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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA


THERMOFLUID LABORATORY
(CGE 536)

NAME

: MOHD IZZAT HAIKAL BIN JALALIL IKRAM (2013813896)


MUHAMMAD ANFAL BIN LUKMAN (2013834238)
MOHAMMAD FAIZUAN BIN ISMAIL (2013252638)
MUHAMAD AUFA BIN ABDUL YAHZIRI (2013661699)
MUHAMMAD AFFANDI AMMAR BIN AMMAR TAN (2013640346)

EXPERIMENT

: PROPERTIES MEASUREMENTS / PVT

DATE PERFORMED : 24 SEPTEMBER 2014


SEMESTER

:3

PROGRAMME/ CODE: BACHELOR (HONS) OIL AND GAS ENGINEERING


GROUP

: EH2233A

No

Title

Abstract/ Summary

Introduction

Aims/ Objectives

Theory

Apparatus

Procedure

10

Result

10

Calculations

10

Discussion

20

10

Conclusions

10

11

Recommendations

12

References

13

Appendices

TOTAL

Remarks:

Checked by:

ABSTRACT

Allocated Marks %

100

Marks

This experiment involving a perfect gas or ideal gas has seven experiment. An
equipment has been used which called Perfect gas expansion apparatus in order to determine
the properties of measurement and study the relationship between ideal gas and various factor
that can propose an understanding of First Law and Second law of thermodynamics. The
objectives of this experiment successfully achieved. Boyles and Gay-Lussacs law was
proven in this experiment when the ideal gas obey the law. The volume ratio and heat
capacity were also determined. The experiment was successful.

INTRODUCTION
The Perfect Gas Expansion Apparatus from model TH11 is a sufficient bench top unit
designed in order to expose the student and familiar with the fundamental thermodynamic
processes. This experiment is likely safe and more convenient to demonstrate thermodynamic
properties. The apparatus have two vessels, one is for pressurized chamber and the other one
is for vacuum chamber. This apparatus also equip with pressurized pump and vacuum pump
and several valve which can connect between chambers and also to the surrounding. The
chamber is made from glass that can withstand maximum pressure of apparatus can operate.
The apparatus also equipped with temperature and pressure sensors for both tanks which can
be read on the board. These sensors used to monitor and manipulate the pressure and
temperature. The board displays the temperature and pressure in a digital indicator that dealt
with the PVT laws. Gas particles in the chamber collide with each other and the walls which
transfer momentum in each collision. The gas pressure is equal to the momentum delivered to
the wall per unit time. A single particles moves arbitrarily along some direction until it strikes
back and forth with wall and change direction and speeds. Equations are derived directly
from the law of conservation of linear motion of conservation of energy.

OBJECTIVES

EXPERIMENT 1
The objectives of this experiment are to determine the relationship between pressure and
volume of an ideal gas and to compare the experimental results with theoretical results.

EXPERIMENT 2
The objectives of this experiment are to determine the relationship between pressure and the
temperature of an ideal gas.

EXPERIMENT 3
The experiment is to demonstrate the isentropic expansion process.

EXPERIMENT 4
The experiment is to study the response of the pressurized vessel following stepwise
depressurization.

EXPERIMENT 5
The objectives of this experiment are to study the response of the pressurized vessel
following a brief depressurization.

EXPERIMENT 6
The experiment is to determine the ratio of volume and compares it to the theoretical value.

EXPERIMENT 7
This experiment is to determine the ratio heat capacity.

THEORY

Perfect Gas

Theories of perfect gas can be divided into three which is Charles law, Boyles law
and Gay-Lussacs law. Perfect gas is same with ideal gas where there is none attractive forces
exist in the ideal gas. Since perfect gas is an ideal gas, they collide between atoms or
molecules elastically with no intermolecular attractive forces. Some assumption has been
respect to kinetic theory of ideal gas which is the gasses are made up of molecules that
always move in a constant straight line. An equation had been introduced in 1662 where it
has been named as ideal gas equation of state:

P = R (T/V)

The subscript R refers to gas constant where different as would have different value of
R. Any gas that obeys this law is called an ideal gas. The equation also can be written as:

PV = mRT

The properties of ideal gas at two different states are related to each other as long as
they have one constant property throughout the experiment where:

P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2

Boyles Law

The behaviour of real gas using parameter of pressure, temperature and volume is
considered at low density. Ideal gas also obeys the law of Boyles, Charles and GayLussacs. Boyles law describe the relationship between the pressure and the volume of gas.
This law works when the pressure increases inversely with the volume of gas where the
temperature held constant along the process. The gas inside the system loosely packed and
move randomly. If the volume is reduced, then the pressure become high as the molecules
having less space to move, to hit the wall of container more frequently.

Figure 1 : Graph of Boyle's Law

Charless Law

Second law is Charless Law which involves with the effect of heat on the expansion
of gases. The pressure will remain constant throughout the process and the volume of gas will
go directly proportional to the absolute temperature. The moving molecules increase their
speed and hit the wall more frequently as the temperature getting higher because the
temperature transfer the heat of energy into the molecule. Thus, as the speed increase and the
frequency of collision increase, the volume of the container also increase. Therefore the
equation of Charless law simply show below where the k is a constant. The temperature must
be calculated in Kelvin unit. If the constant value of k is not known then, the equation is
derived as follow:

V/T =k

V1/T1 = V2/T2

The relationship of volume and temperature of Charles law describe in a graph as


follow:

Figure 2 : The Graph of Charles' Law

Gay-Lussacs Law

The third law involving ideal gas is Gay-Lussacs law where the volume of the
system become constant throughout the process. This law stated that the pressure and
temperature are in direct relation. That means as the pressure increase, the temperature also
increase. Temperature is a parameter for kinetic energy, as the temperature increase, the
kinetic energy also increase, therefore the frequency of collision also increase which causing
the pressure to be increase with the constant volume. The equation below can prove the
relationship between pressure and temperature in a particular system with constant volume.

P/T = k

P1/T1 = P2/T2

Graph below show the relationship of temperature and pressure in the Gay-Lussacs
law with constant volume. The conclusion is that the pressure directly proportional to
the temperature.

Figure 3 : Graph of Gay-Lussac's Law

First law of thermodynamics

Based on first law of thermodynamics statement, energy can be neither created nor
destroyed but it can only change in the form of energy. For example the change of energy
of lamp, from electric energy convert to light and heat energy. Therefore, the conservation of
energy principle introduced as the net change in the total energy of the system equivalent to
the difference in the total energy enter the system and total energy leaving the system.

Ein Eout = Esystem

That equation also referred as energy balance equation that applicable to any kind
system any kind of process. Since the energy has numerous form such as internal, kinetic,
potential, electrical and magnetic and their sum constitutes the total energy of the system.
Simple compressible system has the following equation which the change in the total energy
of a system is the sum of the changes in its internal, kinetic, potential energy can be expressed
as:

E = U + KE + PE
Where internal energy, U
U = m (U2-U1)
Where kinetic energy, KE
KE = m (v2^2 - v1^2)
Where the potential energy, PE
PE = mg (z2-z1)

Energy can be transfer in or out of a system in three forms such as heat, work and
mass flow. As there is one of any three form cross the boundary of an open system, it can be
concluded as energy gained or lost during a process. In a closed system, there is only two
form can pass through the boundary which can change the energy which are heat and work.
Temperature difference in a system with its surrounding is not an energy interaction. Work
interactions refer as rising piston and rotating shaft. Commonly sense when the work
transfers into the system, the energy of the system increase and vice versa. As mass transfer
in the system, energy also increases as the mass carries energy with it and vice versa.
Equation below represents the concluded energy balance.

Ein Eout = (Qin - Qout) + (Win Wout) + (Emass,in Emass,out) = Esystem

Amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by


one degree is a definition of specific heat. There are two specific heat uses widely which is
specific heat at constant volume and specific heat at constant pressure. Cp value larger than
Cv as at constant pressure system is allowed to expand and the energy must supplied to
system. Specific heat capacity at constant pressure is the energy required to raise the
temperature of the unit mass of a substance by one degree as the pressure remain constant. It
can be concluded that Cv is related to internal energy and Cp involved enthalpy value

Cv = (u/T)
Cp = (h/T)

Internal energy is a function of temperature only. As the temperature high,


then enthalpy value also big. Then the enthalpy value is represented with subscript h:

h = u + Pv
where it can combine to become:

Pv = RT
h = u + RT

Cp and Cv has special relationships for ideal gas by differentiating the h = u + RT to produce
dh = du + RT and by replacing dh by CpdT and du by CvdT, the equation come out with:
Cp = Cv + R

Specific heat capacity also has the constant k by the relation of:

K = Cp/Cv
Ratio of volumes using isothermal process can be determined using isothermal process. One
pressurized vessel is allowed to leak slowly into another vessel of different size. Finally, the
pressure will be same for both vessel. Final pressure in vessel can be calculated by:

Pabs = (m1 + m2) RT / (V1+V2)


Both vessel was placed in room temperature before valve is opened lead the isothermal
process and the initial temperature will be equal to the final temperature. Deriving:

m1 = V1 P1abs/ RT
m2 = V2 P2abs/ RT

Using these equation, substitute m1 and m2 into equation of Pabs and become:
Pf = [(V1 P1abs/ RT + V2 P2abs/ RT) RT] / V1 + V2

Rearrange the equation and cancel the RT to give the ratio of the two volumes:
V1/V2 = (P2abs Pf) / (Pf P1abs i)

Stepwise Depressurization

Stepwise depressurization is conducted by depressurizing the chamber or tank step by


step slowly or gradually by flowing out the gas which they would expand at every instant
opened and closed in order to identify gradual changes in pressure and temperature within the
contrary decreases with the expansion.

Brief Depressurization

This is similar to stepwise depressurization but reduced in terms of time. The time
interval increased to a few seconds. This is to make sure that, the effect on the pressure and
temperature can be observed which can be compared later. The graph should be more higher
gradient.
.

APPARATUS
1)

Pressure Transmitter

2)

Pressure Relief Valve

3)

Temperature Sensor

4)

Pressure Chamber (Big Glass)

5)

Vacuum Chamber (Small Glass)

6)

Compressor

7)

Vacuum pump

8)

Electrode

PROCEDURES
i. GENERAL OPERATING PROCEDURES

A. GENERAL START-UP PROCEDURES


1. Make sure equipment was connected to single phase power supply and the unit was
switched on.
2. All valve was fully opened and the pressure reading on the panel was checked just to make
sure the pressure was at atmospheric pressure.
3. All valve was closed.
4. Pipe from compressive pump connected to pressurized chamber or the pipe from vacuum
pump connected to vacuum chamber.
5. Then, the unit was ready to use.

B. GENERAL SHUT-DOWN PROCEDURES


1. Pump was switched and the pump was removed from the chamber.
2. The valve was fully open in order to release out the air inside the chamber.
3. The switch and power supply was switched off.

ii. EXPERIMENT 1: Boyles law

A. EXPERIMENT 1.1: condition 1


1. All valve was fully closed.
2. Compressive pump, Tank 1 was filled with air until 150kPa.
3. The gas was transferred from tank 1 to tank 2 by opening the valve between tanks.
4. The temperature and pressure was recorded.

B. EXPERIMENT 1.2: condition 2


1. All valve was fully closed.
2. Tank 2 was filled with air until 50kPa.
3. The gas was then transferred from tank 2 to tank 1 by opening the valve between tanks.
4. The temperature and pressure was recorded.

C.EXPERIMENT 1.3: condition 3


1. All valve was fully closed.
2. Both tank 1 and tank 2 filled with air until 150kPa and 50kPa.
3. The valve between tanks was opened.
4. The pressure and temperature was recorded.

iii. EXPERIMENT 2: Gay-Lussac Law Experiment

1. All valve was fully closed.


2. The hose from compressive pump was connected to pressurize chamber.
3. Compressive pump was turned on and the temperature was recorded for every increment of
10kPa in the chamber and the pump stopped when the pressure in tank 1 has achieved
160kPa.
4. The valve was slightly opened and the pressurized air are allowed to flow out. The
temperature was recorded for every decrement in 10kPa.
5. The experiment stopped when the pressure in tank 1 has reached atmospheric pressure that
is101.3kPa.
6. The experiment repeated for three times in order to get the average value.
7. A graph of pressure versus temperature was plotted.

iv. EXPERIMENT 3: Isentropic Expansion Process

1. All valve was fully closed.


2. Hose was connected from compressive pump to pressurized chamber.
3. Compressive pump was switched on and the chamber was pressurized until 160kP. Pump
was switched off and the hose was removed from the chamber.
4. The pressure was monitored until the reading was stabilized. The pressure and temperature
was recorded.
5. The valve was slightly opened and the air was flow out slowly until reached the
atmospheric pressure.
6. The pressure and temperature reading was recorded after the expansion process.
7. The isentropic process was discussed.

v. EXPERIMENT 4: Stepwise depressurization

1. All valve was fully closed.


2. Tank 1 was filled with air until 160kPa and record the data.
3. The valve 1 was opened and closed quickly for 5 times.
4. The data was recorded.

vi. EXPERIMENT 5: Brief depressurization

1. All valve was fully closed.


2. Tank 1 was filled with air until 150kPa and the data was recorded.
3. Valve 1 was open for 3 seconds.
4. The data was recorded.

vii. EXPERIMENT 6: Determination of ratio volume

1. All valve was fully closed.


2. Tank 1 or pressurized tank was filled with air at about 150kPa.
3. The data was recorded.
4. Valve 2 was slightly opened and the data was recorded.
5. The experiment was repeated by passing air from tank 2 to tank 1 and tank 1 to tank 2 by
using the pressure of 150kPa for tank 1 and 50kPa for tank2.

viii. EXPERIMENT 7: Determination of Ration of Heat Capacity

1. General startup was done and the valve was fully closed.
2. The hose from the compressive pump was connected to the pressurized chamber.
3. Compressive pump was switched on and the chamber was pressurized until 160kPa. Then,
the pump was switched off and the hose was removed from the chamber.
4. The pressure and temperature was recorded.

5. The valve one was fully open and closed after few seconds. The pressure and temperature
was monitored and recorded right after the reading was stabilized.
6. The ratio of heat capacity and the theoretical value was compared.

RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS


Pt1(kPa abs)
Pt 2(kPa abs)

Before
154.7
102.2

After
136.9
136.2

Experiment: Boyles Law Experiment


Condition 1: From pressurised vessel to atmospheric pressure

Condition 2: From atmospheric vessel to vacuum vessel

Pt1(kPa abs)
Pt 2(kPa abs)

Before
106.6
53.2

After
89.2
88.4

Condition 3: From pressurised vessel to vacuum vessel


Pt1(kPa abs)
Pt 2(kPa abs)

Before
103.9
52.1

After
112.0
121.1

Calculation
Experiment 1
Condition 1: From pressurized vessel to atmospheric vessel
V1 =0.025m3
V2=0.01237m3
By using Boyles Law
P1V1=P2V2
(154.7x0.025)+(102.2 x 0.01237) = (136.9x0.025)+(136.1x0.01237)
5.1317 = 5.1061
5.1317 5.1061 = 0.0309
The difference is 0.0309.Therefore the Boyles Law is verified.

Trial 1
Temperature(C)

Trial 2

110

Pressure
vessel
27.2

Depressure
vessel
26.7

Pressure
vessel
28.4

Depressure
vessel
27.1

Pressure
vessel
27.1

Depressure
vessel
27.9

120

27.5

26.8

28.5

28.5

27.4

28.5

130

28.0

27.4

29.0

27.5

28.0

29.1

140

29.0

28.3

29.8

28.3

29.1

29.9

150

29.9

29.5

30.7

29.9

29.5

30.1

160

30.9

30.7

31.3

31.9

30.9

30.9

Pressure (kPa
abs)

Trial 3

Experiment 2

Average
Pressure (kPa abs)
110
120
130
140
150
160

Average Temperature(C)
27.38
27.87
28.17
29.07
29.93
31.10
Pressure against Temperature

180
160
140
120
100
Pressure(kPa abs)

80
60
40
20
0
27.38

27.87

28.17

29.07

29.93

Temperature(C)

The pressure is directly proportional to temperature. Hence, the Gay-Lussac law is verified.

31.1

Experiment 3:
Pt1(kPa abs)
Temperature(C)

Before experiment
160.10
32.20

After experiment
103.10
27.50

Pt1(kPa abs)
Temperature(C)

Before experiment
160.4
31.5

After experiment
103.2
27.0

Pt1(kPa abs)
Temperature(C)

Before experiment
161.7
29.9

After experiment
103.0
26.8

Before experiment
161.07
31.2

After experiment
103.1
27.1

Average
Pt1(kPa abs)
Temperature(C)
Calculation

T2/T1 = P2[(k-1)/k] / P1
27.1/31.2=103.1[(l-1)/k] /161.07
K=0.4841

Experiment 4: Stepwise Depressurization


Pressure (kPa
abs)
Initial
161.4

After first
expansion
136.4
136.5
136.7
136.8
136.9
137.0
137.1
137.2
137.3
137.4
137.5
137.7
137.7
137.8
137.9
137.9
138.0
138.1
138.2
138.3
138.4
138.5
138.6
138.7
138.8
138.9
139.0
139.1
139.2
139.3
139.4
139.5
139.6

After second
expansion
126.3
126.4
126.5
126.6
126.7
126.8
126.9
127.0
127.1
127.2
127.3
127.4
127.5
127.6
127.7
127.8
127.9
128.0
128.1
128.2
128.3
128.4
128.4
128.4
128.5
128.6

After third
expansion
116.0
116.1
116.2
116.3
116.4
116.5
116.6
116.7
116.7
116.8
116.9
1169
116.9
117.0
117.1
117.2
117.3
117.4
117.5
117.5
117.6
117.7
117.8
117.8
117.8
117.9
118.0
118.0
118.0
118.0
118.1
118.2

After fourth
expansion
105.0
105.1
105.2
105.3
105.4
105.4
105.4
105.5
105.6
105.7
105.8
105.9
106.0
106.1
106.2
106.3
106.4
106.5
106.6
106.5
106.6
106.7
106.7
106.8
106.9
107.0
107.1
107.2
107.3
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.5
107.5
107.5
107.5
107.5
107.5
107.5
107.5

107.5

response of pressurized vessel follow stepwise deoressurization


180
160
140
120
Pressure(kPa)

100
80
60
40
20
0

Experiment 5: Brief Depressurization


Initial
160.2

After brief expansion


114.5
114.6
114.7
114.8
114.9
115.0
115.1
115.2
115.3
115.4
115.5
115.6
115.7
115.8
116.0
116.1
116.2
116.3
116.4
116.5
116.7
116.8
119.3
119.4
119.3
119.4
119.5
119.5
119.6
119.7
119.6
119.7
119.7
119.7
119.8
119.9
119.8
119.9
120.1
120.2
120.3
120.4
120.5
120.5

120.5
120.5
120.4
120.5

Response of pressurized vessel follow a brief depressurizationn


180
160
140
120
Pressure(kPa)

100
80
60
40
20
0

Experiment 6: Determine of ratio of volume


Before experiment
After experiment

PT1(kPa abs)
151.1
135.3

PT2(kPa abs)
102.2
134.4

Before experiment
After experiment

PT1(kPa abs)
148.6
118.8

PT2(kPa abs)
56.5
118.0

Before experiment
After experiment

PT1(kPa abs)
103.5
88.2

PT2(kPa abs)
55.6
87.3

Calculation
Volume1/Volume2 = (P2 final-P2 initial)/(P1 initial-P1 final)
0.025/0.01237=(134.4-102.2)/(151.1-135.3)
2.021=2.03797
Difference=0.017

Experiment 7: Determine of ratten of heat capacity


Pt1(kPa abs)
TT1(C)

Initial
162.2
32.9

Intermediate
108.0
31.0

Final
114.5
29.5

Calculation
Cp/Cv =(ln Pinitial - ln Pimtermediate)/(ln Pinitial- ln Pfinal)
(ln Pinitial - ln Pimtermediate)/(ln Pinitial- ln Pfinal)= (ln 162.2- ln 32.9) (ln 162.2 ln114.5)
=1.59-0.35
=1.24
Cp/Cv = 1.4
[(1.4-1.24)/1.4] X 100% = 11.4 %
Deviation = 11.4%

DISCUSSIONS

Boyles law
Stated that the pressure of gas inversely proportional to the volume of a container.
From the results recorded, some calculation have been made in order to know the
differences value between before and after of the experiment one. For the value of
experiment 1 are 0.0309. These values are very small and close with the theoretical
value, therefore the Boyless Law is verified. According to the data tabulated, it can
been said that the pressure and volume are inversely proportional. When the pressure
increase, the volume start to decrease. This is happen because the gas of the same
pressure with constant temperature is injected into small and big container which
means have different volume. The gas molecule in small container have less spacious
room and will collide to the wall and with each other more often which exert more
pressure.

Gay-Lussacs Law
Stated that pressure is directly proportional to the temperature which means if the
pressure increase, the temperature also increase with constant volume. Experiment
two has been conducted in order to know the relationship between pressure and
temperature. Therefore, from the data tabulated and graph plotted, it can be said that
the Gay-Lussacs Law is verified. The same concept applied here, if the temperature
of a gas in a container increase, the heat energy of the system transfer its energy into
the molecule of gas which actually increase the frequency of collision in that
container which exert more pressure.

Isentropic expansion
The process occur when the system are reversible and adiabatic where no heat will be
transferred in or out and no energy transformation occurs. From the data recorded, a
constant k are now known which is equal to 0.4841. It was obtained that both
temperature and pressure of the gas before expansion were higher compared to after
the expansion. The process is said to be isentropic since there was no change in the
entropy throughout the process.

Stepwise depressurization
It is a strategy to adopt an equal time-stepwise depressurization approach in this study
yield a more reliable result for an example in the production sector in industries. The
molecule in the container affected when the number of them decreasing slowly as they
do not have to collide between them more often. The depressurization shown that
pressure decrease with time and also affecting the temperature. As the pressure
decrease, the temperature also decrease in the system.

Brief depressurization
Shown in the graph plotted in result section which is decrease more linear compared
to stepwise. The expansion occur when the pressure of gas increase. Expansion of gas
decrease as the gas is free to flow out time by time.

Ratio volume
Can be determine by manipulating the equation of Boyles law. Boyles law proposed
an equation P1V1=P2V2 and after manipulate the equation ratio volume can be
determine by V2/V1=P1P2. This experiment test in three different condition where
first condition the gas is flow from tank 1 to tank 2, while gas flow from tank 2 to
tank 1 in second condition and both were filled with gas in third condition. The
theoretical value is 2.021 in this experiment where the error or percentage difference
are between 10 and -10. There must be environmental factors that affect the stability
of pressure and temperature or random mistake during experiment. Since the
percentage error is less than 10%, it can be said that the experiment is successful.

Determination of ratio of heat capacity


By using the expression of the heat capacity ratio and it gives the 1.24. The theoretical
value of this experiment is 1.4. The deviation which now is equal to 11.40%. The
deviation is due to measurement error. The actual intermediate pressure supposed to
be lowered that the measured one. Unfortunately the error occur due to heat loss and
sensitivity of pressure sensors. Supposed, the intermediate pressure taken as the
lowest pressure at the moment the valve is closed. Since the percentage difference is
more than 10%, the experiment can be declared as failed.

CONCLUSIONS

In a nutshell, the experiment was to determine the properties of measurement/PVT


according to Boyles law, Gay-Lussacs law, isentropic expansion, and heat capacity equation.
We managed to prove the Boyles law and Gay-Lussacs law which is based on their law. The
volume ratio of gas indicates and expresses the dynamics of compression and expansion of
gases. Although there is fail experiment but we managed to fine the reason behind the failure.
For example experiment 7, related to heat capacity ratio, the experiment fail maybe because
of the intermediate pressure not taken after the valve is closed. In conclusion, the experiment
is successfully done and the objective of the experiment is achieved.

RECOMMENDATIONS
Before starts the experiment, each of the experiment must do the start-up and shutdown step in order to make sure there is no gas left in the chamber. Most important during
recording data, keep eye on the sensor while monitoring the board because the parameter can
increase and decrease really fast and read the procedure carefully. Get an average reading by
repeating the experiment normally three times in order to reduce amount of deviation. Handle
the valve carefully and do not make mistake by choosing the valve because it will affect the
data. The place where the experiment is conducted also must be at stable and no vibration. All
the equipment must be handle carefully in order to avoid explosion because over-pressure in
the tank would cause an explosion.

REFERENCES
1.
Charles's
Law.
(n.d.).
Retrieved
from
how
stuff
works:http://science.howstuffworks.com/dictionary/physics-terms/charles-law-info.htm
2.
Charles's
Law.
(2010).
Retrieved
from
Sparknotes:http://www.sparknotes.com/testprep/books/sat2/chemistry/chapter5section8.rhtml
3.
Irfan, M. H. (2013).The Perfect Gas Expansion Experiment (TH11).Muhammad
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