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9,50 z#



The Hislofy of Strikes

English Euphemisms
Sloniq Kubiick
Biain Revisited
Spoil in Jopon





Magazyn dia Iudzi

z pasjq tworzenia



inside 39/2013
This & That

PeopLe and LifeslijLe

b Lana - Movie Mirage or Lost Lizzy?
10 Farmers' Market
15 Stanley Kubrick: The Camera Man
13 Brain Revisited
(J 22 The Man Booker Prize
25 Plastic Is Fantastic!
28 How Not to Say What You Really Mean
- the Power of Euphemisms

31 Everybody Out!
35 Sport in Japan - Tradition and Modernity
33 I'll Take Manhattan

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jyk8 angielskiego
Lednicka 23, 60413 PcznaA
tel 61 83363 26,
fake 61 833 6328 cccv 24


Katarzyna Spkk

Hanna Danielczak-Ziadi

Maria Dasiewicz
Urszula 3sk

Mae, McFarland
Daniel Sandford
George Sandford
Janet Sandford

Tolorful ci. Ledeicka 23. 60-410 Pccead. colcrfvlecvdia.pI


Graham Crawford

cekl@celie,da p1

Graham Crawford

Jeanne Teybifcka
Eel. 61 8336326 cc. 22

Opacaeeaeie gafieeee:
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Josiah Kaeav/Bca.eFeta.cenel

tel- 61 833 63 28 wew- 11


Dcfce deanna: facebaek.caeieeattene


by Katarzyna Szpotakowska

Homophones in Pictures








: -



homophone I wyraz ddwldkowo identycony o innym wyrazem, odmienny jednak pod wzglydem pisowni I trakci, homofan



GeneroLion Lost:, Generobon fleHL

The Thumb Generation the name is a direct translation
from the Japanese term tJya yubi sedai and refers to today's
young people who have more accurate and moredexterous
thumbs than their ntitccstoca. They use their thumbs to perform
tasks which used to be other fingers' jobs, such as pointing at
objects. The under 25s ggne their index fingers and use both
thumbs instead to make tfipLd entries on their Ce!] phones.
Although it seems that being all fingers and thumbs will
soon become a compliment, rather than a sign of clumsiness,
some studies try to PQI]JJtait the negative consequences of 'the
thumb ohenomenon' - the detriment of communication skills,
surterficialitv, development of code language, lack of content
in text messages. Nevertheless, the truth is that the possible
consequences are as yet unknown. After all, it is undeniable
that thanks to text messages people can be constantly in touch.
Gen-Xers - people who were burn between the 1960s and
iSBOs. Their general attitude towards life is described as pjg
matic. Gen-Xrrs are tolerant and adapt well to change. They
don't like the world of business and corporate culture and are
pgj.ygij by many as arrogant risk-takers. They used to be
described as latchkey kids, whose parents both spent a lot
of time working. Gen-Xers often experienced their parents'
divorce and, as a consequence, had to become self-reliant
very quickly. People from this particular generation are welleducated, but because of their individualism are skeptical of
authority and not interested in lung-term careers; they are not
committed to one employer.

thumb I kciuk

lack ofsth I brak catgut

accurate I riokiadny

nevertheless I nisnrniejjedriak
undeniable I niezaprzeczalny
attitude] nastawisnie,postawa
enigmatic I rnigmatycrny,
corporate culture I kultura
rharakterystyczna dla horpurarji
perceived I poslrzegany
risk-taken I ryzykant
latchkey kid I pot doiecko
,.z kluczem ia szi' lpxzustawione
self-reliant I polegajycy na stbin
skeptical of I nastaaiiony
sceptyczuie do, sceptqczny

dexterous I zrczny, sprawny

ancestor I proodek
Cu point at sb/sth I wskazywai
to ignore I ignuruwailrkrewazyi
index finger I paler wskazujqry
rapid I szVbki
to be all fingers and thumbs I
mitt twin lear rqce
clumsiness I niozdarnuti
topeintaut I u'uokazywat,zwracat
phenomenon I olawisku
detriment I pogurszelnit
superficiality I pawierzchowrota


Puns of the Issue!

I wondered why the baseball was getting bigger. Then it
hit me.
Did you hear about the gay whose whole left side was cut
off? He's all right now.
I'm glad I know sign language, it's pretty handy.
Atheism is a nonpcuphei organization.
He drove his expensive car into a tree and found out how
the Mercedes bends.
I used to be addicted to soap, but I'm clean now.
I usually take steps to avoid elevators.
When the cannibal showed up late to the luncheon, they
Lave him the cold shoulder.
A rule of grammar; double negatives are rfnrtoo.
Cartoonist found dead at home. The details are sketchy.
He didn't tell his mother that he'd been eating glue. His
lips were
Those who jump off a Paris bridge are in Seine.

apustolgrasfbw:prup het brzmi

to bend I zokrqcai,srhyladsiq
elevator I winda


luncheon I form urrczysty

to give sb the cold shoulder
nhkndnokogtt przyjqt.nie okarat


ano -na(that'sann- no) I pat


toga siq tie nobi

stiw: in Seine brzmi

sealed I oapieroqlowanyc,

jakinsane - szalony,



English Matters 3912013

Lono - Movie Miroge

or Lost Ljzzy?
Lana Del Rey, the long-legged girl with several aliases, a voice like tumbling reeds and
the sultr face of 50s and 60s movies became an Internet sensation with 20 million hits.
The question is - who is the girl in the videos, Lizzy or Lana? Janet Sandford goes in
search of the real story.

wenty-six-year-old Elizabeth
(Lizzy) Wnolridge Grant was
born in New York City, although as a kid she grew up in
Lake Placid, a small village in
the Adirondack Mountains, north-east
of the city. Whether it was the mundaneness of living in an uninspiring
town or something a bit deeper, Lizzie
started drinking at the age of fourteen.
Not just the occasional drink but several, and every day. Lucy became actdictc'd, and while other teenagers were
hanging Out with their boyfriends, she
thought she was being cool by spending time with her first love, alcohol.

The Grants' became concerned abort

their daughter'sgjy and health and
packe her off to a boarding school in
Connecticut to clean up her act in the
hope she would refrain from drinking.

Teenage Career
Three years later, Lizzy moved to
the Big Apple to study Metaphysics,
a traditional branch of philosophy, at
Fordham University. It was at this time
she hung out with new friends other
than alcohol, but at the same time spent
time alone walking the streets of New
York looking at the cityscapes and architecture that were later to become the
inspiration for her early music.
Lizzie always liked singing. She
had been taught to play guitar by her
Uncle, but at this stage she didn't lake
herself seriously, and while she was
gaining experience performing with
her 'underground' friends in the bars
and clubs of Brooklyn, she had no real
desire to pursue music as a profession.
It seems that she could never stick to
one moniker and it changed from Lizzy
Grant to Sparkle Jump Rope Queen to
Lizzy Grunt and the Phenomena and
then later, May Jailer.
In 2007, while ctiltilthiig a singer/
songwriter conference in Brooklyn she
was spotteg by an A&R guy called Van
Wilson who worked for David Nichiern,
owner of indie record company, 5 Points
mundaneness I przvriemnoii, zwiczajnndi

Records. He thought Lizzie had talent,

was a little unusual and looked good in
a cute way with her long blonde hair,
dark eyes and BreJhjeci pm2.QIia. There
was one ingredient missing, a record
producer, but eventually one came along
by the name of David Rhane who had
previously worked with Paul McCartney and Stevie Wonder. The deal was
signed and sealed but never delivered as
the album was never released.

Goodbye Lizzy,

Hello Lana
Even while Lizzy was recording in the
studio with David Khane, she started to
change her image and could never make
up her min d which name to choose. The
name Lana made her smile and think
about beaches and seaside resorts in the
50s. It was also the name of a beautiful Hollywood star from the 40s who

was known as the 'Sweater Girl' (Lana

Turner). When it came to changing her
surname to something more exotic, she
couldn't make her mind up between Del

Ray or Del Rey. In the end she opted

Del Rey, named after the Ford car that
was made for the Brazilian market.
Off came the jeans and T-shirts and

the blonde locks transformed into an auP1121 hctji:dti from the lOs. The girl was
no longer a shy, awkward teenager but
a young, intelligent woman reinventing
a Hollywood style that she loved, 11troubled I Ia: niospukujny, targarry

hang out with sb spdzai z tumi czas,

persona I maska, kreuwany wizerunek

spatykai siq z kind

medial ry/artysry

sconcerned about 1 taniepokrjonyo

sanity I zdtowiu pschiczne

to pack sb off to I wypruwiaikrgrddo

boarding school I internat
to retrain from sth I powstrzymai siq ud czegud
teenage I nrstoIetoi.mlrdriezuw
ritgscape I mieiskipejzoz
In pursue sth I tu: uprawiad cod zawddl

to stick to sth I trzymai Sf czrgos

moniker I pot. przdomek, przezwiskn
to attend sth I ucrestsirzyiwczmd
to spot sb I dnstrzerkngot.zauwazyi

EmgIIh Matters 3912013

eventually I rstatocznie,wkocu
to come along I ODJSWICS1f
previously I wczedniej, uprzedsio
sealed I prrfpieczytnwany, zatw'erdzony
released I wydany
to make up one's mind I zdecyduwaisi
seaside resort I nadmurski kurort
to opt for sth I nptowaizaczymd,wybieraf
auburn I kasztanowy
hairdo uczesanie, fryzura
awkward I oiezrcrny, riiezdarny

and making the number one slot in the

UK album charts.


with pouting lips, dead eyes and wearing

fashions that looked like they had walked
out of ae.gny Broadway wardrobe. Lana
Del Rey had finally arrived on the scene.

Career Launch
The ostensible "gangster Nancy Sinatra image had been cast, but Lana
still needed a record to reach her fans.
Her song, Video Games, co-written
with English musical composer, Justin
Parker, was aired on YonTube in July
2011. The response was sensational;
Pearne Cotton of BBC Radio 1 fame
played the track, and this became the
sang that launched the musician's careers. The video that went with the deep, vocals featuring segments of

eoodiy, home-made movies and scenes

from Hollywood appealed to millions of
viewers - 20 million, in fact, over a period of five months.
The follow-up track, Blue Jeans,
didn't catch as many viewers, but it was
enough at six million to put her on the
track to fame and fortune. In 2011, Del
Rey signed a record deal with tntersrope
Records and Polydor so she could release Video Games to a larger market. In
October of the same year, the song won
a Q Award and the rest of the year was
spent promoting the record by appearjU on TV. Together, Lana and Parker
wrote songs for a full-length album, of
which five were used on the "Born to
Die" album, released in January 2012

English Matto,.39I2O13

It's very difflculticrpi_n any main influences down, as according to the singer/
songwriter there are many, ranging from
Elvis, Joplin, Kurt Cobain, Springsteen,
Dylan, Leonard Cohen, Britney Spears
and Eminem. You can tell from her music that she draws upon different gg.rys.
Not only do we have the crooning, dark
vocals that sometimes don't quite reach
the high notes and sound very similar to
a female version of Leonard Cohen, we
have the twangy guitar sound that emulates the playing of Californian guitarist
and actor, Chris Isaak, and not forgetting
the hip hop and Indie flourishes fused
with over the top use of strings and upfront stompiri , drum sound.
Visually, Del Roy's videos are raiL
iunthsh and melancholy. She is influenced by the controversial director, John
Waters who didn't believe in convention
and crossed many boundaries. He was
responsible for films like Hairspray and
Cry Baby. The repetitive gfiytpsns of
America we see in Del Roy's film ffu
ggg are heavy on nostalgia, eyctcasr
ittlili doom and gloom, showing spontaneous outtakes which, in fact, have been
planned and staged beforehand. One of
Lana's influences is the Connecticut-born photographer, Philip-Lorca diCorcia, a master at creating similar images.

Confidence Trickster
There has been a lot written about
the girl from Lake Placid and her transformation from Lirey Grant to Lana
Del Rey. After her Internet success she
became a heroine, was labelled special,
mysterious and authentic. The girl with
the auburn hair and Scottish ancestors
has since won many awards, ranging
from GQ's Woman of the Year in a Brit
award for International Breakthrouah
and even an EMA award for Best Alternative Act. You would think that her
fans and critics would be pleased for
her, but alas, this isn't the case. There

is a mob out there who believes that her

rise to fame was calculated all along,
that a huge cash injection from her rich
father helped pave the way and that she
tricked everyone into believing her story about being a struggling artist looking to be recognized. The images that
accompany the video of 'Born to Die'
are wild, shocking and certainly out of
character with the Lizzie Grant of 2009.
She has been accused of having plastic
surgery and collagen injected into her
lips and attacked for her awkwardness
and wooden performances on television
shows such as "Saturday Night Live."
Perhaps Lana is still Lizzie, the awkwardness and dead eye look is definitely the Lizzie Grant of old. Perhaps
new seductive look with slick hair,
cherry red lips and slim fitting dresses
is just a character she has manufactured.
What's wrong with that? How many artists over the years have changed their

pouting I nndsan,wydty
sleazy I tu: pot. nhskumny

names and looks? I can think of at least

three - Elton John, David Bowie and
Madonna, and I am sure there are many
more. Let's face it; Lizzy Grant didn't
workout so she decided to become Lana
Del Rey. It makes sense to me.

Will She Stay or Will She

In an interview with Vogue magazine
in 2012, Del Roy stated that she wouldn't
consider making another album because
she believed she had said everything she
wanted to already. Her EP, called Paradise, was released in November 2012
and although it had mined reviews from
music critics, sold 67,000 copies in the
first week of sales and was a top ten hit
in Poland and Flanders. Lana hasn't disopgetud backstage just yet and somehow I think this young seductress will
be around for a little while longer or will
metamorphose into another character.
boundary I granica
glimpse I przelslyvk

launch I lu:pncztek

footage 1 materialf,lmawy

ostentible I rznknMy, pnzorriy, to mobinsy ma

overcast with sth I przelndowany caymi


doom and gloom lit's not all doom and gloom)

to rust I obsadzat, tuwykreawaf

I niewszystka jest stracnne,iestieszcze

track I tu:pinsenka

iskierka nadziei

crooning I nnccy pilfinsem 1w stylu

outtake I ndrzut,wpadkafilmowa
beforehand I wczeinini

apatrhy I riznnrodny, niejednnlity

to appeal tosb I praemiwiidnkntni
fnllow-up I to: knleJny,nawizulcy
do czegai)
to catch 1 tu:urzeknLurzec
appearing I pojawieimiesiy
a slot I pomyrjn, miejsce (np. ama Iiicie)

confidence trickster I nszust, naciygncz

ancestor I przedek
breakthrough I przelnm
alas I niestefy
smob I pej tlum,mnticcb
cash injection I zastrzyk gntiwki
to pane the way I utnrnwai drogy

influence I wpipw

struggling I walczycynuzinanie

to pin I wskazai

lobe accused ofsth I bytoskarzonym

according to I wedlug
to draw upon ath I czerpaf z azegof
genre I gatunekiap. mnzycznvl

seductive I uwudzicielsk
stick I tu:przyliznny

twangy I put. brzykliwy

let's face it I spijrzmy prawdzie w mazy

to emulate I tu:nniladowai, udawat

to workout I dnialai

flourish I tu:nzdnbnik, elementwstawka

to disappear I znakaf


backstage I za kulasami
seductress I uwodzicielka
to metamorphose into sb/sth I prznistaczai
s'g w loyal/cot

stomping I rbarakferyaujcy 55
macrpm rytmem (d stylu wjazz'e)
outlandish I dziwuczmry,dziwmiy

English Mtto,'.39!2013

Jestem debejciakiem, ho kereysraon

o koiysek wydawnictonu Haodybaoksl
To najlepsen mateOntydo samodzielnej
nunkijynyka anginiskiego.
Warn seam je polecam!


Since Hippocrates first advised his students more than

2,500 years ago to 'let food be Lhy medicine and medicine
be thy food', more and more Americans nowadays are
adopting this philosophy as a form of preventative

English Matter's 3912013

Otoadvise I dorada

thyltw rohaicznaforrnu your

preventative I prewencyjny,


is suggested that developing

healthy eating habits could help
prevent some of the most mmmciii
diet-related diseases that gi.ngne
over 100 million people per year in
the United States. Consuming a diet
high in saturated fat and cholesterol
may lead to heart disease, cifienidy.
hypertension, diabetes or mim and
breast cancer. Some people believe
that processed foods may c,gjflgjn trig::
ger elements that lead to the development of these diseases.
Aycuiclin these types of foods
should be the consumer's main pngtic
if they want to live a healthy lifestyle.
However, finding unprocessed and natural foods in American supermarkets
to contain I zawierad
trigger 1 ru:wyrwalacr
to avoid I un!kaf
priority I pritrytrt
however I jednak,jednakn
scommon F powszrchn
disease I rhoroba, schonzenie, dolegliwoft
to plague I prier nfkai

unprocessed I nieprzetworzony
sshelf I vdlka
unpronounceable I niewyrnawialvy

can sometimes be challenging, as the

shelves now contain more packaged
and processed foods than ever before.
Food products are made from unpro.:
nciuujmmeable ingredients and contain
artificial flavorings. sweeteners, benzoate preservatives, hrominated vegetable oil, and monosodium gjutannate,
which are all perfect ingredients for
making a tonic soup. Nutritional studies have shown that jjjggn.jiig these
kinds of ingredients to excess could
possibly increase the likelihood of eczema, hyperactivity, asthma, tumours,
estrogen imbalances, diabetes, stroke
and cancer.
People who follow Hipppocrates' philosophy believe that grgns: nutrition 10,
monosodium glutamate I glutaminian
nutritional studies I badava sad
to ingest I spozywnf
to excess I wrodmiarue
eczema 1 rgzema, choroha 5k6ry
n nieinfelcyjngm podlodu zapalnym
tumour I gui
estrogen imbalance I zaburnene rbwrowagr

saturated fat I butzcz nasycon

artificial I tzt007ny

to lead to I prowadz!d Jo

flavoring I przyprawa

obesity I otyluid

sweetener I sludzik

diabetes I cukrzyco

benzoate preservative I konserwant bazujecy

colon cancer I nowotwOr okryznicy

na benzoeoanir

proper I wlnhciwy

processed prretworzonv

brominated I bromowani

nutrition I odrywinnie

rsgIIh Mwtte39 2013

stroke I odor



could decrease the onset of these di5eas- city in California has a farmers' market farmers' market, which was named one
es and help properly nourish the body where eaters can indulge in local, sea- of the top ten in the nation by USA Tofor the long run, These are the people tonal and organic fresh produce, while day.
On a warm, summer Saturday mornwho can be found p)c.ijng fresh, organic esc&tn processed or genetically moding visit to the market, UC Davis stufruits and vegetables or g)ppjgg a freshly ificci foods (GM foods).
families and other young people
brewed local coffee at their city's farmcity of Davis, California, is ajicacon explore the market for sun-kissed fruits
ers' market.
In the farmers' markets held across of hope for people searching to eat or- and vegetables, toasted e.immci butter,
all of Northern California, customers ganic and healthy food. Throughout the gluten-free chocolate rakes, freshly
believe that the value of a food mat- months of March to October, the uni- brewed fair trade coffee, wild smoked
ters more than its price. Almost every versity town of Davis hosts its famous wild salmon fillets and organic gggs..
fed beef.
Different aromas of cookies and
throughout I w przaciygu
itt nourish I odzwiaf
baked goods fill the air alongside the
toasted I smazony
for the long run I nadluszgmrty
smell of strawberries. The macalmond
to pick I wbieraf
ket gives a sense of community that
gluten-free I bezglutonowy
to sip I sczyi
most supermarkets can never march.
grass-fed I wolregD chnwu,lz kriwl
brewed I zuparrony
Customers can talk with the farmers
wppasoncb na pastwrsku
held 1 prowadzony
their produce, sagguin lavender
a sense of community I poczocie wsp6lnot5
a to indulge in sth I pnzwtii stilt na cof,
lotions, goat's milk, or even get a dog
to match I tudarOwnywaf
Ddduwaf siq czemui
made of balloons from the clown! The
to sample I pribowaf, kotztrwaf
to escape I tu:onikaf
genetically modified I geoetcznie

lotion I mleczku/plyn kasmetyczry


unpasteurized I niepasterrowun

a beacon of hope I promyk nadziei, iwiatlo

raw I suruwy
growth I wzrost



lucky customers will find unpasteur

rate goat's milk delivered straight
from the farm. This milk has none of
the added ggQyytth


hormones in that the

FDA gppyjyg for use in the production

of milk for sale in supermarkets almost
sixty years ago!
Farmers at the market know that
dairy consumption raises health concerns among consumers, such as cancer
or heart disease. Choosing fresh goat's
milk over a supermarket milk brand is,
according to almost every farmer at the
market a much healthier decision.
Consumers are also concerned about
pesticides in food products, especially
in fruits and vegetables. The California
Department of Pesticide Regulation approved the use of methyl iodide (a form
of pesticide) for strawberry farmers.
These chemicals are known to cause
cancer, reproductive toxicity and may
affect the central nervous system.
Farmers at the market are against using pesticides and prefer organic farming methods where they can grow different plants in order to fend off insects
that may kill the gpgg. When farmers samples of their produce, inviting cut- local market-inspired soups and sandhave more biodiversity in their fields, turners to their stalls.
wiches, and falafels, which are a Midharvests are less pronepp insect infesThe market also hosts different food dle Eastern dish of spiced, mashed
ypi:s, who sell hot food at an tfja: iIipgg formed into balls.
Farmers at the Davis market work cent area near the market. The vendors
These tasty foods simply seem to be
very diligently to provide their con- set pg their igitirlike restaurants and, calling out to you byjy.arng, making you
scorers with the healthiest foods,
deoendiog on what "food mood" you feel hungry enough to try everything! If,
contaminated by pesticides, herbicides are in, you can choose Thai rice bowls, for some reason, you are not in the mood
or growth hormones. From fresh goat's Mediterranean and Persian halal foods, to shop for food, the Davis market is 1110.
milk to healthy, pesticide-free strawberries, each farmer at the market sells a FDA (Food and Drug Administration) I Agencju
countless I nierlicruny
their own produce, all carrying a geardn. Zwnoici i LakwlUS)
goodies I put. dnbra
antee that it will not contribute to any
to approve I zatwierdzai
treat I uczta, ru:wielkaprzyiemnnif
health problems.
to raise I wzbudtaf
to puss out rordawat
One Mexican American farmer,
concern I trrnka, nbawa
np an durmul
from the Cabral Family Orchards,
according to I wedlugzgodoiez
ostall I stonko,kram
grows California almonds, rich in vireproduction I rnzrndczy, reprodukcyjoy
to host I gulch
tamin E, calcium and magnesium, and
tonicity I taksycznnii
vendor I sprzedawca
he even offers tasty roasted almonds.
tofendoff I odeprzoi
adjacent I przylegly
Another, Asian farmer, sells red and
crops I uprawy, thirty
to set up I razstawiai
yellow anions, potatoes, carrots, celery,
biodisersity I bianilnoradnofi
tent-like I pnzypominajycy namitty
lettuce, heirloom tomatoes, apricots,
prone to I pudatny on
depending on I w zaletnndci ud
corn and figs when in season. These
infestation I plaga prrazen'e(przez
halalfoods I putrawy przygntrtsaoe
yiipgless gppy(jes keep the farmers'
w sposib pozwalajycy murulmanom n ich
markets very busy!
diligently 1 pibnie
Farmers also bring Californiauncontaminated I niezanierzysaczony
smashed I duszurty
grown avocadoes, which are a treat to
herbicide I tredekrhwastobiczy
chickpea I rrurrerryca
eat with a wild salmon salad. The farmers are always smiling as they pgyyt

tocnntnbutetssth I przycryniaisidu

English Matters 3t12t13

to rail out to sb by name wnlad kugot pu


a hot spot for eco-friendly products and

its location makes the market standout
even more from others in California.
Comfortably situated within the
arid plan of the city, and in a park
surrounded by oak trees, people can
buy lunch from the market and have
a picnic on the lush manicured lawns
with their families. Children have
chance In splash themselves in the
For those looking to do more besides
strolling through the market, the city
of Davis offers qpgjgt antique style cafes, bookstores, clothing boutiques, and
countless foreign delicatessen or restaurants.
A partner with the farmers' market
of Davis in selling organic produce
is a grocery store called the CO-OP.
Producers such as farmers use co-ops
in fair ypgp that directly correto gaL
spond to their production. In return,
consumers pay better prices, obtain
unique goods and a seasonal array of
organic, natural foods.
In California, farmers' markets
and their affiliates share in the same
vision of sestainuhilir. A percentage of consumers who shop at these
places ggyiogt a society that can
have access to traditional gidjfl.b and

cereals, healthy GMO-free vegetables, and meat not tainted by artificial

hormones or meat glue (aloe known as
trausgiutaminase). More Americans
believe that shopping at these places
will guarantee them a safe and delicious food product.
When fresh food becomes more accessible to the general public, we can
demand that these more healthier food
products stay on the market. Farmers' markets give people the option of
buying minimally processed foods,
ito stand out I wyrbzriiaislq
within I Eu:w
grid-plan I sieimiejskalsittkt
oak(tree) I dyb
lush I bujny
to splash oneself I chlopaf sif, plsskof siq
besides I oprOcz.pora
to stroll I spacertoac
quaint asoblissy,nrygrnalny
delicatessen I sklep z egattycznymi lab
trudnt drstqpoymi prtduktami
tours store skiup waraywny
to gain I udobywaf
wage(s) I zurobki, placa napkIn tygodniowol
in return I wzannian
to obtain I aoyskiwtf

English Matters 3912013

knowing the source of the foods and

chatting with the local farmers. They
help people avoid purchasing jyjjyjy
[ceini or the processed foods that have
started to predominate the food aisles,
now more than ever before. Eating
fresh food is a form of preventative
medicine because in the long ruin it
will help you avoid unnecessary visits
to the doctor.
The Davis farmers' market provides
beneficial and healthy produce for all;
the list of healthy foods is almost endless. These community markets are
a ggrn for people who desire to eat
Many Americans gggjg to get "back
to nature" by eating organic, locallygrown agricultural products. Consumers want to know where their
food comes from or the distance it
travelled to arrive at the market.
Conscious consumers believe that
they can still find untainted, natural
foods at farmers' markers, not only
in Davis, but in almost every city in
These farmers' markets will continue to be a community gathering place,
where neighbours can chat with one
another, listen to music, pick up some
fresh produce and feel connected to
their community.
array I wachlorr
affiliate I Filra,oddoiul
sustainability I nienorusoanie rownowagi
ektlogiczntj, tdnassitlnotf
to envision I wyobrazuf stbie, wiuuulirowof
grain I zitnnn
tainted I skaznny
atnpurchase I nobywni
junk food I dnniecitwujedzunie
endless I niekahczacy sly
gem I ILIporla
toseek I szukad
conscious I twindomy
untainted I riiaskazrny
community gathering place I miejsce
tramu000via siy sptleczriodci

People and LiFesljLe




kod dostpu:ev%zd
em. colorf u media. p1

fteg ric
m e r.1IIor)





!JVI11T!U1W( irIand

UT: .\ Space()dyscev, Full Metal JckcIi1eining

Ii1SpdIcLIs and A CIO
Iliisi bold and daring films turned Swnicv 1ub k into one of /\rnericd mn(
vet culllroversidi Ii Iwinkers ol hi tf1w. A Ii'iu he kept his life prrv
hecamedji to tile works of Kuick.

PeopLe and LiFesLLe

ovie reviews labeled

him as talented, intelligent and brilliant, while
a lot of people thought
he was out of his mind.
Kubrick'stnrtierwastobea film director, producer, screenwriter, cinematographer and editor all in one. For Stanley,
a film was more like music than fiction,
where there is a progression of mood
and feeling, while theme and emotion
would all come later.
Born in the Bronx district of New
York to a Jewish family and raised
in California, Stanley Kubrick had
a mind of his own from the very beginning. He did not adapt to a regular
life in school and his parents quickly
saw that Stanley was not determined
to strive for higher grades. Teachers
considered him intelligent, however
Stanley's concerned parents had to
think of another plan to improve their
son's poor performance in school. In
1940, his father, a doctor in New York,
sent him to California, hoping that
an uncle would invigorate Stanley's
attitude toward school. The idea was
not a success, but he returned with
a newly gppjred passion. His initial
opoyj of creativity became more evident when he took up jazz drumming
and music. In addition to developing
these new skills, Stanley's father introduced him to chess, as a last hope
to motivate him to pass his classes. Finally, his dad had found a t.rnodi to
get Stanley going in the right, 'logical'
direction. Stanley began playing chess
for money at different clubs and parks.
Once he gggodgted from high school,
no college would accept him because
of his low grades. Feeling cjgfggte,
his father bought him a camera, which
gyipycyit to be the best birthday present
Stanley could have received. Through
such a simple notion, Stanley slowly
began to unravel his future destiny as
a filmmaker. With boundless enthusiasm, Stanley traveled all around New
York taking photographs and developing them in his own darkroom. When


Stanley Kubrick on the set of Barry Lyndon, 1975.

he was 17, he managed to find a job

with "Look" magazine, which gjiyyged
him to travel more extensively across
the United Slates to work on photography projects.
For Stanley, photography and cinema went hand in hand, so he regularly
went to the movies and at the age of 23
he was already fulfilling his dream of
becoming a film director. Starting out
small and making short documentaries,
Stanley learned how to act as a producer, director and cinematographer during
ito label oh as I xkreilai kogot minrem It
to be out of one's mind I miet ide Po kulei
5 gluwie
metier I pnwulaniu
Progression I to:otnpnirwanio
to have a mind of one's own I mief whose
to strinefor sth I dyzyidxczegti
grade I stxpiolakademickil
concerned I zmartwitny, zariopokolony

the first thirteen minute film he made

about a boxer. The short documentary
turned out to be a success and earned
him a small profit. With enough money
raised from winning at chess, Stanley
could begin filming his first movie, Fear
and Desire, which was filmed in California in 1953. During that time Stanley
married Toba Metz, however the mar-

riage ended before the movie was even

released. His talent for directing, more

than the movie itself, earned him gi.!jJljc

to take upoth I zabraisqzacti
remedy I irodek
to graduate from I ukurzyi subtly,
defeated I pukonauy
to prove I ttu:okazaisiy
boundless bezgraniczny
darkroom I ciemria
2 t allow oh to do sth) I purwalaf kxmut cok

to improve I pulepszyf

logo hand in hand I iii w purze, byl IcikIe ze

poor performance I tx:slube wyniki

soby zwiyzanym

to invigorate I oywii, pobudoif, aaktywizowai

to release I wejif do kin/na ekrany

acquired I rabyty

to earn I tu:rdrbyi

spark I okra

public accreditation I urnanie ptiblirznoici

English MatteaE 3912013

Stanley Kubrick's inogawaited mument had come. He succeeded in ogp

yiyyoipig Hollywood producers with
his two movies, Killer's Kiss (1955)
and The Killing (1996). From these
modest beginnings Kubrick went on
to direct Paths of Glory, starring Kirk
Douglas, and later he filmed the epic
movie Spartacus in 1960, again with
Douglas playing the role of the rebellious slave. During the production of
Spartacus, the movie crew criticized
Kubrick for jrnpgpjpg his own ideas on
the set. Supp edt, cinematographer
Russell Metty reported that Kubrick
was stealing his job and commandittg him to 'sit and do nothing' even
though Merty ended up winning the
Academy Award for Best Cinematography. A disanointed Kubrick derided to leave Hollywood behind and
move to England, especially since his
second marriage to Ruth Sobotka was
getting a little Lhaky.
In 1962 Kubrick moved pgyggty
oBytly to England, where he produced
his most entertaining movies ever,
One of them, Lolita, is based on the
Vladimir Nabokov's novel. In his most
controversial movie yet, Lolita told the

story of a young, teenage girl and her

love affairs. Kubrick's next movie, Dr.
Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop
Worrying and Love the Bomb, made
in 1964, became a huge success. The
film was a comedy altough Kubrick
originally planned to write the script
as a drama. Kubrick began making his
way up the social ladder and could gg
6gggijsii more and more as a movie
producer. Another successful movie
evolved out of the jogjou.y mind of
Kubrick in collaboration with Arthur
C. Clarke, namely 2001: A Space adyssey. For all sci-fi fans, this movie
became a classic and is known as one
long-awaited I diugo orzekiwany,
to captivate I urrec, ui
to direct I renvserrrwai

of Kubrick's greatest films. In this epic

film, humans interact with monoliths
which are tampering with, human evolution. The extraterrestrial voyage was
filmed in England because of the larger
sound stages than in the United States.
Kubrick did not stop at this p.ggynei
film. A Clockwork Orange (1971) starring Malcolm McDowell caused an
even bigger controversy than Lolita,
with its graphic depiction of violence.
Kubrick seemed unaffected by the
commotion the movie caused. The
film dealt with a delinquent youth in
a future Britain who volunteers for an
experiment to help solve society's 111,
5 social

ladder I drabiria spolecuna

to accomplish I osiygoi
On evolve nut of I zradzidsiqw
ingenious I genialny, blyskotliwy

to impose sib Snob I narzucad cxi

namely I a rnanowiciv

supposedly I przypusrrzalnie,
to command I rozkazyoai
disappointed I rozczarowvny
shaky I rbwiejny, oslabilny
permanently I nastate
entertaining I przyemn, znlmujyry

s to interact with sb I nawiqaywaf a kirk

kontokt, wchodzii a krmf w interakciy
monolith I mcmlii
to tamper with sth I ingerowaiwcoi
extraterrestrial I pazaziemoki
renowned I slyony
depiction I odmalousanie, przedstowierrie
commotion I poruozenie


Wszystko do nauki jqzyka angielskiego! (j'-k,


,d w



w cc




INgg 1


haslo: English

2001: A Space Odyssey

for all sci-fi fans this movie

became a classic and is known
as one of Kubrickrs greatest

crime problem, however not everything

goes as planned by the government.
Throughout the production of his
movies, Kubrick gained the reputation of being a relentless director who
pushe his actors to the limit, scarcely giving them a break. He had high
standards and rumour had it that Kubrick was becoming a recluse. He did,
in general, igy a very private life. In
fact, though, he began directing a horror flint, The Shining (1980), which
starred Jack Nicholson as a reclusive
writer who moves into and watches
over an empty hotel for the summer
with his family. As his mind plays
games with hint in the
the horror story begins. During Kubrick's last projects, he got married for
the third time to Christianr and had
three children.
Kubrick then released another main: movie, called Full Metal Jacket,
in 1987. This war film told the story
of a fellow U.S. Marine who observed

the horrifying effects that the Viet- intelligence, however the technology
nam War had on his Marine recruits, of the day was not able to create the
It earned Kubrick widespread acclaim, special effects needed.
Kubrick suffered a heart attack and
although he worried that other war
movies had been greater successes. died in his sleep on March 7, 1999. The
His final film was Eyes Wide Shut, production of Al. was nut on hold until
featuring Tom Cruise and Nicole Kid- Steven Spielberg finished the project on
man oopictirig marital Miss. The pans- behalf of Stanley Kubrick, Whether Kues in between Kubrick's movie pro- brick would have accepted this version
ductions were getting lengthier. His or not stands as one of the greatest unanlast production was going to be A.l., swered questions in the history of movie
a new sci-fi project about artificial making.
i throughout I w przrriygu, na przsstrzeri
regain I adabyizyskaf
relentless I tieust5pliwy, oieugrqty,
to push situ the limit I pot. doprrwadzai
kogrt fir kresu wytroymalttci, prorciyftc
scarcely I zaledwie,praaae tie
to give 51b a break I pnr poowsial kamsi no
przerwq, odpsszrzaf

recluse I samtttikodludek
to load I nuts, prnwadzii byrd

English MatterS tsiaoit

a reclusive writer I pisoro somotnik

to watch oaensth I nadaarowaicnt
haunted I nawiesizany
owidespread acclaim I powsoecho: uzoonie
to explore I badaczflybIac
marital I malzefski

bliss I razkasz
artificial I sztucary
to be put on hold I arstal wstraymanym
on behalf of I wimienis
whether I coy
to stand I tu:ptaonlawat. stasowit


Attention! Do not
read, skim or even
scan this article if you
strongly believe in
free will, unless you
would like English
Matters to shatter your
world. You see, there's
a lot of evidence that
our brains aren't
telling us about
everything they're
doing. 01,
to revisit oth I spojrzee no co w nowy
sposhb mvIeniad
to skim I przogIdat
to shatter I zdruzgata

any centuries ago, St.

Augustine emphasized
his sense of helplessness
by saying that he simply
couldn't groat all that
he was. Much water has run under the
bridge since then, and human beings
have become capable of uncovering
the mysteries of the self. One of these
knowledgeable individuals is David
Eagleman, the author of Incognito, who
i.titygils and iini lm the inexplicable.

Inaccessible Me
Much of who we are is far beyond
the reach of our choice or opinion. Most
fundamental drives are in the
fabric of human neural rjrgitcy and remain inaccessible to the so-called 'conscious self.' To put it bluntly, the conscious me is actually the smallest bit
player in the brain. Another interesting
fact is that our brains are constantly in
two minds. They consist yf conflicting
parts which compete to control human
behaviour. The rational system often
wages war on the emotional one. The
right hemisphere remains in conflict
with the left one. Short-term desires are
not compatible with long-term cravings. For instance, it is extremely difficult for people to delay gratification.
When offered 100 dollars now or 110
dollars in a week, most w.sib,gcts choose
the 100 dollars immediately. On the
ito emphasise nIh I ptthreiluf, hail nacisk
helplessness I berradroC
to grasp I ptllc.zdacsrblasprawy
uncovering I tdkrcie
to unveil I tlslanai, tdkriwal, ul awn iai
to untangle I rnzrsrkl4 rozwiklywei
drive I tu.pnptd
imprinted I wyrsti, tdciisiyty, wpisanv
circuitry I zespbl tbwodiw
to Put itbluntly I mfwiycwprust
conscious I iwiadnmy
tn consist of I skladaisiyz
conflrtting I sprzeczny, knlldulycy no snby
to compete I wspdfzawttlniczyi
to wage war nn oh I prtrsadzilzkimiwxiny

other hand, as surprising as it may

seem, when offered 100 dollars in 52
weeks or 110 dollars in 53 weeks from
now, most subjects choose the second
option. According to Eagleman, the explanation of this phenomenon is quite
simple. People tend opus more value
on rewards closer to now than on rewards in the distant future.
What to do, then, when our unconscious brain is in two minds? The recommended coarse of action, it seems, is
to toss acoin. First of all, specify whirls
option belongs to heads and which to
tails. Then, simply assess your gut
after the coin has landed. If you feel
a sense of relief after having a look at
the coin, that's the right choice. If you
are disappointed with the result of fijjy
pJg the coin, you should choose the
other option.

experiment conducted in 2004, some

people are considered to be more attractive and are more eager to marry
individuals whose names start with the

first letter of their own name.

Donny will be crazy for Daisy, Alex
will marry Amy. This phenomenon is
called implicit egotism. In other words,
it means that people seek their reflections in others and want their ypQyt,y,es
to remind them of themselves.
At this point, it's time to emphasize
that people's behaviour should never
be separated from their biology. David
Eagleman gives a lot of evidence that
even the slightest shift in the balance
of brain chemistry may cause a huge
change in the way we act. The condition of the brain specifies what we are
like. Therefore, even minimal dam-

Beauty Is in the Eye

of the Beholder
Beauty is actually in the eye of our
unconscious brain. Our neural software pays attention to symmetry and
structure in looks. The qualities regarded by males and females as beautiful are closely connected with signs
of fgcyjjiiy. So a beautiful woman is
one with full lips, full buttocks and
a narrow waist, whereas an attractive
man should have a strong jaw, otub.
ble and a broad chest. According to an

age to the brain can result in the loss of

certain abilities, such as the ability to
name animals, control risky behaviour
or distinguish colours. In 1966, Charles
Whitman shot pedestrians from the top
floor of the University of Texas Tower. Earlier, on the same day, he killed
his wife and mother. Whitman left a suicide note, in which he described himself as a victim of irrational thoughts
and emphasized that he had lost the
ability to understand himself. What's
more, in his diary he wrote about the

hemisphere I plkula
short-term I krOtkttnrmiruwy, kritkttrwaly
erasing I pragnienie
to delay I opdisii, udwiw us music

beholder I tdbitrca, tiserwator

gratification I zadownlenie,spelniania lpttrtnbyl

jaw I szcrqka

subject I fa:podmiut,tsoba

stubble I kilkudnitusyzartst

2 t put more value on sth I cutil cot bardtiei

fertility I ptodnnbi
narrow I wyski
waist I talia, kibif

ocandacted I przeprowadztuy

unconscious I teiwiadumy

hence I styd, dlatego

tn toss aenin I rzuraimtnetq

implicit I ukryly

heads I urzel

reflection I ndbicie, udzwierciudlenir

tails I ruszka

spouse I matzonek,rnalitnka

to assess I aceniE

tightrope I Iina(dtakrtbacji)

Ito have) a gut feelirglthatl I instynkttwniu

shift I przetunicie, tmiana

a sense of relief I tdczucin uli

to distinguish I rnzrdzniad

to flip (a coin) I rzu cat lmtnetql

pedestrian I przechtdzieb

ability I zdoltuC

EogIih Mafters 39I2013

mental turmoil he was experiencing. It

turned out that Whitman was actually right. An autopsy revealed a tumour
-a gliobjgypma - which compressed
the giigcigia, responsible for the regulation of fear and aggression. Another example of what can shake the balance of brain is split-brain r er. After
the surgery, some patients tend to suffer
from the so-called alien hand syndrome,
which manifests itself in both hands expressing conflicting desires. One hand
may grab a cookie whereas the other
one will petit clown. One hand will zip
jacket, the other will unzip it.

Anosognosia is another type of
a condition, which may be caused
by a stroke. Patients suffering from
anosognosia are not aware of their
impairment at all. Therefore, a man
in a wheelchair may claim that he is
kicking a ball. A patient, whose hand
is paralyzed, says that both his hands
are placed on a steering wheel, whereas
only one is actually placed on it. Blind
patients claim that they can see. The
crux of the matter is that those people
are not lying. Their brains are fabricating a story about what's happening to
their damaged bodies. The patients really think that they are performing all
these actions.
a turmoil I wrzeriie, niepokhj
tuturnout I okazywuisi
glioblastoma I glejak
to compress I uciskuf
amgtdala I ciaio migdnbnwate
5pIit-brain surgerrj I nperacja mizgu
puIegajca no zerwaniu ciala nodzelnwatego

In the book, much attention is paid to
the fact that no-one comes to the table
as a blank slate. Any decision taken is
the outcome of the mindset of the conscious me and the point of view of the
genetic me. for some human beings,
the probability of committing, a crime is
much higher, simply because they carry
a 'more dangerous' set of genes. This
hazardous set is hidden in the Y chromosome. Hence, males are eight times
more likely to commit, for example,
aggravated assault and ten times more
likely to commit murder. The good
news is that a lot depends on the developmental path of an individual. Not
only genes, but also environment matters. Even if a person has a 'dangerous
brain' - one which predisposes them to
become a bad person - thanks to an appropriate uobcinuinu, they can turn Out
perfectly fine.

ktire }yzy dwie pflkulr mizgu w Ieczenuiu


cheeky I zuwadiacki, zuchwaly

alien hand stndrnme I syndrom obcej

involved in I zuotgozrwany rs
serotnnin I serotneinu

a0050gnosia I anorognoaja

stroke I odor
impairment I upodledzenie
wheelchair I aOzek inwalidzki
steering wheel I kiernasnca

the crux of the matter I srdno sprawy

a mother, became bad group members.

Finally, David Eagleman unravels
the mystery of why some women can

differentiate many more colours than

men. At least 15% of women have
a genetic mutation and possess an extra photoreceptor that enables them to
discriminate between colours which to

other people seem identical. This mystery, as well as the others mentioned
earlier in the article, do not exhaust the
list of topics raised in the book Incognito, So, if you're interested what kind of
secret was hidden in the brain of Joan
of Arc, reach for the book and see for

Cheeky Monkey
The same is true of monkeys. A researcher, Stephen Suomi, found that
monkeys were born with two different
"flavours" of genes involved in transporting necotoniet - short alleles or
long alleles. Monkeys with long alleles
turned out okay, irresnective of a had
childhood environment. However, those
with short alleles were given resilience
blank slate I ozysta tablina odpowiednik
bar tabula tutu)
outcome I wynik, rezultat
mindset I nastowieirie,sposib mytlenia
to commit a crime I popelnif zbrndnry
aggravated assault I napnd z broniy w rku
to predispose I predyopornowaf
upbringing I wychowanie


to evil behaviour thanks to a good mothering relationship. Monkeys with short

genes raised among their peers without

irrespective of ) her wzglyda no

resilience I tu:odptrnotf
trained I wyrhowany
peer I rbwietnrk
toeehaust I tuwyrzerpywaf

English MH,m 3912013

W kilku zdaniach npisz

wigzpku angielskirrt,
air Jest Twbj spnsdb na
szybkie pndeimnwnnio
decyzji. Swnjq wypnwiedh rnzprcznij
nd oforernbnwania

Nantgpnie wypnwiedb pisemrrg

wytli) marlem do 30 maja sa adres:
A! temacie marIa wpisz: Brain',
a w tretci pndaj swnje imig,
nozwisku oraz adres
Do wygrania: 5bowniki Wydaetnictwa
Pniteot Slang,
idinmy I modne
sbnwu w biznesie"

antorstwa Rnnnana
FA 3 4Ll
w knlejnym nnmerze
English Matters.




n it comes to book authorship

there can be few more
esteemed than the Booker.
tel Sandford flicks through the
's of this historic drama to see
s the cat's whiskers or elitist

Time to Man Up
In 2002, the structure changed
slightly and the Booker Prize began to
be administered by The Booker Prize
Foundation. With this came a new
sponsor in the form of alternative investment management business, Man.
Man pp..gfle..d the Booker Prize to
dizzy heights, g.p.gJig it to matchthe
award's prestige with its financial reward, tggpjag it from a pfJ.Ey 22,000
no 50,000 and thus making it one of
the world's richest literary prizes.

Gone Global
In 1959, Booker-McConnell, now
The Booker Group, a food wholesale
operator, sponsored a literary prize
railed The Booker-McConnell Prize.
In order to be considered for the award,
the author had to be be a citizen of the
Commonwealth of Nations, Ireland
or Zimbabwe. Today, The Booker has
gone global in the form of the Man
Booker International Prize created in
2005 and for which authors from any.
where qualify. Then there's the Russian language book award, the Russian
Booker Prize, inaugurated by Michael
Caine in 1992, making it the first nongovernmental literary prize in Russia
since before the Soviet Revolution in
1917. If that doesn't g,ue.npii your thirst

then there's still the Man Asian Literory Prize, geared towards the best
Asian writer; the book must either be
written in English or translated into

Never Judge a Book by Its

Potty three years ago, the one c.rjir.rion was that the prize would be given
to the best novel in the opinion of the
judges. Today little has changed and
the judges play the most important
role. The Booker prides itself on using
what it calls a common man' approach,
that's to say that rather than reiyittg..nti
judges from a small pool of academics
and literary critics, they have also used
actors, politicians and journalists.

Er'rgIlOh MwUw!n 39 2013

nonthorship I autorstwo
well esteemed I pawazuny
the cat's whiskers I pot. odlot
claptrap I pot. nunsrns, bidura
i wholesale I handel hurtowy, hurt
the Commonwealth of Nations I WspOlrota
to quench I ugasd
thirst I pragnienrie
aftt be) geared towards sb I byc adresowandm
do iogoi
Criterion I kryterium
to pride oneself on sth I szrzycii sly czymi
common man I zwyrzajry czfowiek
approach I pode1drio
It rely on sb I poletaf no kimi
a It propel sb to sth I wywindowaf kogol
(n p. 00 niabotycznp wysokoill, wynrinid kagol
lop. oaszczptyl
dizzy I zawratny
to enable I umobliwiad
to notch sOb with sth I doposowad cr1 do
toapsth I zwitkszai
paltry I lichy,nydrny,marny

2012 winner Hilary Mantel (right) was the author's second award winning book in three years, making her the
first woman to have won the award twice.

critics' opinion that Rushdie's master- made into a film whilst Mantel's 2012
Booker of Bookers
In 2009, the best of the Booker corn- giegg is head and shoulders above the winner was the author's second awardpetition was held to commemorate the rest, the best-selling Booker of all time winning in three years, waking her the
Booker Prize's 40h anniversary. ,)j is Thomas Keneally's Schindler's Ark; first woman to have woo the award
gji7Le titles were madejp of the win- its initial burst of sales was followed twice. Commonly described as one of
ners over the 39 years since its jcgg. up by a second hour following its adap- the greatest living British authors, her
ion. In 1974 and 1992, victory was tation into Spielberg's him,
brand of historical fiction has taken the
Two more recent titles that are play- world by storm. Set in the times of Henry
~pLit between two authors, meaning
that there were 41 titles in total. The ing catch-up are 'h'ann Mactel's The Life VIII, it focuses on his minister, Thomas
undisputed winner was Salman Rush- of Pi and Hilary Mantel's Bring up the Cromwell, and she t:jng.s the period to
die's Midnight's Children, his second Bodies; the former has recently been life with her vivid characterisation.
novel, that would take him from relative anonymity into being considered a to commemorate I upomgtnioi
s musterpioce I duelo
one of the best authors of the century.
eligible I spolniajycy warunki, nadujycy sit
tube head and shoulders about sb I pot. byf
The 1981 winner also won the Best
a ninbo Inpsoym of kogti, prztrastad kogof
made up I tt:ztozonyjzfwybraryjspoirOdl
inception I roupocaycie, powstanio
of Booker in 1993, an award to como glowt
memorate the 2511 anniversary of the
split I potlzielnniy
burst of sales I Loom sprzeda100y
contest I knnkurs
bout I ru:oawrOr
contest. Midnight's Children takes
transition I przeltsztalcenie siy
a look at the i,@o.siijon from a colonial
to play catch-up I pet. dnganiaf, dnrbwnywaf
India to an independent one through
independent I tu:nioptdlegly
commonly I powsrechnit
the eyes of Saloem Sinai, born at.th_e
at the st roke of midnight It vvyblClnm
set in I osadztryw,umiejscowionyw
stroke of midnight, at the moment of
pdlmacy, nokladnit a ptnucy
to focus on ath I skupiad sit no rzymh
the nation's independence. Despite the
to bring sth to life I nryenaf
despite I pomimo


English Mt1.r.30!2015

When Irvine Welsh's earthy novel

Trainspotting made it onto the
shortlust of finalists two judges
who did not feel it worthy of
its place in the competition
threatened to leave the panel.

It is mooted that the recently made

MBE could well be the first author to
win it for the 3 time, with her work in
progress, the final part of the trilogy,
The Mirror and the Light. Outside of the
Booker, she is working on a short nonfiction book about Polish pjgywright
Stanislawa Przybyszewska, entitled The
Woman Who Died of Robespierre.

Not in My Book
The judging ceremony is held in the
historical structure of London's Guildhall. Built in 1411, it is the only stone
building not belonging to the church
that wasn't destroyed by the Great
Fire of London. This impressive backdr4 has occasionally seen a touch of
drama. When Irvine Welsh's earthy
novel Trainsporring made it onto the
shontlist of finalists, two judges who
did not feel it worthy of its place in
the competition threatened to leave
the psoci; the honk was returned to
the longlist, with the reason being
cited as 'f.fdig the sensibilities of

two judges". Such nitpicking oportod

ugu.can of worms.
Only one Scot has ever won the award
and some Scots are still opiti.arms that
they are constantly overlooked in favour
of English writers. Despite claiming to
have a ydljp,i panel, it goes without sayjgg that the fair nnajcaily of the judges are
middle-class and English. With Scott,
Welsh and Northern-Irish judges playing
a very marginal role in the award, The
Guardian claimed that the bias was more
of a class issue than a nationality one and
was not due to a lack of talent amongst
Celtic writers. The fact that the English
proletariatgiggtareii the shortlisied
titles somewhat supports this theory and
hjttis that the judges still use an elitist approach in choosing the winter.
Others have accused the Booker of sacjjjin literary merit for readability and
also toying to promote the award by giving it to a well-established author, as was
the case when Kingsley Amis won with
The Old Devils, which was 4t:iygl in many
a person's view. to is not the first time the
award has courted controversy. When the
Marxist John Berger won the award in
1972 with his romantic picaresque novel
G, he donated half of the winnings to
the British Black Panther movement and
used the rest to fund a hook about migrant
workers entitled A Seventh Man. The author did not draw the line at tyjrgipg the
competition into disrepute by ensuring it
indirectly supported the far-left organisation but also used the awards ceremony as
a platform to vent his anger at the origins
of the company's sponsor, Booker McConnell, who used slaves and indentured
workers to man the sugar trade in Guyana
and other parts of the Caribbean region.
Berger's From A to X was longlisted for
the 2007 Booker prize, suggesting that no
ill feeling is held towards the author. Then
again, the sponsor has long since changed!
Whether it is elitist and intellectually snobby is open to debate but however
it is perceived, it remains the primary

it is tented that I form sugnraje soy or

playwright I dromntopisnrz, dramaturg
backdrop I tu:tlo(zcarzunial
earthy I Cu. przyz:rmn5, realistyczn :
trzpmujycp si uiemi
to threaten I ZafrOoIC
panel I Cu: losta lstdziiwl. knmitei
In offend I nbrnoaf
sensibility I wrazliwnif
2 nitpicking I pot cuepioroie sig szczegOuiw,
wIraldyanie filtttiw
to open up a can of worms I pot, otosinraf
puszkq Pandory
tobeupinarms I burzliwio
overlooked I pomijany
infaruourofsb I u korzyfciy din knoi, an
czyjyi inert
varied I erdinicowany
it goes without say! ng I niemoena
majority I sigksznil
bias I uprzelueniie
due to I z poisodu
lack I Irk
rarely I rzrdko
lo feature in I tu:znaidowai soy no
In hint I oskazywaf
to accuse ob I osksrnuf krni
In sacrifice I poiwgcai
merit I zoslugo
readability I prrzytnnif
well-established I ngblnio uznany
drivel I bzdury.brednie.glupnty
to court controversy I wzbudtif kontrnworsit
picaresque I powell pikarnjska,
to donate I ofiarowaf
to draw the line atsth I stunrwczn
oprzeciwiai oiy robirniu czegoi
In bring sb/sth into disrepute I
kompronitowof kogol/cot
touentsth I Cu daf upustrzomaf
anger I tnrw
origins I pochodzenir
to indenture I znhnwiprywof umnwy,
Ca: przywiyza: do nemi np chirpa
pod szczyin iooegnl
On man nIh I obtiugiwad cot, zajmawad sly

showcase for the bookwriting profes-


sion and has sent many an aspiring

showcase I Ct: wiuytdwka

scribe en his or her way.

English Ma"ers 39 2013

tribe I pisarn

Plush: Is FonLosLici
by Maria Dasiewicz
Keeping money in a jj belongs to the t!Jrn and distant past. True, no? People say it's
much safer to keep your money in a bank, instead of stuffing it under your pillow
or slipping it into your piggy bank. And let's face it, who keeps their entire life savings
at home? Or their salary?
going straight into your
transferred to your bank
Instead of rash in your
wallet, you keep several
debit cards - nice, soft to
slastic substitutes for your
an era when almost everyrely nn the Internet and
ices and has an'e-' aLgfix at-books, n-mails, n-learning
many others, it is hardly
ntpiiisiu that cgyrcnl,iy we
talk about online banking
and c-money. But before
money changed to a digital format and stopped
giityg its our pockets, it was
such present in a physical,
wm throughout the whole
tuman history, undergoing
es and transformations.
cc plunge into the sieitscky
and answer the question
sey came to be, we have to
first: what is money? The
lefinition of money is that
thing agreed upon and ac1 within a aim community
tyment for goods, services
etymology of the word is
it. The English word
can be traced back to the
irteenth century Old French
'monoie', meaning 'money,
currency'. The French term
liriated from Latin 'nooneta',

IIh Mofters 3912013

which means 'a place for coining money, mint; or coined money'. In ancient
Rome, there stood a temple 'Juno Mooeta' on one of the seven hills of Rome,
Capitoline. It was the place of wyty!yi
of Juno, a much venerated Roman godess, and was also the location of the -d
nor I 1101k
dim I pnnury
instead of corniest
to stuff I upycliuiwpychai
piggy bank I iwinkalskurborkal
let's face it I opblrzrny prawdzie woozy
entire life savings I osnrzydooicr rnleto zycia
bank account I knots bonkowe

to substitute for sth I zortypowni cot

tn rely nn I tvtpieraisiy na
prefix I przedrostek
it is hardly suprising I rio dzrwneto, 00
currently I obacrire
to jingle I brzyczei
tangible I nnmacalny.rnatorialny
In plunge into sth I znnnrknwniw rot
murky I rngtry
to agree u Pon sth I ozgodnhicob
within I w obrybie
linen I donyokretlony
settling of debts I splacanie zadfuze,
rnzliczenir zohowiyrai
etymology I poclnodzenit, ttynologia
obscure I nielaony
Ox trace back I wywndoiisyarzegot
currency I saLoOn
a worship I knit
venerated I tzcztny

Roman mint. 'Moneta' was a title h:

plied to Juno ('the one, unique'), perhaps
because the Latin word 'rrisnere' stands
for 'to warn, instruct' or because of the
Greek 'moneres', meaning 'unique'.
The Polish 'pieniqdz' was borrowed in
the 915 C. from the Old Saxon language,
and at's why it is simil to e
man 'pfennig', Dutch 'penning', Norse
'penger' and English 'penny'. At first
Polish 'pieniqdz' was used to note only
small coins.
How did money come In be? In the
words of Aphra Behn, 'money speaks
sense in a language all nations understand'. Money as such did not originate
in one place and tsg.cL all over the
globe; rather it appeared independently
in various places and cultures. Sooner or
later, all civilizations, nations and tribes
resorted In money, because of the need
for developing a means of paynnent for
crimes, brides or paying taxes and giving
tributes. The word 'pay' is traced back
to Latin paco, pacare' meaning 'I make
peaceful, pacify'. However, the history
of development and worldwide spread of
money is also strongly intertwined with
warfare and military conflicts. Iris a vast
topic, well presented in the book 'A history of money' by Glyn Davies, who
devotes a whole chapter to a


ar th Ger


mint I tu:mennica

.ygigitigit of warfare and financial history,

beginning from ancient times and ending
at the contemporaries.
According to available sources, the
only civilisation that made do without
money was the Incas, who used ar
system. Before money, there


ing, which goes as far back as 100,000
form of exchanging goods
or services for other goods and services.
For example, I've got a sack of corn to
give away and need some beans. t nerd
to find someone who wants toy corn and
years ago -a

It dub sth I

achrzcif cot (jakimi matte

applied to; stusawanyto

to stand

for I znoczyi
to denote I okrntlai

double coincidence of wants I podwt1nu

money speaks sense in alanguage all

comrnoditymoney I pieniydz-towar

nations understand I plenlyda pruemawia we

beads I koraliki
amber I borsotyn
mary I knit slaniown

to spread I rozprzestrzeniai sly

to resort to stir I uciokal sq do czegtt, siogqi

PO co~

zbienoti potrzeb

oa(pl.oxenf I wd(
thimble I naparstek

a moans of payment l i rod ek pintniczy

cowry I pot porrelanka (rolraj ilimoko)

intertwined with nIh I zwiyzany

dampness I wilgod
non-perishable I niepsujycy tie

thorough I dtkladrsy
account I reloc;a. sprawoodanie
barter; handeiwymitnoy
to spare I ntzbyciu
to hit a snag I put napntkad proesukody

has the beans to spare. As you've probably noticed already, it's not enough to
find a person who wants the corn but
has no beans, or a person who has beans
but doesn't want my corn. Thus, we hit
t.onag, which has been dubbed the 'dou
ble coincidence of wants'. In order for
the transaction to take place, both individuals need in agree on the exchanged
This in turn gave rise to so-called
'commodity money', certain commodities such as seeds, cattle, salt, tea or tobacco used as payment for goods and
set-vices. Among such primitive forms of
money were also: rice, nails, beads, amber, jgpgy, leather, pigs, noon, thjtrthjes
octoxies (a kind of seashell) and many
others. Again, they turtted out to be less
than perfect means of payment. People
had to travel long distances carrying
heavy socks of commodity money, they
had to store it properly, as it was suscep-

tible to corrosion, dampne s, dirt and, in

case of the animals, sickness.
It is hardly surprising that over the
years people came up with the idea of
a non-perishable means of payment.
Around 5000 BC people began to use
various metal objects as money. However, the innovative idea of using metals
such as silver and gold for minting coins
is ascribed to the Lydians, who lived in
the western part of Asia Minor. The first
coins come from about 650-600 BC.
gg4gg,ll, the use of metal coins spread
and t k root in other countries (mainly
thanks to the extensive rule of the Roman
Empire), replacing commodity money.
For instance, 'shekel' or 'talent' were at
first units of weight of )jgg(gg and other
corns. Later, coins took over those values, and people paid in metal coins called
shekels or talents for goods.
With the passage of time, commodity money morphed into representative


gradually I sttpninwo

money and paper money, thus the value

to take rout; zakrrzenitsiq

of the material of which money itself was

barley I jyczmiei

made was no longer important. People

to take over I proejyt, zajyt mirisce catgut)

to morph into nth I prreittocZyE sq a cot

deposited and stored their gold, silver

and other commodities in banks or at
merchants', and in return they received

at merchants' I a kupcdw, u handlaray

English Matters


special tggjts, staring how large their

deposit was. It wasn't long before such
tugo of paper began to be widely accepted as money. The first paper money
was introduced in China around 960 AD.
The practice of using paper money spread
thanks to the Song Dynasty, and by the
mid-131" century, a standardized and
government-appointed version of


money became the currency of China.

In Europe, the transfer to paper money was a much slower process. The first
country to use paper money was Sweden,
in 1661, and only because the low value of
pe meant that the minted copper coins
had to be quite heavytorepresenra certain
value. Paper money was representative
money bayg.j by banks, with a guarantee of exchanging it for a given amount
of gold or silver. For instance, a bill of
a Pound Sterling could be exchanged for
a pound of sterling silver. Up till the 20'
century, representative money backed by
the gold standard was used in a number
of European countries. The common use
of paper money, which in itself was of no
value, usually le to unchecked and massive printing of notes that had no backing
in gold or silver, and when amassed in
large amounts, often led to high inflation.
Due to military conflicts in the 20'
century, gradually European countries
began to break with the tradition of the


gold standard backing up paper money,


letting go of precious me ls and


lishing 'flat money'. 'Fiat' from Latin

means 'let it be done'. As the name itself
suggests, the money is devoid of any intrinsic value, and only hasany value at
all because governments issue special
decrees to the point. Thus, currently, governments allow banks to print fiat money
without their having to back the sums up
with any valuable commodity such as
gold. Of course, the larger the amount of
fiat money is printed, the higher the inflatioti rate. In order to keep every-thing well

balanced, governments, central banks

and other authorities control and s pervi e the amount of money with a view
of certain goals, through monetary policies. Usually the focus of such monetary

policies lies in development and economic growth and the establishment of

stable prices.
So now we operate in the fiat monetary system. Still, paper money gets
dirty, crumpled, torn, wet, burnt, and
so on ... So it's easily perishable! Also,
it takes a lot of space in your wallet,
which gets thick and heavy and is more
difficult to stuff into your pocket. It's
much more convenient to buy on credit,
and at the end of the month to pay up.
With such a view, the first bank credit
cards appeared in New York, in 1946.
The 'Charge-It' program was the btllin.
child of one John Biggins of a bank in
Brooklyn. Customers of the bank could
purchase goods in local stores, and later
the bills were taken by merchants to
the bank. Then the bank would ftfl( its
customers. The shape and size of credit
cards has undergone many changes over


over an ex nded period of time, the

process called 'the death of paper money' is very gradual and slow. Although
crirrently there is a noted preference for

the use of plastic money in our society

when paying bills and rents or shopping
at the mall, we cannot as yet part with
the solid representation of currency in

our daily transactions. While certain

businesses accept card payment only,
others, like small shops and
owned businesses, require payment in
cash. Also, the fact remains that from
time to time we have to give a tip. u
some would say that there's nothing like good old cash when it comes
to paying maths tutors and nannies for


their services.
ureceipt I pnkwituwanie
scrap I skrawek

copper 1 mieai
issued I wydawong

the years. Some cards were in the shape

of metal plates or tokens, others were

to lend tusth I pruwadziidoczegni

trade of paper or even jj,ktT, and currently they are made of plastic, which is

to bark npsth I pupieraf cut

we call them plastic money.

Cards as a means of payment have
become immensely popular internationally, and banks have begun issuing various types of cards in order to cater for
particular needs of their clients. In general, there are three main types of cards:
rash curds which only allow you to
d aw your money from an AIM
credit cards which allow you to pay
and withdraw your money, and the

with r

balance has to be paid every month,

dun to I z poisudu

devoid of nth I prirbuwiong rzegrt

intrinsic I rr:rzeczywisty
decree I dekret
tothe point I wtujsprawie

to supervise I nadzrruwai
focus I vacisk
crumpled I pngoierrung

perishable I lntwr psugry sly

brainchild I pumysi

to bill sb I vvVstawiaf komut racharek

fibre I wtOknio
immensely I barduuagrumnie

debit cards which debit the money

In order to I uby

straight from your account.

Although many predict that the plastic-cards-only-era is upon us and would
gladly see an imminent death to currency, or paper money, it is highly unlikely

tn cater for sth I odpuwiadafoacufl

np. potrrehy)
towithdraw I pub rat, podtgilkwntg
z activist

ATM (automated teller machine) I bankomat

blisk, rychft, niedaleki

that it will take place very soon. For


one thing, some countries, like Canada,

have introduced (or are still debating to
do so) plastic bills made of special polymers with security features, which will
last much longer than traditional paper
banknotes. For another, as is the cane
with any major changes taking place

(W czasie~


Matters uoiuuiu

'extended I wydlozrny
mall I supermarket

In require I wymugaf
tip I rapiaek
besides I poratym
tutor I krrrpotytur

How nOL LO
PeoLLq Meon
-JhePower n f
!' EupheMISMS
by Agnieszka Dudek


If you congratulate your

colleague and say: "I hear your
wife is in the family way", what
is the actual reason for your
congratulations? Well, the good
news is that she is pregnant.
If you find it difficult to say
something in plain language
and want to express something
in a less direct way, you use
a euphemism. The English
language abounds in them.
actual whciwy
to abound in uth I obfitawa w co

Sounding Good
Euphemisms are used to replace
certain disturbing or unpleasant ideas,
or to.soften an expression, especially
when you are referring to taboo subjects such as death, religion, sex or
bodily functions. Sensitive subjects
can be talked about using euphemisms.
It might be too iptflto say: "His grandfather died", so we say: "His grandfather passed away". Euphemisms are
also a way to sound politically correct,
instead of 'handicapped' or 'disabled',
you can say 'differently-able '. They
can also be a way to conceal the truth,
or make an unpleasant truth sound less
hacs.iit, which is sometimes used by politicians or military leaders. Saying that
somebody was 'economical with the
truth' sounds much milder than p,yjjjn
a spade a spade and calling them a liar.
The word euphemism comes from
Greek: euphemos - auspicious, sounding good, euphemia - the use of words
of good omen. They are usually idiomatic expressions which non-native
speakers must make sense of, if they
want to fully understand the underlying
meaning of the target language.

Taboo words seem to be the most numerous group which euphemisms mice
the place of. Take death for example. It
has generated hundreds of euphemisms.
This originated from the magical or pa.
perstitious belief that i.tper.jn the word
'death' might invite it, so it should be
expressed obliq ue] . Someone who
has died is said to have passed away,
checked out, been called to a higher
piece bit the bin one, kicked the bucket,
bitten the dust, bought the farm, cashed
in their chips, croaked given up the
none south, or assumed room
temperature. Although euphemisms
are often used to sound polite, they can
also be very casual and humorous. For
example, 'pushing up daisies' is a slang
euphemism for being dead. Similar to
death euphemisms, there are also special terms for diseases, which are based

on a similar belief that uttering their

names might hLiU them on. Therefore,
it is safer to say: "She has just left hospital - she has the big C", instead of using the word 'cancer'.

Making love, sleeping together, gpjng

all the way or making whoopee are
only a few examples. If you want to describe body size without jo.ptjijtyg anybody, you also have a choice: instead of
saying: "he is fat", you can say: "he is

Euphemisms are also commonly
used to replace words describing biological or bodily functions. "Where
can I powder my nose?" Or: "Where
can I wash my hands?" can be asked
when you want to ask where the toilet
is. Yet this is not the only euphemism
for going to the toilet, you can choose
between: see a man about a dog, frost
e.e.cic, relieve oneself or no to shake
hands with the bishop. The toilet itself
cache referred to as restroom or bathroom. The English language abounds
in euphemisms referring to having sex.
eta replace sth i zasttpawai cci

ijgotieci or cuddly", or when referring

to a woman: "she is full-figured".
Calling somebody old might also
be pggyed as derogatory and discriminatory, but there are ways of
circumlocuting the issue of age and
sounding polite. Instead, you can use:
a senior or seasoned citizen, advanced
in years, a mature individual or, quite
funnily - chronologically-gifted. If you
refer to a woman, then you can call her
a woman of certain age or a woman of
substance. The words 'senior' and 10,
to croak I w1kitowof

to soften sth I Isgudrif cod

to give up the ghost I wzinnqfduchu

blunt I tu:bezpodredni,obcesowy

logo south I rupoltio sig tie powitti, Cu.

to pass away I odejif umrrefl

odejif, umrzef

instead of I zumiust

to posh up daisies I wychuf kwiatki od

handicapped I opuiledztny


disabled I upodledzrny

5 t bring sth on I sprtwndzaf cot

differently-obled I sprawny inaczej

commonly I ptwszecbnie

toconcealsth I ukryfcoi

to see a roan about a dog I odredof kuntolelki

harsh I tu,ostro

to frost arock I podlafkwiatki

to call a spade a spade I narywaf rzeczy p0

to relieve oneself I ulzyi subie


togote shake hands with the bishop I if

auspicious I ptmydlny,ubitcujycy
underlying ukryty
to take the place ofsth I zostypownf cut,
zajrnunui copes rniejsce

torn, gdzie krbl chndzi pitchuty

restroom I toal eta (np.w rostauracji)
o to go all the way I pdjtd na cabgn
to insult nb I obraaaiktgni

to generate I gencerowuf, tworzlf

big-boned I o grubych kuiciuch

superstitious I przusqdny

cuddly I puszysty

to utter I wypnauiedzief,pnwiedziof

full-figured I u pelnych ksztaltuch

obliquely I nie wprost, wymllalfct/w

perceived I psslrzegeny

wyrnijacy sposih

derogatory I uwlacenjycy

to check out I wymnldoesufsiy, totputcrf ten

god nude ii


seasoned I wytrawny

to be called to a higher place I proerseif ep no

advanced in years I pusuuiyty a Israch

tumten iwiut/nulunn /tbrahumu

a mature individual I dolrznlo osabo

to bite the big one l ze1if z tegn twiato

chronologically-gifted I usolochetnisny

to kick the bucket I kDpnyf w knlendarz


to bite the dust I gryzcpiacb

a women of certain age I kobietu w wieku

tobuy the farm I wycio.gnyfkopyta


to cash in one's chips I skonaf, odwulif kite

a woman of sabsturce I knbiott dnlrzala

English Matters 3912013

masking the truth. An example is the

use of 'take friendly fir ' as a euphemism for being attacked by your own
troops, 'correctional facility' instead
of jail, 'relocation centre' instead of
prison camp. If the army kill people
deliberately at war, they speak of neutralizing the target, if they kill by mistake, they cause 'collateral damage'.
Many similar expressions of this sort
were coined during wars, in particular
in WWtl by the Nazis - 'The Final Solution' referred to The Holocaust, concentration camp meant a death camp
and so on. Later in the 20' century, the
term 'ethnic cleansing' was coined to
refer to gcj.

Euphemism Treadmill

'junior' should be also used with cart- draw attention to their disability and
tion, especially when used in job ad- differentiate them from the rest of suetvertisemeots, as an employer seeking ely, emphasizing their otherness.
a juty,jor accountant might be accused
of discriminating against age. To be on
the safe side, it is better to remove 'junEuphemisms are often used by guyiou' and add a descriptive euphemistic ernments, the military or corporal e interm such as 'entry-level job'.
stitutions with a view to confusing or

Political correctness has often been
a reason why people with learning difficulties or physical handicaps have been
described euphemistically. A person
with visual impairment can be used to
describe a blind person. A few euphemisiuts have been specially coined, for
example, intellectually challenged for
people with yyte learning difficnlties, or developmentally challenged for
people suffering from disorders like
autism. Yet, according to handicapped
people themselves, these terms can do
more harm than good, because they

ijunior accountant I miodozy ksicgmwy

to be accused of sth I byf a cot

description I opisowy
entry- level job I stanowisko nirszegn szczebla
disability I niepelnosprawnuif, rowalidztws,
visual impairment I uszkodzoniewzroku
coined I ukuty, stworzony

intellectually challenged I inteligentnVinaczej

severe I powazny
disorder I zabnrzenie
otud raw attention tosth 1 zmsracai uwagyna
cut, przyciygai uvuagy do cregos

to emphasize sth I pudkreilaf rod

English Matters 392013

Language is evolving and the meaningof words changes overtime. Enphemisms can eventually become taboo
words. This process was described by
Steven Pinker as the euphemism treadmill. Words considered neutral terms
in the past acQuire a negative meaning
and are taken out of service. For example, 'idiot' was replaced by 'retarded'.
Now this is also considered rude, so
new terms like 'mentally challenged'
or 'special' came into use. In a few
years calling someone special might be
regarded as an insult. Essentially, it is
language users who decide how not to
say what they really mean and which
words to choose instead.
otherness I innoiC
doublespeak I pnstusbuwie, mona
o friendly fire I ostrruhz whasnych szeroghw
correctional facility I irstytucja penilencjarna/
relocation centre I runtrum relokacylne
deliberately I celown
collateral I nborzny
ethnic cleansing I coysiki otniczne
genocide I ludobijstwo
treadmill I kohowrOt,karuzela
to evolve I nnewilac 5I, owolaowsc
to acquire sth I nabywaf cud
retarded I upodledrory

o Withdrawal of sth I rezygoarja z czegos.

wcofanie 518 a czegni, rdstplenie ott czegnf
to remain I pozustawaf
employer I pracodawcn
employee I pracownik

A collective withdrawal of labour remains the employees'

Ultimate sanction. George Sandford looks at a short
history of the world of strikes.
s tong as there have been employer_s and employees there
have been industrial disputes
and it's believed that the first
strike dates back to the building of the pyramids. Yet who is to say
that the Babylonians didn't encounter
simitar problems and that the demise of
the lost city of Atlantis was not duets
an unresolved dispute?

One of the common causes of conflict
is the introduction of new technology,

which invariably leads to deskitting

and the replacement of a high number of
skilled workers by machines overseen
by fewer, unskilled workers. Named afterNedd Ludd, a group calling itself the
Luddites was formed in 1811, and for
the next few years proceeded, on nigh-times, to smash up the newfangled
automatic teerna. The fall power of the
army and the jiijjcjjy was btjigjit
down on them, attacks on machinery
were reclassified as a capital offence
and the perpetrators were hanged or,
if they were lucky, sent to prison in 10,

English Matterw39 2013

tt date back tn I sygaiwsterzczasfw

to encounter I natknyi si, napotybaf
demise I konrec istoonia, zagloda
due to I opowodu

deskilling I zautomotyzowania,
skomputer- zowanie (pracy, prucesu)
replacement I zastypienie
overseen I nadzotowuny, doglydany
night-time raid I mint, nalazd rocry
to smashup I zdemolowai, roawalil
new-fangled I riowomodny
the judictang 1 wladza sydowriczx,
to bring dawn sib on sb I rsylob cob na kogrb,
sprowadzib cab n kogob Imp caVIL gniewl
capital offence I przestypstwa zagrazone kary
perpetrator 1 sprawca, przestpca

32 World

The General Strike, nailed by the TUC (Trades Union Congress), was the largest that Britain had ever seen.

Australia. However, their actions ggyg1

the way for similar movements, and
trade union strength and membership
levels increased throughout the 191 and
20 centuries. These days, somebody
who is averse to new technology in gmera may describe themselves as 'a bit of
a Luddite.'

Growing Unrest
As the cradle of the industrial resolution, Britain saw some of the worst
excesses of owner power, greed and
exploitation. Long hours, low wages,
child labour and unsafe working conditions were all taken for granted. Deaths
and serious injuries were considered
little more than occupational hazards,
while small children, known as 'cotton
monkeys,' were used to scuny under

running looms to recover small balls of

cotton from under the machines. As can
be seen from Andrzej Wajda's film The
Promised Land, fatal accidents were
viewed as an irritating loss of produrtion and damage to valuable material,
to this context, workers started toj,g)y

The General Strike

of 1926
The General Strike, called by the
TUC (Trades Union Congress), was the
largest that Britain had ever seen and
was called in support of striking otfio:
gup. After the First World War, Britain
lost its hold on the coal export market,
due to cheaper competition and a strong
pound. This resulted in a dramatic g(rtpp
in coal prices and mine owners, keen to

English Matters 102013

to pose the waV for sth I utorowaf ding5

roomud, przetrzec selaki do czegot nowego
throughout I no przeotrzeni, a przeri5go
averse to sth I p rzeciwny rosmut
cradle I holebka

excesses I wybryki, okrucieslwa

exploitation I wyzysk, wyzyskiwanie
wage I zarobek
to take sth for granted I tu:uznawaf rot za
toscurrf I po/mykat
2 to fight back I brorrif sig, stawiaf opfr,
odpierof stat
in support of sb/sib I w celu wsparrio, dba

ssparria kogot/roegut
miner I ghrnik
to lose ore's hold on sth I stracif kontrolq cad
drop I spadek
keen Ichqtny

retain their level of return, had, in the

years since the end of the war, reduced
wages by 50%. An gggiggt to drop them
still further proved to be the final straw
and the miners went on strike. However, although there was massive support
for a few days, the success of the strike
was largely undermined by masses
of middle-and-upper-class volunteers
providing bjgiie labour to keep vital
services running. Having seen the revolution in Russia, it was feared that this
was the thin end of the wedge in overturning the power of the p, ijjng classes.
Even the newly formed socialist Labour
Party was ittligniatim in its support, not
wanting to lose favour by being labelled

The Rise and Fall

of Union Power
Things irnpmvenii considerably for
unions in Britain after the Second World
War, with successive socialist governments ttyrsyjjng workers' rights. However, by the 1970b, when another miners' strike led to rationed electricity
supplies, a three-day working week and
the downfall of the Conservative Edward Heath government, many thought
that liberty had gone too far and that
the tail was now wagging the dog; none
more so than Junior Minister at the time,
Margaret Thatcher. She would take her
revenge when she came to power in the
late seventies and early eighties. fl,n
fjaf.jgg a further strike over her pj
ippire programme, she had been stockpiling coal for iS months. After a bitter
dispute that lasted for over a year, with
pitched battles in pit villages between
miners and police, the miners were
defeated. The Thatcher administration
went on to introduce a wide range of
reforms to curtail onion power. Specifically, pi . caf unballoted strikes were
made illegal as was the closed shun
c%gpf, whereb it was necessary for
an individual to join the union in order
to work for an employer.
Secondary picketing and flying pickgty, that had been so g.mygjgrii in the

miners' strike, were also outlawed. The

pit closure programme went ahead and
the mining industry and number of employees is now around 6% of what it
was in its halcyon days. In Britain, the
days of confrontational industrial disputes are largely a thing of the past, and
although one-day strikes and working to
rule still occur within the health service
and teaching profession, the lision of
strike action has been passed onto other

least, Solidarity was, and still is, consid-

ered robe the catalyst that brought down

the whole of the Iron Curtain and led to
liberation from Soviet oppression.
In some cases, local disputes become entwined with anger and frustration with the government in office at the
time and strike action takes on a much
wider significance.
One of the most notable such events
was the Student Strike in Paris in 1966.
At the time, France was a political
maelstrom, and opposition from so-

Students and Workers

Versus Governments
It is ironic that while Thatcher was
doing her best to undo the power of
unions in Britain, she was a vocal supporter of Loch Walysa in Poland. America's Republican President Reagan was
similarly enthusiastic and, in the west at
via retain I radal pusiadaf, ulrzrnai,
attempt I prfbu
the final straw I ostotriia krrpla, krrpla
pnzrpelniaiyca czar
undermined I tu:uslnbiuny Issue straikul
volunteer I orhotnik
blackleg I par. pej.lamistrajk
to be the thin end ai the wedge I bii dopiern

cialists, communists and anarchists

gggjg,st the out of touch, nationalist De
Gaulle was ipuisggtisig. What started off
as a small dispute by students about administrative bureaucracy, snowballed,
with other students holding jjip..s in
universities, police storming campuses,
teaching unions striking in protest
to curtail I ukrdcu&pnzykrfcui
wildcat strike 1 to: dnukustruik
unballoted I nieprzeglusowany,
closed shop I zakiad pracy wymatainicy od
pnacowniktw pnrynaleinoicu do akmoilmnego
zwuyzku zawoduwego
wherebg I to. zgodnuezcryrn
in order to I febyaby


picketing I pukietowunuie

overturning I ts'obalnnie
ruling I rzydzyc
lukewarm I obuinitny
to lose favour I pupae a nirlasky
to improve I polepszyi sit
considerably I uriarznie,znurzru
to extend I posrerzaf.zwunikszat
rationed I rfnaou070uny,

flying picket I urzrstnuk 101001 pikiety

supplies I dustuwy

prevalent I pn000a2ai4cy
outlawed I nielegeluy, prawnse zabronuon
halcyon days I cndowne lata, beztroskie
to pass the baton onto sb I przekazai komut
to undo I z/nuweczyd.cofnyi
e ln bring down sth I dopnowadzaf dnu pad ku,

downfall I uprdek

the Iron Curtain I zelamnakurtynu

the tail was wagging the dog I asrystko

entwined with sth I przeplatany cmymi

storlo na flowue/its gdry rugamu

maelstrom I zawu rowan ue, bonzalpulutyrosal

to anticipate I uprzedzni, wyprzedrai

against I pnzeciwkr

pit I kopalnia

out of touch I to: oderwaniylod

closure I zamknigrie

rzrczywustnicil, zyuycy vs kruunir marzei

to stockpile I gromadrul, rhueraf,

to mount I nanastaf


to start off 1 rozprrzyi set

pitched battle I zafarty bfi

to snowball I po/tnrzyf siq luaanswo

defeated I pu/many

sit-in I straiktkupacyiny

EnQIUSh Mattore 0515013

for the people to express their views

on governmental fiscal policy, and in
Italy and New York nothing lyijyes
the mind like months of,
piled up, uncollected rubbish. Elsewhere, two, maybe surprising, countries with a high level of strikes are
Denmark and Canada but it's probably
an surprise that the socially cohesive
Japanese do not go down this road. In
general, however, it looks like strikes
will continue to form part of the industrial relations landscape. It is likely,
therefore, that should man develop the
technology to build pyramids on the
moon, there will be further disputes
by oppressed workers starved of oxygen or qytrly powerful unions striking
for more gDyfjy. Whatever the case,
it will take the flying pickets a little
longer to arrive.
eventually I w koica,ostaterzvie
to involve I dotyczyi, arznstnirzyc
riots I zamieszki, rurrochy
to broadcast sth I emittwui cni, nodawal coi
on the brink of sth I rio krawydai cregni,
D krok/wtns od czegtd
exiled I skaeanynaaiygnanin
the dust...settled I sytaoqusiy
to avert I zapobiegad
e penchant for 5th I sklonntifdo
to ring I zntyksi, tupychof,
stranded I zdaty nawlosno sup
modus operand! ha. sposbb
a fiscal I podatkowy
to focus the mind I toewnaral
stinking I fmierdzycy
piled up I wstertach
cohesive I spfjry
it is likely that I jest prawdopodobne,

and eventually, a national strike intielsin millions of people. Ugly riots

in Paris and scenes of police brutality
were broadcast across the world and
it seemed that for a moment at least,
France was on the brink of revolution
and the President would be exiled.
A national election was railed and the
, eventually settled. Revolution was
gygijied but it signalled the end of De
Gaulle's political career.

Strikes Present and Future

Who's striking now? Not the British, but the French will probably never
lose their penchant for a port blockade, a convoy of tractors ijjQggjflg
the streets of Paris or the obligatory
summertime Air Traffic Controllers'
Strike which leaves frustrated holidaymakers stranded with screaming
kids at airports. We've seen that in
Greece striking is the modus operandi


Matterm toitora

starved of sth I ptzbawunnuy rzegtb

overly I przesodnie, raduruorvue
gravity I sifa grawutatil, via przycuygoraa


SporL in Jopon
' 'P
ond ModerniLy1J
by Michal Mazurkiewicz

Sport is a significant part of people's lives.

To ignore or underestimate its influence
on societies is to misunderstand the world.
In the Land of the Rising Sun - Japan
- sport has a rich history and enjoys
great popularity. Let's take a loo
at this fascinating phenom1

to underestimate I n!e do[nflld[



Baseball - the Greatest

One usually associates baseball
with the United States, but according
to many experts, baseball (Jap. yctkyu)
is the most popular sport in Japan. Professional baseball devotees in Japan,
like in America, seem forever willing
to spend hard-earned money for the
opportunity to sit for several hours on
hard seats in the hot sun amidst the
swirl of tobacco smoke and the incongruous smells of human sweat and
popcorn to participate in the spectacle. Baseball was introduced to Japan
in the second half of the nineteenth
century. The Yomiuri Giants from Tokyo are the most popular team. The
two best teams yiyjpi.y in the Japan
Series each year. It has been
ensingly common for the most gyyan
fog Japanese players to leave the Japanese league for lucrative American
contracts. These include lchiro Suzuki
- whose success its America has been
credited with opening the door for other Japanese players - as well as Hideki
Matsui, Daisuke Matsuzaka and Yu
Darvish, who are probably the biggest

Martial Arts
Japanese people have always been
regarded as brave. There is an enormous variety of martial arts native to
i devotee

I zagorral wielbidel

hard-earned I cyiko zorobitny

amidst I pomiydzy
swirl I tv:tpary
incongruous I osobFiw
to compete I wsphlzawadriiczyi,
increasingly I

rtraz bardziej

outstanding I wybitny
martial arts I sztuki walki
adimension I oymlar
combat sports I spartywalki
vulnerable I tu:wrazliwy, dolikntrry
to take place I mief mieisre
ogrilled I ta:zochraniaczemwpostaci kratki

Judo (the gentle way) developed of the sword) is a fighting sport pracfrom ju jutsu, an ancient martial art. It tised with special swords, which comes
was created at the end of the nineteenth from the tradition of samurai fighting.
century. Judo strongly stresses the phi- The swords used to be metal, but now
losophy and ethical dimension of
they they are usually made of bamboo.
batnports. Karate (the way/art of the A grilled helmet and body protection
empty hand) is a martial art in which help make the sport safe. Aikido (the
hitting the opponent's vulnerable body way of the harmonious spirit) is a marareas with the hand, elbow, knee, foot tial art which includes both hand-toor head takes place. Kendo (the way hand and weapon combat. ttts based oru

English Mntt,


bends and twists, for example epgj(gd

to the wrist or elbow. Aikido is about
achieving control over both body and
Sumo (to protect or secure oneself) is
a Japanese national sport. It has simple
rules. The aim is to make the opponent
touch the ground with anything besides
the soles of his feet or to push the upponent out of the ring. The wrestlers
usually weigh more than 130 kg. The
Japanese Sumo Association organizes
six grand tournaments. The sumo chumpins gains the status of yokozuna (grand
champion), and from this rank one cannot be demoted. The sport used to constitute part of a religious ritual and some
ancient traditions have been preserved,
for example the use of salt purification.


Japanese Soccer
Japan had its own football game


- kemori - as early as in the Middle

Ages. That very populargame cons.jstcdJne flicking up a bull with the legs
and the head and keeping it in the air
as long as possible. The ball was usually made of deerskin and stuffed with
sawdust. It was not victory that counted in kemuori, but rather pare aesthetic
Talking about modern football, the
national team's official debut took place
in 1917 and was a painful experience
for the Japanese fans, as their team lost
5-0 to China. Japan is now 22 11 in the
world rankings, but the "Samurai



T j0Jajd

a bends I thirty
twists I obroty
applied to I ta zastroowany da/wobec, ubyty
In achieve I osiygnyd
besides I apr/cr, pore
wrestler I zapatoik
demoted I zdtgradowany
preserved I eachawany
purification I orzyszczerie
to consist in 1 prlegaf no
In flick sth up I podbrjat cob podrruoat
deerskin I skhrajolenia


sawdust I trtciry

English Mmftnrs 3912013

Blue" team has had splendid periods,

especially the good performances in
two World Cups, in 2002 and 2010,
and winning the Asian Cup several
times. The first division is called the
J. League and is one of the most successful leagues in Asian football. The
Kashima Antlers have pr,ygj Japan's
most successful club ream.
h far as the players are concerned,
the class, brilliance and gffiay of such
footballers as Shinji Kagawa or Keisuke Honda have made an impression
on every football fan. Many Japanese
players play in top European leagues,
especially in Germany.
Interestingly, Japan has a very good
women's rational team - the reigning
World Cup champions, in fact.

Ski Jumping Traditions

As far as winter sports are concerned, Japan has rich ski jumping
traditions. Polish sports fans know
many excellent Japanese representa
tives of this sport, for example Masahiko Harada or Kazuyoshi Funaki.
Noriaki Kasai ("Kamikaze") is a -


ing legend of Japanese ski jumping.

He has competed a record 463 times

in World Cup tournaments and won
six world championship medals. I
his age (40), he still surprises
fans with his good form and determination.


to prone I turkozaf sly, bpi

as far as Xis/are concerned I jeili chodti 0
efficacy I skuterzntC
in spite of I pomimo

2 t host I bigrspodorremguicii
defeat I pororka
softball I gra przyprminajqco baseball

Iroogrywana n mtiejstym bo,oku, wiykxzq

p/ky oraz lzejszq I ciuhazy palkyl
falconry I sakalniciwo

average I przooylry
hiking I wspinarzka(ghrska)

slump I tuikryzys
well-off I zamoony

I nopastnik is p/ce sorrel)

scorer I tu:zdtbywcagoli

lnterv ~ ew wiITh
prof. Hohei Howoshimo From
Musoshi UNversiLy, Tokyo
What does the average Japanese
person practise?
Adults do walking, jogging, swimming, hjjyjng, and so on, those sports
that do not cost much; as a nation in
an economic slu p, this is quite reasonable. For relatively well of f people,
perhaps, golf, swimming or tennis are

more popular, as they serve as a status

Are the Japanese a sports-loving

nation? How does it show?
Yes we are. We are the first Asian
nation that hyliod the Olympics, in
1964, despite the o!ctet in WWII.
Our baseball team won first place in
the last World Baseball Classic tournament, which shows that we have one of
the world's leading national baseball
Our national football teams of both
men and women are also in respectable
positions in the world rankings (the
women in a higher position, though).
Which sports are now the most
popular in Japan?
As the above answer shows, the most

popular spurts in Japan are baseball and

football. Other sports such as basketball, softball short- and long-distance
running, tennis, golf and swimming
are also popular. In traditional sports,
judo and sumo are not only popular but
also internationalized.
Are there any sports typical only
of Japan?
The martial arts other than judo are
practiced mostly inside Japan, such as
karate, kendo (Japanese-style fencing),
kyudo (Japanese-style archery), and
aikido, although there is an equivalent
of each in many other countries. ijgj
tonry can be said to be uniquely Japanese, although one may say this is not
a sport in the Western sense of the term.


Matters 39 12013

symbol, like they do in Western nations. Children's favourites are baseball and football.
Which Japanese sportsmen enjoy
the greatest popularity nowadays?
Yu Darvish and Ichiro Suzuki, who
are successful in the United States

MLB, command both popularity and

high respect among the Japanese. Yuto
Nagatomo Remake Honda, and Eiji
Kawashima, footballers who play in
international games, are also popular.
Which Polish sportsmen are famous/well-known in Japan?
For my generation, the Polish football team of the 1970s still leave
a strong impression. Perhaps, many
people still remember Grzegorz Lato as
a great striker and scorer.
Many Japanese martial arts lovers
know Mariusz Pudzianowski for his
strength and toughness.
Would you add anything (something interesting about Japanese
sport that you would like to tell
Polish readers)?
This is about all for now, butt would
add that sport is an area of activity that
promises opportunities for international exchange and friendship.
We are working hard to host the

2020 summer Olympics in Tokyo and

hope this will work out well.
Interview conducted by
Michal Mazurkiewicu

Je vois tout - Miaow

I'LL Toke

The very heart of New

York City, Manhattan has
been serenaded by Cole
Porter, attacked by King
Kong and then Al Qaida,
and immortalised on film
by Woody Allen. What
is it about this island that
attracts such attentions, and
is it worth a bag of beads?
English Matters takes
alook... op.

by Katarzyna Szpotakowska



Although the first European explorer
who sailed through the area was Giovanni do Verrazzano, it was Henry Hudson who had the Hudson River named
after him. The man was a navigator and
sailor taken on by the Dutch East India
Company to find a sea passage through
to the riches of the Orient, which, of
course, he failed to find. Instead, voyaging on a ship called the Half Moon,
he managed to discover the island called
'Mannahata' hy the natives, and which
was abundant in numerous natural wonders.
The 'Hill Island', as the American
Indians used to call it, is said to have
been bought from its indigenous inhabitants for a chest of beads worth a total
of sixty guilders or about $28. Whether
this was really the case is impossible to
prgyg. The story of the Indians,
fooled into ygifin Manhattan for next
to nothing is widespread in America,
but there is only a single letter written
by a merchant, Peter Schagen, to back
the story W. That document is kept in
archives in the Netherlands. However,
the letter does not explain who exactly bought the island or from whom it
was ppfciitased. It it assumed that the
deal was struck by the local Lenape
to sail through sth I zeglowac pvez c s
Ito bel named alter ab I zoo of narworym
tofnil I niepowiesfsi
instend I zumius tett




- it





guilder I tuwna waluta Hxlandii
to prow I udowadnial
gullible otwowierny
to sell sth for motto nothing I spruedaf cot

c0000aoa Lower East


merchant I kupiec
to back sth up I ho: potwitrdzai
archives I artliwa
purchased I nahyty,zakupiony
to struck a deal I Laurent umxwfubif intones


English Matter s3%2013

tribe. Nowadays, it is also believed that

what the Indians meant in sell was the
right to use the land, not its ownership.
What's more, according to some soucces, Mannahata can also be translated as
the intoxication place'; a place which
Indians visited but where they had nayer lived, which would in fact mean that
the Dutch were sold a piece of land that
the indigenous population had never
considered to be their property.
Nonetheless, the Dutch didn't actu
ally pri.i much from Manhattan itself,
since it was passed to the English in
1667 In return, though, they received
the entire country of Suriname, which
was as Dutch Guiana until

Another Brick in the Wall

Explorers from the Netherlands left
their mark on American history, not
only because they bought Maohattan, but also due to the fact that they
were responsible for gggJ,ig the wall
of all walls. At first, it wasn't an actual
wall, but a basic picket fence along the
northern boundary of the new colony.
As time passed, the fence turned into
tall wall protecting the Dutch against
the British, as well as the American Indians. The British dismantled it in the
181 h century, but the name Wall Street
remained and gained in significance,
Today's Wall Street runs from lower Manhattan In the East River. It has
snnwndtys I obocnie
ownership I prawn ailasntsc
nonetheless I niernn ellednak
to profit frnm sth I kiroystar z mobS
to pass sth lash I przekazac cos knmus
governed I zarrydrany
brick I ceyto
mark I flail
to erect sth I wznns f coo
picket fence I parkun,pinl
boundary I gran Co
to dismantle sth I rozmontawai, rnzebraf cal
to gain nsignificance I zyskaf na inn or iii
nlandmark I Punktorentamylny
in be ona winning streak I mrec dtbra pass

English Matters 3912013

become the symbol of all financial

markets in the US. The most famous
landmark in this area is the Charging
Bull Statue. It represents a bull market, the symbol of being on a winning
wreak, as opposed to a bear market
- being on a losing streak. The significance of Wall Street in terms of
trade derives from a buttonwood tree,
under which there happened to be
a traditional meeting place of specus and traders. These meetings
resulted in the forming of the Buttonwood Association, the direct ancestor
of the contemporary New York Stock

Must-see Sights
However, Manhattan wouldn't have
been an inspiration for such an abundance of songs, films or books if it had
only one attraction to offer. So, let's
continue our trip over this particular
county of New York. Another outstandjgg and unforgettable landmark in the
city is the Brooklyn BridgeO. As its
name suggests, it jajiis Manhattan with
Brooklyn; in the 1911 century, it was the
longest and largest suspension bridge in
the whole world.
All art lovers appreciate the opporsanity, when in Manhattan, to visit The
Frick CollectionO on Fifth Avenue or
the Guggenheim MuseumO with its
modern art exhibitions, performances,
film screenings, lectures by artists 10to be on a Inning streak I mel ny
to derive from stir I picnodzif od czegns
buttonwood tree I platan
speculator I spekulant
trader I hundlnwrec, prredsiyh irma
ancestor I przndek
contemporary I s50utczss
must-see I poz a obnw yrkowa(o miej sri!
f i Imie!obraz ie wartym zrbaczen u)
sight I mis ice do zw odious
outstanding I to. wspanialy
unforgettable I n ezoprmn any
to join sth with sth I kycryf coIn czymi
suspension bridge i most wiszycy

and critics, as well as daily

tours. The next point on
the tourist's checklist
could be occupied,
for instance, by the
view from the 70"
floor observation
tiocit of the Rockefellec CenterO
or, perhaps, by
a visit to Central

scientific institutions, as
well as established
pension fends for
college professors. So, in the
case of Cart,egie, the name
'robber baron'
is often replaced
by the term captain of industry'.
Is this all there is
to be said about ManRobber Batons
Moving south, just two
hattan? The answer is a reblocks from Central Park, is Carnegie sounding 'no'. Any visit to the county
Halle. It is a concert built by would not be complete without seeing
philanthropist, Andrew Carnegie - the Empire State Building, where the
a man who made his fortune in the steel most memorable scene from hjggess
industry. Although he is often tarred in Seattle was set, to say nothing of
with the same brush as the powerful King Kong. Yet another must-see sight
industrialists Rockefeller, Stanford is the 9/11 Memorial(D and, finally.
and Frick, Andrew Carnegie actually getting back to Manhattan's roots, the
dedicated a huge part of his life to is- National Museum of the American
tributing his fortune among society. He lndianO.
Unfortunately, we don't have anyestablished libraries across the coontry, donated money to educational and where near enough space to cover all

the attractions of this fascinating part

of 'the city that never sleeps, so we'll
have to stop here. If you're still hankerjng..fter some of the atmosphere of the
island, you could do worse than check
out the Woody Allen film about it, or
better still, go there.

Angielski 600 fiszek

utrwalani i sprawdoib zdobytay windz

w pruktyce.

Idiomy z dwiczeniami
Phrasal verbs z wiczenlami

observation desk platf orma

robber boron I pozbawinnyskrupufdw
uenue miojscefnp koncertul
industry I ptzemysl
to be tarred with the same brush as oh I byf

miereonym ty samy ninny co kInd

distributing I rozprnwadzorrie, tozdawanin
I ralneyl
2 pension fund I fundusr emerytolny
employee I pracownik
resoundiog I odbrio)ycysilecbern
sleepless I bezsenny
to establish

3 t honker after sth wzdychoi no crymi

you could do worse than ... I tie raszkodnilnby

warn nbeirtrnie...
or better still I Iubieszcze leprej

Angielski 600 fiszek Kolokacje to

zestaw 600 najwahniejszycb kcnlokacji
wraz z przykiudowyrrni zdaninmi, ktdre
prezentujzl uycie danego wyrshenia
w praktyce. Material zontal podoielony
no 32 geupy tornratyczne, by ulatwif
zapamitywanie wyradeif metodg sirsjarzod. Nauko z kursern pozwala sRiteconie przyswoif najczydciej azywane
zustawienia slOw i poznah ich zast050wane w 600 przykladowych zdaniach.

Fiszki wydawniciwn Edgard to wygodna i skruteczoa forma nuuki jgzyka

angielskiego. lltz sie w kadej wolnej
Zestuwy Angielski 600 fiszek Idiomy
itwicueniami oraz Phrasal verbs
o hwiczeniami zawierojq 500 najpopularnielnoych idiomOw orar phrasal
verbs wrar z pezykladowymi udaniami, stOre prezentujft uzycie wyrudetf
w kontekdcie, a takde zupcznnjq a gotowymi wzoroomi kormunikacyjnymi.
Podrial no prnktyczne grupy tematyczflu ulatwia zapamitywanie metodq
skojanzeb. Na 100 fiszknch znmieszcoons dwiczenia, fibre pozwalsjg

ioccupied I zajty

Cena 34,90 oh
Wydawnlctwo Edgard
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