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Too little vertical angulation

Some errors often made when taking dental radiographs:


Elongation (most common error): teeth appear too long - may be caused by too
little vertical angulation, the occlusal plane not being parallel to the floor, or poor film
placement
Foreshortening: teeth appear too short - may be caused by too much vertical
angulation or poor chair position
Cone cutting: portion of film will appear clear with a curved line - the beam was
not aimed at the center of the film
Herringbone effect: zigzagged pattern appears on the film - the film was placed
backwards in the mouth
Poor film placement: the film was not placed far enough back or not forward
enough in the mouth
Overlapping: interproximal areas are overlapped, reduces diagnostic quality
of film - due to incorrect horizontal angulation (the central x-ray was not perpendicular to the center of the film)