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Learning EnglishEverytime & Everywhere

Bandung 2016

TOEFL Score Booster 2016

Compiled By Team

TOEFL Skills Handbook

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Question 1
A The gym doesn't open until tomorrow.
B He's too busy to go to the gym.
C There's a special project going on at the
D The gym is full of kids.
Question 2
A Introduce the man to Jane soon.
B Let the man have the book after Jane.
C Ask Jane what she thought of the book.
D Finish writing to Jane as soon as possible.
Question 3
A He knows about a larger apartment she
can rent.
B He's helping his neighbor move.
C It's difficult to get an apartment in his
D The woman should stay in her present
Question 4
A Check their flight schedule in the
B Change their vacation plans.
C Leave early for the airport.
D Listen to the morning weather forecast.
Question 5
A Ask to see the man's driver's license.
B Sell the man a new leather wallet.
C Take a picture of the man.
D Show the man a wallet.
Question 6
A Go to the exhibit tonight.
B Stay at home and rest.
C Find out what time the exhibit opens.
D Help the man arrange his trip.
Question 7
A Offer to buy the car.
B Find out how much the car costs.
C Try to sell his car before buying another
D Write a check for the new car.
Question 8
A He likes the woman's idea.
B He can meet the woman in the afternoon.

C He will discuss the idea tomorrow.

D The next issue of the paper is already
Question 9
A He'll have to pay a fine.
B He's taking good care of the book.
C He returned the book to the library.
D He's worried about the book.
Question 10
A Take her to another exhibit.
B See the exhibit when it goes to another
C Go to the museum before it opens.
D Apply for a job at the museum.
Question 11
A The bakery closed down a while ago.
B The bakery's business has doubled in a
C She hasn't done much baking recently.
D The bakery was busy last week.
Question 12
A She wants the man to pay the cleaning
B She has done the same thing to someone
C She doesn't want another glass of orange
D She isn't upset about in the incident.
Question 13
A He only wears blue jeans to exercise.
B He hasn't bought new pants in a while.
C He's gained weight lately.
D He used to be an athlete.
Question 14
A Looking out the window.
B Choosing a new desk.
C Building a bookcase.
D Rearranging furniture.
Question 15
A He hadn't heard about it.
B He's not enthusiastic about it.
C He's curious to know how it works.
D He hopes it has more than 500 channels.

Question 16
A He didn't get the clothes.
B The store closed while he was cleaning
the car.
C He'll clean up when he has more time.
D The clothes aren't ready.
Question 17
A He has an ear infection.
B He doesn't always listen.
C He's never missed a meeting.
D He had to attend another meeting.
Question 18
A She hasn't seen John.
B She doesn't like John's new glasses.
C John looks different.
D John has been away for quite a while.
Question 19
A Wait awhile to see if she feels better.
B Go to bed early.
C Take some medicine.
D See a doctor.
Question 20
A He's eager to go to the auto show.
B He doesn't know a polite way to refuse
the offer.
C He'd like to repay the woman's kindness.
D He's sorry he can't accompany the
Question 21
A Use less soap.
B Rinse off the soap more thoroughly.
C Use a moisturizing cream.
D Switch brands of soap.
Question 22
A She didn't buy any bread.
B The bread might not have been eaten.
C She ate the man's bread.
D The bread is in the refrigerator.
Question 23
A She never gives people jewelry.
B She gives generous presents.
C She doesn't often give gifts.
D She likes to receive expensive gifts.
Question 24
A He missed the audition.
B He's been taking voice lessons.

C The director likes his voice.

D He won't be in the chorus.
Question 25
A He disagrees with the woman.
B He likes this king of weather.
C The weather doesn't interest him.
D The weather is generally cooler and
Question 26
A Only some players spend a lot of time on
B It takes up a large amount of time.
C No one can be excused from it.
D Practice begins in a few minutes.
Question 27
A He doesn't have time to go to the movie.
B He's taking the class as a diversion.
C He wants to change his major.
D His chemistry class was canceled.
Question 28
A Read the article while she waits in line.
B Have her copies made outside the library.
C Use a different machine to make her
D Look for a different magazine article.
Question 29
A Help the woman with her resume.
B Fix the errors in the resume.
C Send the resume right away.
D Change his process of reviewing resumes.
Question 30
A He's been putting off his work.
B He's been working harder than usual.
C He should return the papers to the
D He should take several days off.
Question 31
A The dances of a Native American dance
B How Native American ceremonial dances
are classified.
C Variations of a basic dance among Native
American tribes.
D How Native American artists are trained.
Question 32
A To broadcast an awards ceremony.

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B To announce a meeting of the tribal

C To celebrate the opening of a new
D To inform people about a performance.
Question 33
A The elders must give approval to perform
sacred dances.
B The elders make sure the dances are
performed properly.
C The troupe is financed by the elders.
D The elders have substantial acting
Question 34
A The apartment is too far from the
B The apartment needs a lot of repair work.
C Shes having trouble with the owner of
the apartment.
D Her roommate wont share expenses.
Question 35
A The women didnt pay their rent on time.
B She cant find anyone to repair the
C She had to buy a new dishwasher.
D Paula had some repairs done without her
Question 36
A Find another apartment.
B Talk to Mr. Connors.
C Ask Sam to repair the dishwasher.
D Buy a new dishwasher for the owner.
Question 37
A He has some knowledge of the law.
B He had the same problem.
C He knows the owner.
D He can bring a lawsuit against the owner.
Question 38
A Content of speech is more important than
tone of voice.
B Voice quality has a strong effect on
C Effective speakers must use visual aids.
D Amplifying devices are essential in large
Question 39
A Speak very loudly.

B Ask questions frequently.

C Vary tone, volume, and speed of speech.
D Limit the speech to fifteen minutes.
Question 40
A Always use a microphone.
B Avoid large rooms.
C Never vary the volume.
D Not to shout.
Question 41
A By pausing.
B By raising pitch.
C By lowering register.
D By pointing to a chart.
Question 42
A To practice speaking slowly.
B To record a voice from the television.
C To play a speech by the professor.
D To evaluate their own voices.
Question 43
A Overland transportation in the
nineteenth century.
B Historical aspects of mail delivery.
C Vehicles currently in use by the postal
D The invention of the railroad.
Question 44
A Boats used on rivers were extremely
B The current was too swift for boats to
cross easily.
C Bridges were too weak to carry the
weight of a stagecoach.
D Ferry service was infrequent.
Question 45
A The era during which the railroad was
the dominant mode of transportation.
B The time during which mail was
delivered by horse.
C The point at which airmail began to
constitute the bulk of United States mail.
D The time period covered in the museum
Question 46
A Models of the first airplanes used for mail
B Replicas of railway mail cars.
C Historical stamps.

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D Engravings of nineteenth-century
railroad scenes.

D The natural colors of astronomical

objects can be captured.

Question 47
A They spend most of their time looking
through telescopes.
B They are constantly analyzing data.
C They often live near observatories.
D They devote a lot of time to theoretical

Question 49
A To decrease the time it takes to
photograph objects.
B To avoid using a telescope.
C To sharpen the color of what they
D To obtain images of distant objects.

Question 48
A The cost of equipment needed is reduced.
B Fewer data need to be analyzed.
C The images can be studied by different

Question 50
A To spend less time at their telescopes.
B To overcome the problem of weak light.
C To take more photographs.
D To photograph astronomical objects
without using a telescope.

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1. Indianas Lost River______underground for
a distance of 22 miles.
A travels
B travelling
C to tavel
D it tavels
2. The 1980 explosion of ____ the first
volcanic eruption in the continental
United States in over 60 years.
A Mount St. Helens
B was Mount St. Helens
C it was Mount St. Helens
D Mount St. Helens was
3. Static electricity _____ one cloud to
another or between clouds and the
ground creates lightning.
A flows from
B the flow from
C flowing from
D is flowing from
4. The model T car, introduced in 1908,
_____ $850.
A the price was
B a price of
C to be priced at
D was priced at
5. _____ reacts with a chlorine atom, an
electon is transferred from the outer
shell of the sodium atom to the outer
shell of the chlorine atom.
A A sodium atom
B When a sodium atom
C For a sodium atom
D It is a sodium atom
6. In 1858, the site _____ was to become the
city of Denver was settled as a way
station for outfitting gold prospectors.
A it
B of it
C what
D of what
7. The light from an electrical lamp includes
many different wavelengts, _____ in a laser
is concentrated on only one wavelength.
A all the energy
B it is all the energy
C while all the energy

D while all the energy is

8. In the Antarctic Ocean ____ plankton and
crustacean forms of life.







A an abudance of
B is an abudance of
C it is abudant
D an abudance is
Flintlock muskets ____ sharp bayonets
were standard weapons during the
American Revolution.
A tip with
B tipped with
C the tips of
D were tipped with
Benjamin Franklin believed that the
turkey rather than the eagle _____ of the
United States.
A should become the symbol
B the symbol becomes
C should symbolize becoming
D becoming the symbol
_____ to occur in the Earth's crust, pushpull and shake waves would be generated
A Were a break
B If a break
C A break was
D If broken
Fossil fuels like coal, oil, and gas produce
carbon dioxide when _____
A Were a break
B If a break
C A break was
D If broken
Not until Nellie Tayloe Ross was elected
governor of Wyoming in 1924 _____ as
governor of a U.S state.
A a woman served
B a woman serving
C to serve a woman
D did a moman serve
The temperatures _____ take place vary
widely foe different materials.
A which melting and freezing
B at which melting and freezing
C which they melt and freeze

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D at which they melt and freeze

In general, the cells of large animals and
plants are only slightly larger than _____
plants and animals.
A smaller
B are smaller
C those smaller
D are those of smaller
The music on a compact disk (CD)
is record by lasers
A The music
C record
D by
Alaska has more acrive slaciers as the
rest ofthe inhabited world combined.
A as
B the rest
C inhabited
D combined
Aristotle believed that everithing in the
universe were composed of
four basic elements: earth, water, air,
and fire.
A believed
B were
C basic
D fire
In the cold climate of the far
north, mosquito
eggs may remains dormant from
autumn untul late june.
A the
B mosquito eggs
C remains
D dormant
Passangers have ridden the first
Ferris wheel at the Columbian
Exposition in Chicago in 1893.
A Passangers
B have ridden
C wheel
D in
One type of Australian frog lays up to
25 eggs at a time and then
swallows they for protection.
A lays
B at a time







C they
D protection
The Cro-Magnons entered the
area that is today Europe
and quickly eliminated or
absorbed theirs Neaderthal predecess
A that is
B quickly
C theirs
D predecessors
The Spanish introduced not only
horses and also cattle to the North
American continent.
A introduced
B and
C cattle
D continent
The best-known members of the
vegetable group includes head cabbag
e, cauliflower, broccoli, kale, collard,
and brussels sprouts.
A best-known
B group
C includes
D head
White blood cells are the largest of
red blood cells and are more varied in
size and in shape.
A are
B the largest
C more varied
D in size
An hiccup is a spasmodic contrction
of the diaphragm, which leads to a
massive intake of air.
A An
B spasmodic
C which
D intake
To make a lithograph, an artist used a
flat stone of a kind that will soak
up oil and water.
A To make
B used
C a kind

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D soak up
Alike a bae magnet, the Earth has two
magnetic poles.
A Alike
B magnet
C magnetic
D poles.
Not until Harvard Collage
was founded in
1630 was there any collages in
A until
B founded
C was
D any
Antelopes are gregarious animals that
travel in herds, ranging
in amount from
a few to several thousand.
A gregarious
B amount
C few
D several
A supersonic aieplane can fly faster
than a speed od sound.
A supersonic
B fly
C faster than
In 1821, Emma Willard opened
officially the doors of the first school
in the united States to offer collagelevel courses for woman.
A In
B opened officially
C to offer
D for
first gummed postage stamps issued in
New York City in 1842.
A gummed
B stamps
C issued
D in
Typical long bone such as the
femur consists of a long shaft
with swellings at each end.







A Typical
B such as
C consists of
D swellings
The common octopus lives lone in a
den just big enough for its body.
A lone
B just
C big enough
D its
The vaccum
tube did an important contribution to
the early growth of radio and
A The
B did
C important
D growth
St. Agustine, FLorida, founded in
1565 by Pedro Menedez,
was razing 21 years later by Francis
A founded
B by
C razing
D later
A bimetallic thermometer relies the
different rates of expansion of two
types of metal, usually brass and
A bimetallic
B relies
C rates
D usually
An ice crystal in the nuclei on which a
hailstone is built.
A crystal
B nuclei
C on which
D built
Tremendous flooding during the
summer of 1993 left 8 milion acres of
nine midwestern states inundated
and proved both expensivelyand
A flooding
B left
C expensively D deadly

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Question 1- 7
Hotels were among the earliest facilities that bound the United States together. They
were both creatures and creators of communities, as well symptoms of the frenetic
quest for community. Even in the first part of the nineteenth century, Americans were
already forming the habit of gathering from all corners of the nation for both public and
private, business and pleasure, purposes. Conventions were the new occasions, and
hotels were distinctively American facilities making conventions possible. The first
national convention of a major party to choose a candidate for President (that of the
National Republican party, which met on December 12, 1831, and nominated Henry
Clay for President) was held in Baltimore, at a hotel that was then reputed to be the
best in the country. The presence in Baltimore of Barnum's City Hotel, a six-story
building with two hundred apartments, helps explain why many other early national
political conventions were held there.
In the longer run, American hotels made other national conventions not only
possible but pleasant and convivial. The growing custom of regularly assembling from
afar the representatives of all kinds of groups not only for political conventions, but
also for commercial, professional, learned, and avocations ones in turn supported
the multiplying hotels. By the mid-twentieth century, conventions accounted for over a
third of the yearly room occupancy of all hotels in the nation; about eighteen thousand
different conventions were held annually with a total attendance of about ten million
Nineteenth-century American hotelkeepers, who were no Ionger the genial,
deferential "hosts" of the eighteenth-century European inn, became leading citizens.
Holding a large stake in the community, they exercised power to make it prosper. As
owners or managers of the local "palace of the public, they were makers and shapers
of a principal community attraction. Travelers from abroad were mildly shocked by this
high social position.

1. The word "bound" in line 1 is closest in

meaning to
A led
B protected
C tied
D strengthened
2. The National Republican party is
mentioned in line 8 as an example of a
A from Baltimore
B of learned people
C owning a hotel
D holding a convention
3. The word "assembling" in line 14 is
closest in meaning to
A announcing
B motivating
C gathering
D contracting
4. The word "ones" in line 16 refers to
A hotels
B conventions

C kinds
D representatives
5. The word "it" in line 23 refers to
A European inn
B host
C community
D public
6. It can be inferred from the passage that
early hotelkeepers in the United States were
A active politicians
B European immigrants
C professional builders
D influential citizens
7. Which of the following statements about
early American hotels is NOT mentioned in
the passage?
A Travelers from abroad did not enjoy
staying in them.
B Conventions were held in them.
C People used them for both business and
D They were important to the community







Questions 8-17
Beads were probably the first durable ornaments humans possessed, and the
intimate relationship they had with their owners is reflected in the fact that beads are
among the most common items found in ancient archaeological sites. In the past, as
today, men, women, and children adorned themselves with beads. In some cultures
still, certain beads are often worn from birth until death, and then are buried with their
owners for the afterlife. Abrasion due to daily wear alters the surface features of beads,
and if they are buried for long, the effects of corrosion can further change their
appearance. Thus, interest is imparted to the bead both by use and the effects of time.
Besides their wearability, either as jewelry or incorporated into articles of attire,
beads possess the desirable characteristics of every collectible: they are durable,
portable, available in infinite variety, and often valuable in their original cultural
context as well as in today's market. Pleasing to look at and touch, beads come in
shapes, colors, and materials that almost compel one to handle them and to sort them.
Beads are miniature bundles of secrets waiting to be revealed: their history,
manufacture, cultural context, economic role, and ornamental use are all points of
information one hopes to unravel. Even the most mundane beads may have traveled
great distances and been exposed to many human experiences. The bead researcher
must gather information from many diverse fields. In addition to having to be a
generalist while specializing in what may seem to be a narrow field, the researcher is
faced with the problem of primary materials that have little or no documentation. Many
ancient beads that are of ethnographic interest have often been separated from their
original cultural context.
The special attractions of beads contribute to the uniqueness of bead research. While
often regarded as the "small change of civi lizations, beads are a part of every culture,
and they can often be used to date archaeological sites and to designate the degree of
mercantile, technological, and cultural sophistication.

8. What is the main subject of the passage?

A Materials used in making beads
B How beads are made
C The reasons for studying beads
D Different types of beads
9. The word "adorned" in line 4 is closest in
meaning to
A protected
B decorated
C purchased
D enjoyed
10. The word "attire" in line 9 is Closest in
meaning to
A ritual
B importance
C clothing
D history
11. All of the following are given as
characteristics of collectible objects EXCEPT
A durability
B portability
C value
D scarcity

12. According to the passage, all of the

following are factors that make people want
to touch beads EXCEPT the
A shape
B color
C material
D odor
13. The word "unravel" in line 16 is closest
in meaning to
A communicate
B transport
C improve
D discover
14. The word "mundane" in line 16 is
closest in meaning to
A carved
B beautiful
C ordinary
D heavy
15. It is difficult to trace the history of
certain ancient beads because they
A are small in size
B have been buried underground
C have been moved from their original
D are frequently lost

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16. Knowledge of the history of some beads

may be useful in the studies done by which
of the following?
A Anthropologist
B Agricultural experts
C Medical researchers
D Economists





17. Where in the passage does the author

describe why the appearance beads may
A Lines 3-4
B Lines 6-8
C Lines 12-13
D Lines 20-22

Questions 18-31
In the world of birds, bill design is a prime example of evolutionary fine-tuning.
Shorebirds such as oystercatchers use their bills to pry open the tightly sealed shells of
their prey; hummingbirds have stiletto-like bills to probe the deepest nectar-bearing
flowers; and kiwis smell out earthworms thanks to nostrils located at the tip of their
beaks. But few birds are more intimately tied to their source of sustenance than are
crossbills. Two species of these finches, named for the way the upper and lower parts
of their bills cross, rather than meet in the middle, reside in the evergreen forests of
North America and feed on the seeds held within the cones of coniferous trees.
The efficiency of the bill is evident when a crossbill locates a cone. Using a lateral
motion of its lower mandible, the bird separates two overlapping scales on the cone and
exposes the seed. The crossed mandibles enable the bird to exert a powerful biting
force at the bill tips, which is critical for maneuvering them between the scales and
spreading the scales apart. Next, the crossbill snakes its long tongue into the gap and
draws out the seed. Using the combined action of the bill and tongue, the bird cracks
open and discards the woody seed covering and swallows the nutritious inner kernel.
This whole process takes but a few seconds and is repeated hundreds of times a day.
The bills of different crossbill species and subspecies vary some are stout and
deep, others more slender and shallow. As a rule, large-billed crossbills are better at
securing seeds from large cones, while small-billed crossbills are more deft at
removing the seeds from small, thin-scaled cones. Moreover, the degree to which cones
are naturally slightly open or tightly closed helps determine which bill design is the
One anomaly is the subspecies of red crossbill known as the Newfoundland
crossbill. This bird has a large, robust bill, yet most of Newfoundland's conifers have
small cones, the same kind of cones that the slender-billed white-wings rely on.

18. What does the passage mainly discuss?

A The importance of conifers in evergreen
B The efficiency of the bill of the crossbill
C The variety of food available in a forest
D The different techniques birds use to
obtain food
19. Which of the following statements best
represents the type of evolutionary finetuning" mentioned in line 1?
A Different shapes of bills have evolved
depending on the available food supply.
B White-wing crossbars have evolved from
red crossbills.
C Newfoundland's conifers have evolved
small cones.
D Several subspecies of crossbills have
evolved from two species.

20. Why does the author mention

oystercatchers, hummingbirds, and kiwis in
lines 2-4?
A They are examples of birds that live in
the forest.
B Their beaks are similar to the beak of the
C They illustrate the relationship between
bill design and food supply.
D They are closely related to the crossbill.
21. Crossbills are a type of
A shorebird
B hummingbird
C kiwi
D finch

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22. Which of the following most closely

resembles the bird described in lines 6-8?

26. The word "others" in line 18 refers to

A bills
B species
C seeds
D cones

27. The word "deft" in line 19 is closest in

meaning to
A hungry
B skilled
C tired
D pleasant

28. The word "robust" in line 24 is closest in

meaning to
A strong
B colorful
C unusual
D sharp

23. The word "which" in line 12 refers to

A seed
B bird
C force
D bill
24. The word "gap" in line 13 is closest in
meaning to
A opening
B flower
C mouth
D tree
25. The word "discards" in line 15 is closest
in meaning to
A eats
B breaks
C finds out
D gets rid of

29. In what way is the Newfoundland

crossbill an anomaly?
A It is larger than the other crossbill
B It uses a different technique to obtain
C The size of its bill does not fit the size of
its food source.
D It does not live in evergreen forests.
30. The final paragraph of the passage will
probably continue with a discussion of
A other species of forest birds
B the fragile ecosystem of newfoundland
C what mamals live in the forests of North
D how the newfoundland crossbill survives
with a large bill
31. where in the passage does the author
desribe how a crossbill removes a seed
from its cone?
A The first paragraph
B The second paragraph
C The third paragraph
D The fourth paragraph

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Questions 32-38
If you look closely at some of the early copies of the Declaration or Independence,
beyond the flourished signature of John Hancock and the other fifty-five men who
signed it, you will also find the name of one woman, Mary Katherine Goddard. It was
she, a Baltimore printer, who published the first official copies of the Declaration, the
first copies that included the names of its signers and therefore heralded the support of
all thirteen colonies.
Mary Goddard first got into printing at the age of twenty-four when her brother
opened a printing shop in Providence, Rhode Island, in 1762. When he proceeded to
get into trouble with his partners and creditors. it was Mary Goddard and her mother
who were left to run the shop. In 1765 they began publishing the Providence Gazette, a
weekly newspaper. Similar problems seemed to follow her brother as he opened
businesses in Philadelphia and again in Baltimore. Each time Ms. Goddard was
brought in to run the newspapers. After starting Baltimore's first newspaper, The
Maryland Journal, in 1773, her brother went broke trying to organize a colonial postal
service. While he was in debtor's prison, Mary Katherine Goddard's name appeared on
the newspaper's masthead for the first time.
When the Continental Congress fled there from Philadelphia in 1776, it
commissioned Ms. Goddard to print the first official version of the Declaration of
Independence in January 1777. After printing the documents, she herself paid the post
riders to deliver the Declaration throughout the colonies.
During the American Revolution, Mary Goddard continued to publish Baltimore's
only newspaper, which one historian claimed was "second to none among the
colonies." She was also the city's Postmaster from 1775 to 1789 appointed by
Benjamin Franklin and is considered to be the first woman to hold a federal position.

32. With which of the following subjects is

the passage mainly concerned?
A The accomplishments of a female
B The weaknesses of the newspaper
C The rights of a female publisher
D The publishing system in colonial
33. Mary Goddard's name appears on the
Declaration of Independence because
A she helped write the original document
B she published the document
C she paid to have the document printed
D her brother was in prison
34. The word "heralded" in line 5 is closest
in meaning to
A influenced
B announced
C rejected
D ignored

A was appointed by Benjamin Franklin

B signed the Declaration of Independence
C took over her brother's printing shop
D moved to Baltimore
36. The word "there" in line 17 refers to
A the colonies
B the print shop
C Baltimore
D Providence
37. It can be inferred from the passage that
Mary Goddard was
A an accomplished businesswoman
B extremely wealthy
C a member of the Continental congress
D a famous writer
38.The word "position" in line 24 is closest
in meaning to
A job
B election
C document
D location

35. According to the passage, Mary Goddard

first became involved in publishing when

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Question 39-50
Galaxies are the major building blocks of the universe. A galaxy is a giant family of
many millions of stars, and it is held together by its own gravitational field. Most of the
material universe is organized into galaxies of stars, together with gas and dust.
There are three main types of galaxy: spiral, elliptical, and irregular. The Milky
Way is a spiral galaxy: a flattish disc of star with two spiral arms emerging from its
central nucleus. About one-quarter of all galaxies have this shape. Spiral galaxies are
well supplied with the interstellar gas in which new stars form; as the rotating spiral
pattern sweeps around the galaxy it compresses gas and dust, triggering the formation
of bright young stars in its arms. The elliptical galaxies have a symmetrical elliptical or
spheroidal shape with no obvious structure. Most of their member stars are very old
and since ellipticals are devoid of interstellar gas, no new stars are forming in them.
The biggest and brightest galaxies in the universe are ellipticals with masses of about
1013 times that of the Sun; these giants may frequently be sources of strong radio
emission, in which case they are called radio galaxies. About two-thirds of all galaxies
are elliptical. Irregular galaxies comprise about one-tenth of all galaxies and they come
in many subclasses.
Measurement in space is quite different from measurement on Earth. Some
terrestrial distances can be expressed as intervals of time: the time to fly from one
continent to another or the time it takes to drive to work, for example. By comparison
with these familiar yardsticks, the distances to the galaxies are incomprehensibly large,
but they too are made more manageable by using a time calibration, in this case, the
distance that light travels in one year. On such a scale the nearest giant spiral galaxy,
the Andromeda galaxy, is two million light years away. The most distant luminous
objects seen by telescopes are probably ten thousand million light years away. Their
light was already halfway here before the Earth even formed. The light from the nearby
Virgo galaxy set out when reptiles still dominated the animal world.expressed.

39. The word "major" in line 1 is closest in

meaning to
A intense
B principal
C huge
D unique

43. The word "symmetrical" in line 9 is

closest in meaning to
A proportionally balanced
B commonly seen
C typically large
D steadily growing

40. What does the second paragraph mainly

A The Milky Way
B Major categories of galaxies
C How elliptical galaxies are formed
D Differences between irregular and spiral

44. The word "obvious" in line 10 is closest

in meaning to
A discovered
B apparent
C understood
D simplistic

41. The word "which" in line 7 refers to

A dust
B gas
C pattern
D galaxy

45. According to the passage, which of the

following is NOT true of elliptical galaxies?
A They are the largest galaxies.
B They mostly contain old stars.
C They contain a high amount of
interstellar gas.
D They have a spherical shape.

42. According to the passage, new stars are

formed in spiral galaxies due to
A an explosion of gas
B the compression of gas and dust
C the combining of old stars
D strong radio emissions

46. Which of the following characteristics of

radio galaxies is mentioned in the passage?
A They are a type of elliptical galaxy.
B They are usually too small to be seen
with a telescope.

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C They are closely related to irregular

D They are not as bright as spiral galaxies.
47. Which precentage og galaxies is
A 10%
B 25%
C 50%
D 75%
48. The word they in line 21 refers to
A intervals
B yardsticks
C distances
D galaxies

49. Why does the author mention the Virgo

galaxy and Andromeda galaxy in the third
A To describe the effect that distance has
on visibility
B To compare the ages of two relatively
young galaxies
C To emphasize the vast distances of
galaxies from earth
D To explain why certain galaxies cannot be
seen by a telescope
50. The word dominate in line 26 is coset
meaning to
A threatened
B replaced
C were developing in
D were prevalent in

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