not retain the correct pressure, install a new
cooling system filler cap.

3. Pour the correct coolant mixture into the tank.


Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Refill Capacities and Recommendations for
information on the correct mixture and type of
coolant. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Refill Capacities and Recommendations
for the cooling system capacity. Do not fill the
coolant recovery tank above COLD FULL mark.

6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for


leaks and for correct operating temperature.
i04408743

Cooling System Coolant Level


- Check
Engines With a Coolant Recovery
Tank
Note: The cooling system may not have been
provided by Perkins. The procedure that follows
is for typical cooling systems. Refer to the OEM
information for the correct procedures.
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed, the procedure must be performed with the engine on level ground. This will allow
you to accurately check the coolant level. This will
also help in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock
into the coolant system.
1. Observe the coolant level in the coolant recovery
tank. Maintain the coolant level to COLD FULL
mark on the coolant recovery tank.

Illustration 37

g02590196

Filler cap

4. Clean filler cap and the receptacle. Reinstall the


filler cap and inspect the cooling system for leaks.
Note: The coolant will expand as the coolant heats
up during normal engine operation. The additional
volume will be forced into the coolant recovery tank
during engine operation. When the engine is stopped
and cool, the coolant will return to the engine.

Engines Without a Coolant


Recovery Tank
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.

Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
2. Loosen filler cap slowly in order to relieve any
pressure. Remove the filler cap.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

69
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/Add

i03644948

Cooling System Supplemental


Coolant Additive (SCA) Test/Add

Illustration 38

g00285520

Cooling system coolant additive contains alkali.


To help prevent personal injury, avoid contact with
the skin and the eyes. Do not drink cooling system
coolant additive.

Cooling system filler cap

Test for SCA Concentration


Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
2. Maintain the coolant level at the maximum mark
that is correct for your application. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
level to the correct level in the sight glass.
3. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.

Heavy-Duty Coolant/Antifreeze and SCA


NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended six percent supplemental coolant additive concentration.
Use a Coolant Conditioner Test Kit in order to check
the concentration of the SCA.

Add the SCA, If Necessary


NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended amount of supplemental coolant additive concentration. Excessive
supplemental coolant additive concentration can form
deposits on the higher temperature surfaces of the
cooling system, reducing the engine's heat transfer
characteristics. Reduced heat transfer could cause
cracking of the cylinder head and other high temperature components. Excessive supplemental coolant
additive concentration could also result in radiator
tube blockage, overheating, and/or accelerated water
pump seal wear. Never use both liquid supplemental
coolant additive and the spin-on element (if equipped)
at the same time. The use of those additives together
could result in supplemental coolant additive concentration exceeding the recommended maximum.

Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

70
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator - Replace

NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed the procedure must be performed
with the engine on level ground. This will allow you to
accurately check the coolant level. This will also help
in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock into the
coolant system.
1. Slowly loosen the cooling system filler cap in
order to relieve the pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Always discard drained fluids according to
local regulations.
2. If necessary, drain some coolant from the cooling
system into a suitable container in order to allow
space for the extra SCA.
3. Add the correct amount of SCA. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Refill
Capacities and Recommendations for more
information on SCA requirements.
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
i03632420

Cooling System Water


Temperature Regulator Replace
Replace the water temperature regulator before
the water temperature regulator fails. This is a
recommended preventive maintenance practice.
Replacing the water temperature regulator reduces
the chances for unscheduled downtime.
A water temperature regulator that fails in a
partially opened position can cause overheating or
overcooling of the engine.
A water temperature regulator that fails in the closed
position can cause excessive overheating. Excessive
overheating could result in cracking of the cylinder
head or piston seizure problems.

SEBU8311-03

A water temperature regulator that fails in the open


position will cause the engine operating temperature
to be too low during partial load operation. Low
engine operating temperatures during partial loads
could cause an excessive carbon buildup inside the
cylinders. This excessive carbon buildup could result
in an accelerated wear of the piston rings and wear
of the cylinder liner.
NOTICE
Failure to replace your water temperature regulator
on a regularly scheduled basis could cause severe
engine damage.
Perkins engines incorporate a shunt design cooling
system and require operating the engine with a water
temperature regulator installed.
If the water temperature regulator is installed incorrectly, the engine may overheat, causing cylinder head
damage. Ensure that the new water temperature regulator is installed in the original position. Ensure that
the water temperature regulator vent hole is open.
Do not use liquid gasket material on the gasket or
cylinder head surface.
Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly Manual,
Water Temperature Regulator - Remove and
Install for the replacement procedure of the water
temperature regulator, or consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor.
Note: If only the water temperature regulators are
replaced, drain the coolant from the cooling system to
a level that is below the water temperature regulator
housing.
i02151646

Driven Equipment - Check


Refer to the OEM specifications for more information
on the following maintenance recommendations for
the driven equipment:

Inspection
Adjustment
Lubrication
Other maintenance recommendations
Perform any maintenance for the driven equipment
which is recommended by the OEM.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

71
Maintenance Section
Engine - Clean

i01936072

Engine - Clean

Personal injury or death can result from high voltage.


Moisture can create paths of electrical conductivity.
Make sure that the electrical system is OFF. Lock
out the starting controls and tag the controls DO
NOT OPERATE.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire hazard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and fluid
spills whenever a significant quantity accumulates on
the engine.
Periodic cleaning of the engine is recommended.
Steam cleaning the engine will remove accumulated
oil and grease. A clean engine provides the following
benefits:

Easy detection of fluid leaks


Maximum heat transfer characteristics
Ease of maintenance
Note: Caution must be used in order to prevent
electrical components from being damaged by
excessive water when the engine is cleaned.
Pressure washers and steam cleaners should not be
directed at any electrical connectors or the junction of
cables into the rear of the connectors. Avoid electrical
components such as the alternator, and the starter.
Protect the fuel injection pump from fluids in order
to wash the engine.

i02736653

Engine Air Cleaner Element


(Dual Element) - Clean/Replace
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine
components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.

Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements


If the air cleaner element becomes plugged, the air
can split the material of the air cleaner element.
Unfiltered air will drastically accelerate internal
engine wear. Your Perkins dealer has the proper air
cleaner elements for your application. Consult your
Perkins dealer for the correct air cleaner element.

Check the precleaner (if equipped) daily for

accumulation of dirt and debris. Remove any dirt


and debris, as needed.

Operating conditions (dust, dirt and debris) may


require more frequent service of the air cleaner
element.

The air cleaner element may be cleaned up to

six times if the element is properly cleaned and


inspected.

The air cleaner element should be replaced at least


one time per year. This replacement should be
performed regardless of the number of cleanings.

Replace the dirty paper air cleaner elements with


clean air cleaner elements. Before installation, the
air cleaner elements should be thoroughly checked
for tears and/or holes in the filter material. Inspect
the gasket or the seal of the air cleaner element for
damage. Maintain a supply of suitable air cleaner
elements for replacement purposes.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

72
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Clean/Replace

Dual Element Air Cleaners


The dual element air cleaner contains a primary
air cleaner element and a secondary air cleaner
element. The primary air cleaner element can be
used up to six times if the element is properly cleaned
and inspected. The primary air cleaner element
should be replaced at least one time per year. This
replacement should be performed regardless of the
number of cleanings.
The secondary air cleaner element is not serviceable
or washable. The secondary air cleaner element
should be removed and discarded for every three
cleanings of the primary air cleaner element. When
the engine is operating in environments that are
dusty or dirty, air cleaner elements may require more
frequent replacement.

SEBU8311-03

Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner


Elements
NOTICE
Perkins recommends certified air filter cleaning services that are available at Perkins dealers. The
Perkins cleaning process uses proven procedures to
assure consistent quality and sufficient filter life.
Observe the following guidelines if you attempt to
clean the filter element:
Do not tap or strike the filter element in order to remove dust.
Do not wash the filter element.
Use low pressure compressed air in order to remove
the dust from the filter element. Air pressure must not
exceed 207 kPa (30 psi). Direct the air flow up the
pleats and down the pleats from the inside of the filter
element. Take extreme care in order to avoid damage
to the pleats.
Do not use air filters with damaged pleats, gaskets, or
seals. Dirt entering the engine will cause damage to
engine components.

Illustration 39
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

g00736431

Cover
Primary air cleaner element
Secondary air cleaner element
Turbocharger air inlet

1. Remove the cover. Remove the primary air


cleaner element.
2. The secondary air cleaner element should be
removed and discarded for every three cleanings
of the primary air cleaner element.
Note: Refer to Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements.
3. Cover the turbocharger air inlet with tape in order
to keep dirt out.
4. Clean the inside of the air cleaner cover and body
with a clean, dry cloth.
5. Remove the tape for the turbocharger air inlet.
Install the secondary air cleaner element. Install a
primary air cleaner element that is new or cleaned.
6. Install the air cleaner cover.

The primary air cleaner element can be used up


to six times if the element is properly cleaned and
inspected. When the primary air cleaner element is
cleaned, check for rips or tears in the filter material.
The primary air cleaner element should be replaced
at least one time per year. This replacement should
be performed regardless of the number of cleanings.
Use clean primary air cleaner elements while dirty
elements are being cleaned.
NOTICE
Do not clean the air cleaner elements by bumping or
tapping. This could damage the seals. Do not use elements with damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Damaged elements will allow dirt to pass through. Engine
damage could result.
Visually inspect the primary air cleaner elements
before cleaning. Inspect the air cleaner elements for
damage to the seal, the gaskets, and the outer cover.
Discard any damaged air cleaner elements.
There are two common methods that are used to
clean primary air cleaner elements:

Pressurized air
Vacuum cleaning

7. Reset the air cleaner service indicator.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

73
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Clean/Replace

Pressurized Air
Pressurized air can be used to clean primary air
cleaner elements that have not been cleaned more
than two times. Pressurized air will not remove
deposits of carbon and oil. Use filtered, dry air with a
maximum pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi).

Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner


Elements

Illustration 41

Illustration 40

g00281692

Note: When the primary air cleaner elements are


cleaned, always begin with the clean side (inside)
in order to force dirt particles toward the dirty side
(outside).
Aim the hose so that the air flows inside the element
along the length of the filter in order to help prevent
damage to the paper pleats. Do not aim the stream
of air directly at the primary air cleaner element. Dirt
could be forced further into the pleats.
Note: Refer to Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements.

Vacuum Cleaning
Vacuum cleaning is a good method for cleaning
primary air cleaner elements which require daily
cleaning because of a dry, dusty environment.
Cleaning with pressurized air is recommended prior
to vacuum cleaning. Vacuum cleaning will not remove
deposits of carbon and oil.

g00281693

Inspect the clean, dry primary air cleaner element.


Use a 60 watt blue light in a dark room or in a similar
facility. Place the blue light in the primary air cleaner
element. Rotate the primary air cleaner element.
Inspect the primary air cleaner element for tears
and/or holes. Inspect the primary air cleaner element
for light that may show through the filter material. If it
is necessary in order to confirm the result, compare
the primary air cleaner element to a new primary air
cleaner element that has the same part number.
Do not use a primary air cleaner element that has
any tears and/or holes in the filter material. Do not
use a primary air cleaner element with damaged
pleats, gaskets or seals. Discard damaged primary
air cleaner elements.

Storing Primary Air Cleaner Elements


If a primary air cleaner element that passes inspection
will not be used, the primary air cleaner element can
be stored for future use.

Note: Refer to Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner


Elements.

Illustration 42

g00281694

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

74
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) - Inspect/Replace

Do not use paint, a waterproof cover, or plastic as a


protective covering for storage. An air flow restriction
may result. To protect against dirt and damage, wrap
the primary air cleaner elements in Volatile Corrosion
Inhibited (VCI) paper.
Place the primary air cleaner element into a box
for storage. For identification, mark the outside of
the box and mark the primary air cleaner element.
Include the following information:

Date of cleaning

SEBU8311-03

Some engines are equipped with a differential gauge


for inlet air pressure. The differential gauge for inlet
air pressure displays the difference in the pressure
that is measured before the air cleaner element and
the pressure that is measured after the air cleaner
element. As the air cleaner element becomes dirty,
the pressure differential rises. If your engine is
equipped with a different type of service indicator,
follow the OEM recommendations in order to service
the air cleaner service indicator.
The service indicator may be mounted on the air
cleaner element or in a remote location.

Number of cleanings
Store the box in a dry location.
i02152042

Engine Air Cleaner


Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace
Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, Engine
Air Cleaner Service Indicator-Inspect.
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine
components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.

Illustration 43

g00103777

Typical service indicator

Observe the service indicator. The air cleaner


element should be cleaned or the air cleaner element
should be replaced when one of the following
conditions occur:

The yellow diaphragm enters the red zone.


The red piston locks in the visible position.

NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.

Test the Service Indicator

A wide variety of air cleaners may be installed for use


with this engine. Consult the OEM information for the
correct procedure to replace the air cleaner.

Check for ease of resetting. The service indicator

Service indicators are important instruments.


should reset in less than three pushes.

Check the movement of the yellow core when


i02335405

Engine Air Cleaner Service


Indicator - Inspect
Some engines may be equipped with a different
service indicator.

the engine is accelerated to the engine rated


speed. The yellow core should latch at the greatest
vacuum that is attained.

If the service indicator does not reset easily, or if the


yellow core does not latch at the greatest vacuum,
the service indicator should be replaced. If the new
service indicator will not reset, the hole for the service
indicator may be restricted.
The service indicator may need to be replaced
frequently in environments that are severely dusty.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

75
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean

i02927289

Engine Air Precleaner Check/Clean

Illustration 44

g01453058

Typical engine air precleaner


(1) Wing nut
(2) Cover
(3) Body

Remove wing nut (1) and cover (2). Check for an


accumulation of dirt and debris in body (3). Clean the
body, if necessary.
After cleaning the precleaner, install cover (2) and
wing nut (1).
Note: When the engine is operated in dusty
applications, more frequent cleaning is required.
i02657627

Engine Crankcase Breather Replace


NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.

Illustration 45

g01335247

Typical example
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)

Screws for the breather cover


Breather cover
Spring
Diaphragm and plate
Spacer for turbocharged engines only
Joint for turbocharged engines only
Cavity
Vent hole

1. Loosen the screws (1) and remove the breather


cover (2) from the valve mechanism cover.
2. Remove the spring (3). Remove the diaphragm
and plate (4).
3. For turbocharged engines, remove the spacer (5)
and the joint (6).
4. Clean the vent hole (8) and the cavity (7) in the
valve mechanism cover.
NOTICE
Make sure that the components of the breather assembly are installed correctly. Engine damage may
occur if the breather assembly is not working correctly.
5. For turbocharged engines, install a new joint (6)
and the spacer (5).

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

76
Maintenance Section
Engine Mounts - Inspect

SEBU8311-03

6. Install a new diaphragm and plate (4) for the


breather assembly into the cavity (7) of the
valve mechanism cover or the spacer (5) for
turbocharged engines.
7. Install a new spring (3).
8. Install the breather cover (2) and the four screws
(1). Tighten the screws.
i02323089

Engine Mounts - Inspect


Note: The engine mounts may not have been
supplied by Perkins. Refer to the OEM information
for further information on the engine mounts and the
correct bolt torque.
Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and for
correct bolt torque. Engine vibration can be caused
by the following conditions:

NOTICE
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
1. Maintain the oil level between ADD mark (Y) and
FULL mark (X) on oil level gauge (1). Do not fill
the crankcase above FULL mark (X).
NOTICE
Operating your engine when the oil level is above the
FULL mark could cause your crankshaft to dip into
the oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaft
dipping into the oil reduces the oil's lubricating characteristics and could result in the loss of power.
2. Remove the oil filler cap and add oil, if necessary.
Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap.
i02610655

Engine Oil and Filter - Change

Incorrect mounting of the engine


Deterioration of the engine mounts
Loose engine mounts
Any engine mount that shows deterioration should
be replaced. Refer to the OEM information for the
recommended torques.
i02153660

Engine Oil Level - Check

Hot oil and hot components can cause personal


injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.

Hot oil and hot components can cause personal


injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.

Illustration 46
(Y) ADD mark. (X) FULL mark.

g00110310

Do not drain the oil when the engine is cold. As the oil
cools, suspended waste particles settle on the bottom
of the oil pan. The waste particles are not removed
with the draining cold oil. Drain the crankcase with
the engine stopped. Drain the crankcase with the
oil warm. This draining method allows the waste
particles that are suspended in the oil to be drained
correctly.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

77
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil and Filter - Change

Failure to follow this recommended procedure will


cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
the engine lubrication system with the new oil.

Drain the Engine Oil


After the engine has been run at the normal operating
temperature, stop the engine. Use one of the
following methods to drain the engine crankcase oil:

If the engine is equipped with a drain valve, turn the


drain valve knob counterclockwise in order to drain
the oil. After the oil has drained, turn the drain valve
knob clockwise in order to close the drain valve.

If the engine is not equipped with a drain valve,

remove the oil drain plug in order to allow the oil to


drain. After the oil has drained, the oil drain plug
should be cleaned and installed.

Replace the Oil Filter


NOTICE
Perkins oil filters are built to Perkins specifications.
Use of an oil filter not recommended by Perkins could
result in severe engine damage to the engine bearings, crankshaft, etc., as a result of the larger waste
particles from unfiltered oil entering the engine lubricating system. Only use oil filters recommended by
Perkins.
1. Remove the oil filter with a suitable tool.
Note: The following actions can be carried out as
part of the preventive maintenance program.
2. Cut the oil filter open with a suitable tool. Break
apart the pleats and inspect the oil filter for metal
debris. An excessive amount of metal debris in
the oil filter may indicate early wear or a pending
failure.
Use a magnet to differentiate between the ferrous
metals and the nonferrous metals that are found in
the oil filter element. Ferrous metals may indicate
wear on the steel and cast iron parts of the engine.
Nonferrous metals may indicate wear on the
aluminum parts, brass parts or bronze parts of
the engine. Parts that may be affected include
the following items: main bearings, rod bearings,
turbocharger bearings, and cylinder heads.
Due to normal wear and friction, it is not
uncommon to find small amounts of debris in
the oil filter. Consult your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor in order to arrange for a further
analysis if an excessive amount of debris is found
in the oil filter.

Illustration 47

g01334593

(1) Oil cooler


(2) Adapter
(3) Oil filter

Note: The oil cooler (1) and the adapter (2) are
installed on engines that have a turbocharger.
3. Clean the sealing surface of the cylinder block or
the oil cooler (1).
4. Apply clean engine oil to the new oil filter seal (3).
NOTICE
Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.
This oil would not be filtered and could be contaminated. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear to
engine components.
5. Install the oil filter. Tighten the oil filter by hand. Do
not overtighten the oil filter.

Fill the Engine Crankcase


1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual for more information on
lubricant specifications. Fill the crankcase with the
correct amount of oil. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual for more information on refill
capacities.
NOTICE
If equipped with an auxiliary oil filter system or a remote oil filter system, follow the OEM or filter manufacturer's recommendations. Under filling or overfilling
the crankcase with oil can cause engine damage.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

78
Maintenance Section
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust

SEBU8311-03

NOTICE
To prevent crankshaft bearing damage, crank the engine with the fuel OFF. This will fill the oil filters before
starting the engine. Do not crank the engine for more
than 30 seconds.
2. Start the engine and run the engine at LOW
IDLE for two minutes. Perform this procedure in
order to ensure that the lubrication system has
oil and that the oil filters are filled. Inspect the oil
filter for oil leaks.
3. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to
the sump for a minimum of ten minutes.

Ensure that the engine can not be started while


this maintenance is being performed. To help prevent possible injury, do not use the starting motor
to turn the flywheel.
Hot engine components can cause burns. Allow
additional time for the engine to cool before measuring/adjusting valve lash clearance.
Ensure that the engine is stopped before measuring
the valve lash. The engine valve lash can be
inspected and adjusted when the temperature of the
engine is hot or cold.
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust for more
information.
i02154268

Illustration 48

g00986928

Fuel Injector - Test/Change

Typical example

4. Remove the oil level gauge in order to check the


oil level. Maintain the oil level between the MIN
and MAX marks on the oil level gauge.

Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire.

i02676023

Engine Valve Lash Inspect/Adjust


This maintenance is recommended by Perkins as
part of a lubrication and preventive maintenance
schedule in order to help provide maximum engine
life. The maintenance for the valve lash is important
in order to keep the engine compliant.
NOTICE
Only qualified service personel should perform this
maintenance. Refer to the Service Manual or your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
the complete valve lash adjustment procedure.
Operation of Perkins engines with incorrect valve lash
can reduce engine efficiency, and also reduce engine
component life.

Make sure that you wear eye protection at all


times during testing. When fuel injection nozzles
are tested, test fluids travel through the orifices
of the nozzle tip with high pressure. Under this
amount of pressure, the test fluid can pierce the
skin and cause serious injury to the operator.
Always keep the tip of the fuel injection nozzle
pointed away from the operator and into the fuel
collector and extension.
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over disconnected fuel system component.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

Regular maintenance of the fuel injectors is


recommended by Perkins. The fuel injectors must
be removed and tested by an authorized agent. The
fuel injectors should not be cleaned as cleaning with
incorrect tools can damage the nozzle. The fuel
injectors should be renewed only if a fault with the
fuel injectors occurs. Some of the problems that may
indicate that new fuel injectors are needed are listed
below:

The engine will not start or the engine is difficult

79
Maintenance Section
Fuel System - Prime

Operate the engine at a fast idle speed in order to


identify the faulty fuel injector. Individually loosen
and tighten the union nut for the high pressure pipe
to each fuel injector. Do not loosen the union nut
more than half a turn. There will be little effect on the
engine speed when the union nut to the faulty fuel
injector is loosened.
Consult your authorized Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor for further assistance.

to start.

Not enough power

i02596360

Fuel System - Prime

The engine misfires or the engine runs erratically.


High fuel consumption
Black exhaust smoke
The engine knocks or there is vibration in the
engine.

Excessive engine temperature


For further information on the removal and the
installation of the fuel injectors, refer to the
Disassembly and Assembly manual.
For further information on the testing of fuel injectors,
refer to the Testing and Adjusting manual.

Identification of a suspect Fuel


Injector

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared
to collect the fluid with suitable containers before
opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Use the following procedure in order to prime the fuel
system:
If air enters the fuel system, the air must be purged
from the fuel system before the engine can be
started. Air can enter the fuel system when the
following events occur:

The fuel tank is empty or the fuel tank has been


partially drained.

Work carefully around an engine that is running.


Engine parts that are hot, or parts that are moving,
can cause personal injury.

The low pressure fuel lines are disconnected.

NOTICE
If your skin comes into contact with high pressure fuel,
obtain medical assistence immediately.

The fuel filter is replaced.

NOTICE
If a fuel injector is suspected of operating outside of
normal parameters it should be removed by a qualified
technician. The suspect fuel injector should be taken
to an authorised agent for inspection.

A leak exists in the low pressure fuel system.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared
to collect the fluid with suitable containers before
opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

80
Maintenance Section
Fuel System - Prime

SEBU8311-03

Primary filter
Ensure that the air is removed from the primary filter
before you prime the fuel filters. Refer to illustration
49.

Illustration 50

g01327360

Element
(2) Fuel valve
(3) Vent screw
Illustration 49

g01316878

This filter may not be installed on the engine.


(1) Vent screws

Fuel filters
There are three types of fuel filter that may be
installed on the engine.

Element
Canister
Spin-on filter with fuel priming pump

Illustration 51

g01327361

Canister
(4) Vent screw

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

Illustration 52

81
Maintenance Section
Fuel System - Prime

g01327363

Spin-on filter with fuel priming pump


(5) Vent screw

Vent screw (3) is installed on the filter that has an


element. Vent screw (4) is installed on the fuel filter
that has a canister. Vent screw (5) is installed on the
spin-on filter.

Priming the system


Ensure that the air is removed from the primary filter.
Loosen vent screws (1). Refer to illustration 49.
Operate the priming pump. When fuel free from air
flows from the vent screw tighten the vent screw.
Note: Some fuel system will use gravity in order to
prime the primary fuel filter. If gravity is used ensure
that the fuel tank is full and that all stop valves in the
fuel line are open.
There is four different types of systems that can be
installed on the engine in order to prime the fuel
system. Refer to illustration 53.

Hand priming pump


In-line hand priming pump
Electrical priming pump
Transfer pump that is operated by the starting
motor

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

82
Maintenance Section
Fuel System - Prime

SEBU8311-03

g01301853

Illustration 53
(6) Hand priming pump
(7) In-line priming pump

(8) Electrical priming pump


(9) Fuel transfer pump

g01304597

Illustration 54
(10) Connector bolt

(11) Fuel return line

Hand Priming Pump 6


In order to identify the hand priming pump, refer to
illustration 53.

(12) Connector bolt

1. Ensure that fuel valve (2) for the fuel filter that
has an element is in the ON position. Refer to
illustration 50.
2. Loosen vent screw (3 4 or 5) on the fuel filter.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

83
Maintenance Section
Fuel System - Prime

3. Operate hand priming pump (6). When fuel free


from air flows from the vent screw tighten the vent
screw.

1. Ensure that fuel valve (2) for the fuel filter that
has an element is in the ON position. Refer to
illustration 50.

4. Loosen connection (10 or 12) at the fuel injection


pump. Refer to illustration 54.

2. Loosen vent screw (3 4 or 5) on the fuel filter.

Note: Fuel return line (11) may need to be removed


in order to prime the fuel system.
5. Operate the hand priming pump. When fuel free
from air flows from the connections tighten the
connecting bolt.
6. The engine should now be able to start. Operate
the starting motor in order to start the engine.
Note: Do not operate the starting motor for more
than 15 seconds. If the engine does not start after 15
seconds, stop and wait for 30 seconds before trying
again.

In-line Priming Pump 7

3. Operate electrical priming pump (8). When fuel


free from air flows from the vent screw tighten the
vent screw. Switch off the electrical priming pump.
4. Loosen connection (10 or 12) at the fuel injection
pump. Refer to illustration 54.
Note: Fuel return line (11) may need to be removed
in order to prime the fuel system.
5. Operate the in-line priming pump. When fuel free
from air flows from the connections tighten the
connecting bolt.
6. The engine should now be able to start. Operate
the starting motor in order to start the engine.

In order to identify the in-line priming pump, refer to


illustration 53.

Note: Do not operate the starting motor for more


than 15 seconds. If the engine does not start after 15
seconds, stop and wait for 30 seconds before trying
again.

1. Ensure that fuel valve (2) for the fuel filter that
has an element is in the ON position. Refer to
illustration 50.

Fuel Transfer Pump 9

2. Loosen vent screw (3 4 or 5) on the fuel filter.


3. Operate in-line priming pump (7). When fuel free
from air flows from the vent screw tighten the vent
screw.
4. Loosen connection (10 or 12) at the fuel injection
pump. Refer to illustration 54.
Note: Fuel return line (11) may need to be removed
in order to prime the fuel system.
5. Operate the in-line priming pump. When fuel free
from air flows from the connections tighten the
connecting bolt.
6. The engine should now be able to start. Operate
the starting motor in order to start the engine.
Note: Do not operate the starting motor for more
than 15 seconds. If the engine does not start after 15
seconds, stop and wait for 30 seconds before trying
again.

Electrical Priming Pump 8


In order to identify the electrical priming pump, refer
to illustration 53.

In order to identify the fuel transfer pump, refer to


illustration 53.
Note: In order to use the transfer pump, you must
operate the starting motor. Do not operate the starting
motor for more than 15 seconds. After 15 seconds,
stop and wait for 30 seconds before operating the
starting motor.
1. Ensure that fuel valve (2) for the fuel filter that
has an element is in the ON position. Refer to
illustration 50.
2. Loosen vent screw (3 4 or 5) on the fuel filter.
3. Operate fuel transfer pump (9). When fuel free
from air flows from the vent screw tighten the vent
screw. Stop the fuel transfer pump.
4. Loosen connection (10 or 12) at the fuel injection
pump. Refer to illustration 54.
Note: Fuel return line (11) may need to be removed
in order to prime the fuel system.
5. Operate the fuel transfer pump. When fuel free
from air flows from the connections tighten the
connecting bolt. Stop the transfer pump.
6. The engine should now be able to start. Operate
the starting motor in order to start the engine.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

84
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Filter - Replace

SEBU8311-03

Note: Do not operate the starting motor for more


than 15 seconds. If the engine does not start after 15
seconds, stop and wait for 30 seconds before trying
again.
i02608681

Fuel System Filter - Replace

Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over disconnected fuel system component.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared
to collect the fluid with suitable containers before
opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.

Illustration 55

g01307792

Typical example

2. Clean the outside of the fuel filter assembly (1).


3. Remove setscrew (2).
4. Remove the canister (3). Ensure that any fluid is
drained into a suitable container.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and


mandates.

Fuel Filter with Canister


1. Close the fuel supply valve.

Illustration 56

g01334877

Typical example

5. Assemble the following items: seals (8), seal (7),


canister (3), and bowl (10). Place washer (5) and
seal (6) on setscrew (2).
6. Fasten the assembly to the fuel filter base with
setscrew (2).

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

85
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Filter - Replace

The fuel system will need to be primed after the


new filter is installed. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Fuel System - Prime.

Fuel Filter with Element


1. Close the fuel supply valve (1).

Illustration 57

g01334893

Typical example

2. Clean the outside of the fuel filter assembly.


3. Loosen the locking ring (2).
4. Remove the casing (3) for the filter and the
element. Ensure that any fluid is drained into a
suitable container.

Illustration 58

g01334895

Typical example

Note: Do not fill the fuel filter with fuel. The fuel will
not be filtered and the fuel could be contaminated.
Contaminated fuel can damage your fuel system.
5. Assemble the following items: seal (5), filter
element (6) and casing (3).
6. Install the assembled items to the filter base (4).
7. Install the locking ring (2) to the filter head. Rotate
the locking ring in order to lock the assembly.
The fuel system will need to be primed after the
new filter is installed. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Fuel System - Prime.

Fuel Filter with Priming Pump


1. Close the fuel supply valve.
2. Clean the outside of the fuel filter assembly.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

86
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Drain

SEBU8311-03

NOTICE
The water separator is not a filter. The water separator separates water from the fuel. The engine should
never be allowed to run with the water separator more
than half full. Engine damage may result.

Illustration 59

g01306131

Typical example

3. By using a suitable tool, remove spin-on filter (1).


Ensure that any fluid is drained into a suitable
container.
Note: Do not fill the fuel filter with fuel. The fuel will
not be filtered and the fuel could be contaminated.
Contaminated fuel can damage your fuel system.
4. Install the new spin-on filter. Tighten the spin-on
filter by hand.
The fuel system will need to be primed after the
new filter is installed. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Fuel System - Prime.
i02627223

Fuel System Primary


Filter/Water Separator - Drain

Illustration 60

g01316965

Typical example

1. Open drain (1). Catch the draining fluid in a


suitable container. Dispose of the drained fluid
correctly.
2. Close drain (1).
NOTICE
The water separator is under suction during normal
engine operation. Ensure that the drain valve is tightened securely to help prevent air from entering the fuel
system.

Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

87
Maintenance Section
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain

i02335436

Fuel Tank Water and Sediment


- Drain
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared
to collect the fluid with suitable containers before
opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.

Fuel Tank
Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the
service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause
excessive wear to the fuel system.
Water can be introduced into the fuel tank when the
fuel tank is being filled.
Condensation occurs during the heating and cooling
of fuel. The condensation occurs as the fuel passes
through the fuel system and the fuel returns to the
fuel tank. This causes water to accumulate in fuel
tanks. Draining the fuel tank regularly and obtaining
fuel from reliable sources can help to eliminate water
in the fuel.

Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water


and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that
take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If
the engine is equipped with this system, regular
maintenance of the fuel system filter is important.

Fuel Storage Tanks


Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
storage tank at the following intervals:

Weekly
Service intervals
Refill of the tank
This will help prevent water or sediment from being
pumped from the storage tank into the engine fuel
tank.
If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved
recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to
settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal
baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap
sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the
storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.
When possible, water separators should be used.
i02813964

Hoses and Clamps Inspect/Replace

Drain the Water and the Sediment


Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and draining sediment from the bottom of the
fuel tanks.

Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the


following conditions:

Cracking

Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank


in order to drain the water and the sediment. Close
the drain valve.

Softness

Check the fuel daily. Allow five minutes after the


fuel tank has been filled before draining water and
sediment from the fuel tank.

Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any


loose clamps.

Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in


order to drive out moist air. This will help prevent
condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The
fuel expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may
overflow.

Loose clamps

NOTICE
Do not bend or strike high pressure lines. Do not install bent or damaged lines, tubes or hoses. Repair
any loose or damaged fuel and oil lines, tubes and
hoses. Leaks can cause fires. Inspect all lines, tubes
and hoses carefully. Tighten all connections to the recommended torque. Do not clip any other item to the
high pressure lines.
Check for the following conditions:

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

88
Maintenance Section
Radiator - Clean

End fittings that are damaged or leaking


Outer covering that is chafed or cut
Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement
Outer covering that is ballooning locally

SEBU8311-03

2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in


order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, clean
container. The coolant can be reused.

Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed

3. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a


level that is below the hose that is being replaced.

Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering

4. Remove the hose clamps.

A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place


of any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant
torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard
clamp.

5. Disconnect the old hose.

Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will


harden. Hardening of the hoses will cause hose
clamps to loosen. This can result in leaks. A constant
torque hose clamp will help to prevent loose hose
clamps.
Each installation application can be different. The
differences depend on the following factors:

Type of hose
Type of fitting material
Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose
Anticipated expansion and contraction of the

6. Replace the old hose with a new hose.


7. Install the hose clamps with a torque wrench.
Note: For the correct coolant, see this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Fluid Recommendations.
8. Refill the cooling system. Refer to the OEM
information for further information on refilling the
cooling system.
9. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
cooling system filler cap's seals. Replace the
cooling system filler cap if the seals are damaged.
Install the cooling system filler cap.
10. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks.

fittings

Replace the Hoses and the Clamps


Refer to the OEM information for further information
on removing and replacing fuel hoses (if equipped).
The coolant system and the hoses for the coolant
system are not usually supplied by Perkins. The
following text describes a typical method of replacing
coolant hoses. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on the coolant system and the
hoses for the coolant system.

Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.

i02335774

Radiator - Clean
The radiator is not usually supplied by Perkins. The
following text describes a typical cleaning procedure
for the radiator. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on cleaning the radiator.
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the radiator for these items: Damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and other
debris. Clean the radiator, if necessary.

1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

89
Maintenance Section
Severe Service Application - Check

Performance such as power range, speed range,


and fuel consumption

Personal injury can result from air pressure.

Fuel quality

Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.

Operational Altitude

Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less


than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.

Oil selection and maintenance

Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing


loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction
to the fan's air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately
6 mm (0.25 inch) away from the radiator fins. Slowly
move the air nozzle in a direction that is parallel with
the radiator tube assembly. This will remove debris
that is between the tubes.
Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.
The maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes
must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized
water in order to soften mud. Clean the core from
both sides.
Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and
grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core
with detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse the
core with clean water.
If the radiator is blocked internally, refer to the OEM
Manual for information regarding flushing the cooling
system.
After cleaning the radiator, start the engine. Allow
the engine to operate at low idle speed for three to
five minutes. Accelerate the engine to high idle. This
will help in the removal of debris and the drying of
the core. Slowly reduce the engine speed to low idle
and then stop the engine. Use a light bulb behind
the core in order to inspect the core for cleanliness.
Repeat the cleaning, if necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a comb. Inspect these items for good condition:
Welds, mounting brackets, air lines, connections,
clamps, and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
i02335775

Severe Service Application Check


Severe service is the application of an engine that
exceeds the current published standards for that
engine. Perkins maintains standards for the following
engine parameters:

Maintenance intervals

Coolant type and maintenance


Environmental qualities
Installation
The temperature of the fluid in the engine
Refer to the standards for the engine or consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor in order to
determine if the engine is operating within the defined
parameters.
Severe service operation can accelerate component
wear. Engines that operate under severe conditions
may need more frequent maintenance intervals in
order to ensure maximum reliability and retention of
full service life.
Due to individual applications, it is not possible
to identify all of the factors which can contribute
to severe service operation. Consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor for the unique
maintenance that is necessary for the engine.
The operating environment, incorrect operating
procedures and incorrect maintenance procedures
can be factors which contribute to a severe service
application.

Environmental Factors
Ambient temperatures The engine may be
exposed to extended operation in extremely
cold environments or hot environments. Valve
components can be damaged by carbon buildup if
the engine is frequently started and stopped in very
cold temperatures. Extremely hot intake air reduces
engine performance.
Quality of the air The engine may be exposed
to extended operation in an environment that is
dirty or dusty, unless the equipment is cleaned
regularly. Mud, dirt and dust can encase components.
Maintenance can be very difficult. The buildup can
contain corrosive chemicals.
Buildup Compounds, elements, corrosive
chemicals and salt can damage some components.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

90
Maintenance Section
Starting Motor - Inspect

SEBU8311-03

Altitude Problems can arise when the engine is


operated at altitudes that are higher than the intended
settings for that application. Necessary adjustments
should be made.

Incorrect Operating Procedures

If the turbocharger fails during engine operation,


damage to the turbocharger compressor wheel
and/or to the engine may occur. Damage to the
turbocharger compressor wheel can cause additional
damage to the pistons, the valves, and the cylinder
head.
NOTICE
Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quantities of oil to enter the air intake and exhaust systems.
Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine
damage.

Extended operation at low idle


Frequent hot shutdowns
Operating at excessive loads

Minor leakage of oil into a turbocharger under extended low idle operation should not cause problems as
long as a turbocharger bearing failure has not occured.

Operating at excessive speeds


Operating outside the intended application

Incorrect Maintenance Procedures


Extending the maintenance intervals
Failure to use recommended fuel, lubricants and
coolant/antifreeze

i02177969

Starting Motor - Inspect

When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied


by a significant engine performance loss (exhaust
smoke or engine rpm up at no load), do not continue
engine operation until the turbocharger is renewed.
A visual inspection of the turbocharger can minimize
unscheduled downtime. A visual inspection of the
turbocharger can also reduce the chance for potential
damage to other engine parts.

Removal and Installation


Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
starting motor. If the starting motor fails, the engine
may not start in an emergency situation.
Check the starting motor for correct operation. Check
the electrical connections and clean the electrical
connections. Refer to the Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting Manual, Electric Starting System Test for more information on the checking procedure
and for specifications or consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for assistance.
i02184788

Turbocharger - Inspect
(If Equipped)
A regular visual inspection of the turbocharger is
recommended. Any fumes from the crankcase are
filtered through the air inlet system. Therefore,
by-products from oil and from combustion can collect
in the turbocharger compressor housing. Over time,
this buildup can contribute to loss of engine power,
increased black smoke and overall loss of engine
efficiency.

Note: The turbochargers that are supplied are


nonserviceable.
For options regarding the removal, installation, and
replacement, consult your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor. Refer to the Disassembly and
Assembly Manual, Turbocharger - Remove and
Turbocharger - Install for further information.

Inspecting
NOTICE
The compressor housing for the turbocharger must
not be removed from the turbocharger for cleaning.
The actuator linkage is connected to the compressor
housing. If the actuator linkage is moved or disturbed
the engine may not comply with emmissions legislation.
1. Remove the pipe from the turbocharger exhaust
outlet and remove the air intake pipe to the
turbocharger. Visually inspect the piping for the
presence of oil. Clean the interior of the pipes
in order to prevent dirt from entering during
reassembly.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

91
Maintenance Section
Walk-Around Inspection

2. Check for the presence of oil. If oil is leaking from


the back side of the compressor wheel, there is a
possibility of a failed turbocharger oil seal.
The presence of oil may be the result of extended
engine operation at low idle. The presence of oil
may also be the result of a restriction of the line
for the intake air (clogged air filters), which causes
the turbocharger to slobber.
3. Inspect the bore of the housing of the turbine
outlet for corrosion.
4. Fasten the air intake pipe and the exhaust outlet
pipe to the turbocharger housing.
i02177973

Walk-Around Inspection

Ensure that the cooling system hoses are correctly


clamped and that the cooling system hoses are
tight. Check for leaks. Check the condition of all
pipes.

Inspect the water pump for coolant leaks.


Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down
and the parts contract.
Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need
to replace the water pump seal. For the removal of
the water pump and the installation of water pump
and/or seal, refer to the Disassembly and Assembly
Manual, Water Pump - Remove and Install for more
information or consult your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor.

Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front

Inspect the Engine for Leaks and


for Loose Connections

crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil


pan, the oil filters and the rocker cover.

Inspect the fuel system for leaks. Look for loose


fuel line clamps and/or tie-wraps.

A walk-around inspection should only take a few


minutes. When the time is taken to perform these
checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided.

Inspect the piping for the air intake system and the

For maximum engine service life, make a thorough


inspection of the engine compartment before starting
the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolant
leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections and
trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed:

Inspect the alternator belts and any accessory

The guards must be in the correct place. Repair


damaged guards or replace missing guards.

Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is

serviced in order to reduce the chance of system


contamination.

NOTICE
For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up the
fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and correct
the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels
more often than recommended until the leak is found
or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is proved to be
unwarranted.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine is a fire
hazard. Remove the accumulated grease and oil. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, Engine - Clean for more information.

elbows for cracks and for loose clamps. Ensure


that hoses and tubes are not contacting other
hoses, tubes, wiring harnesses, etc.
drive belts for cracks, breaks or other damage.

Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as


matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will
carry more load than the belts that are not replaced.
The older belts are stretched. The additional load on
the new belt could cause the belt to break.

Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel

tank on a daily basis in order to ensure that only


clean fuel enters the fuel system.

Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for

loose connections and for worn wires or frayed


wires.

Inspect the ground strap for a good connection and


for good condition.

Disconnect any battery chargers that are not

protected against the current drain of the starting


motor. Check the condition and the electrolyte level
of the batteries, unless the engine is equipped with
a maintenance free battery.

Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any

gauges that are cracked. Replace any gauge that


can not be calibrated.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

92
Maintenance Section
Water Pump - Inspect

SEBU8311-03

i01907756

Water Pump - Inspect


A failed water pump may cause severe engine
overheating problems that could result in the following
conditions:

Cracks in the cylinder head


A piston seizure
Other potential damage to the engine
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down
and parts contract.
Visually inspect the water pump for leaks. Renew
the water pump seal or the water pump if there
is an excessive leakage of coolant. Refer to the
Disassembly and Assembly Manual, Water Pump
- Remove and Install for the disassembly and
assembly procedure.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

93
Warranty Section
Warranty Information

Warranty Section
Warranty Information
i01903596

Emissions Warranty
Information
This engine may be certified to comply with exhaust
emission standards and gaseous emission standards
that are prescribed by the law at the time of
manufacture, and this engine may be covered by an
Emissions Warranty. Consult your authorized Perkins
dealer or your authorized Perkins distributor in order
to determine if your engine is emissions certified and
if your engine is subject to an Emissions Warranty.

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

94
Index Section

SEBU8311-03

Index
E

A
After Starting Engine .............................................
After Stopping Engine............................................
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test (Air-To-Air
Aftercooler) ..........................................................
Aftercooler Core - Inspect......................................
Alternator - Inspect ................................................
Alternator and Fan Belts - Inspect/Adjust ..............
Adjustment .........................................................
Inspection...........................................................
Alternator and Fan Belts - Replace .......................

32
34
61
61
62
62
62
62
63

B
Battery - Replace................................................... 63
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 64
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ................... 64
Before Starting Engine ..................................... 11, 30
Burn Prevention....................................................... 8
Batteries............................................................... 8
Coolant................................................................. 8
Oils....................................................................... 8
C
Cold Weather Operation........................................ 35
Hints for Cold Weather Operation...................... 35
Idling the Engine ................................................ 36
Recommendations for Coolant Warm Up .......... 36
Recommendations for the Coolant .................... 35
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication Oil............... 35
Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) Change ................................................................ 65
Drain .................................................................. 65
Fill ...................................................................... 66
Flush .................................................................. 65
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change.............. 66
Drain .................................................................. 67
Fill ...................................................................... 67
Flush .................................................................. 67
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................. 68
Engines With a Coolant Recovery Tank............. 68
Engines Without a Coolant Recovery Tank........ 68
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add.................................................. 69
Add the SCA, If Necessary ................................ 69
Test for SCA Concentration ............................... 69
Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator Replace................................................................ 70
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........ 10
D

Electrical System ................................................... 12


Grounding Practices .......................................... 12
Emergency Stopping ............................................. 34
Emissions Certification Film .................................. 24
Emissions Warranty Information............................ 93
Engine - Clean....................................................... 71
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace ..................................................... 71
Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner Elements ...... 72
Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements ................... 71
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace ................................................... 74
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect...... 74
Test the Service Indicator................................... 74
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean.................... 75
Engine Crankcase Breather - Replace .................. 75
Engine Description ................................................ 16
Engine Specifications......................................... 17
Engine Identification .............................................. 23
Engine Lifting......................................................... 25
Engine Mounts - Inspect........................................ 76
Engine Oil and Filter - Change .............................. 76
Drain the Engine Oil........................................... 77
Fill the Engine Crankcase .................................. 77
Replace the Oil Filter ......................................... 77
Engine Oil Level - Check ....................................... 76
Engine Operation................................................... 33
Engine Starting ................................................. 11, 30
Engine Stopping ............................................... 11, 34
Engine Storage...................................................... 25
Cooling System.................................................. 26
Exhaust System ................................................. 27
General Items .................................................... 27
Induction System ............................................... 26
Lubrication System ............................................ 25
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ....................... 78
F
Features and Controls ........................................... 29
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention .............. 8
Fire Extinguisher ................................................ 10
Lines, Tubes and Hoses .................................... 10
Fluid Recommendations........................................ 41
Engine Oil .......................................................... 42
General Lubricant Information ........................... 41
Fluid Recommendations (Coolant Specifications).. 45
ELC Cooling System Maintenance .................... 48
General Coolant Information.............................. 45
Fluid Recommendations (Fuel Specification) ........ 50
Diesel Fuel Characteristics ................................ 52
Diesel Fuel Requirements.................................. 50
General Information ........................................... 50

Driven Equipment - Check..................................... 70

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

SEBU8311-03

Foreword ................................................................. 4
California Proposition 65 Warning ....................... 4
Literature Information........................................... 4
Maintenance ........................................................ 4
Maintenance Intervals.......................................... 4
Operation ............................................................. 4
Overhaul .............................................................. 4
Safety................................................................... 4
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather ................. 37
Fuel Conservation Practices.................................. 33
Fuel Injector - Test/Change ................................... 78
Identification of a suspect Fuel Injector.............. 79
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather .......... 38
Fuel Filters ......................................................... 38
Fuel Heaters ...................................................... 38
Fuel Tanks.......................................................... 38
Fuel Shutoff ........................................................... 29
Fuel System - Prime .............................................. 79
Fuel filters .......................................................... 80
Primary filter....................................................... 80
Priming the system ............................................ 81
Fuel System Filter - Replace ................................. 84
Fuel Filter with Canister ..................................... 84
Fuel Filter with Element ..................................... 85
Fuel Filter with Priming Pump ............................ 85
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain .................................................................... 86
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 87
Drain the Water and the Sediment..................... 87
Fuel Storage Tanks ............................................ 87
Fuel Tank ........................................................... 87
G
Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 28
General Hazard Information .................................... 7
Containing Fluid Spillage ..................................... 8
Fluid Penetration.................................................. 7
Pressure Air and Water........................................ 7
H
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ................... 87
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps .................. 88

95
Index Section

Maintenance Recommendations ...........................


Maintenance Section .............................................
Model View Illustrations.........................................
Model Views ..........................................................

58
39
13
13

O
Operation Section.................................................. 25
P
Product Identification Information .......................... 23
Product Information Section .................................. 13
R
Radiator - Clean ....................................................
Reference Numbers ..............................................
Record for Reference.........................................
Refill Capacities.....................................................
Cooling System..................................................
Lubrication System ............................................

88
23
23
39
40
39

S
Safety Messages ..................................................... 5
(A) Universal Warning.......................................... 5
Safety Section ......................................................... 5
Serial Number Plate .............................................. 23
Severe Service Application - Check ...................... 89
Environmental Factors ....................................... 89
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures .................... 90
Incorrect Operating Procedures......................... 90
Starting Motor - Inspect ......................................... 90
Starting the Engine ................................................ 30
Starting with Jump Start Cables ............................ 31
Stopping the Engine .............................................. 34
System Pressure Release ..................................... 58
Coolant System.................................................. 58
Engine Oil .......................................................... 58
Fuel System ....................................................... 58
T

I
Important Safety Information ................................... 2

Table of Contents..................................................... 3
Turbocharger - Inspect (If Equipped)..................... 90
Inspecting........................................................... 90
Removal and Installation.................................... 90

L
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 25
M
Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................. 60

W
Walk-Around Inspection ........................................ 91
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose
Connections ..................................................... 91
Warranty Information ............................................. 93

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

96
Index Section

SEBU8311-03

Warranty Section ................................................... 93


Water Pump - Inspect............................................ 92
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls ........ 58

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

Product and Dealer Information


Note: For product identification plate locations, see the section Product Identification Information in the Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
Delivery Date:

Product Information
Model:
Product Identification Number:
Engine Serial Number:
Transmission Serial Number:
Generator Serial Number:
Attachment Serial Numbers:
Attachment Information:
Customer Equipment Number:
Dealer Equipment Number:

Dealer Information
Name:

Branch:

Address:

Dealer Contact

Phone Number

Hours

Sales:
Parts:
Service:

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE

2012 Perkins Engines Company Limited


All Rights Reserved

This document is printed from SPI. Not for RESALE