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Genetic Variation Checklist

AS91157- Demonstrate understanding of genetic variation and change


In order to achieve Excellence in this standard you are required to: Demonstrate
comprehensive understanding which involves linking biological ideas about
genetic variation and change. The discussion of ideas may involve justifying,
relating, evaluating, comparing and contrasting, or analysing.
This checklist is designed for you to use when you are studying this standard.
Tick the boxes as you go to establish which concepts you know and which you
may need to revise.

Unit 1: Genetic variation

By the end of this unit you should be able to:


Identify the different types of mutations that can occur
Discuss how mutations can lead to genetic variation
Describe the basic process of what happens in meiosis (specific names
for phases is not necessary)
Discuss the three ways that meiosis can contribute to increasing
genetic variation in offspring.
Discuss how sexual recombination (fertilisation) can increase genetic
variation.
Use the terms phenotype, genotype, homozygous and
heterozygous correctly with confidence.

Unit 2: Monohybrid Inheritance


By the end of this unit you should be able to:
Define monohybrid inheritance
Differentiate between complete dominance, incomplete dominance
and co-dominance from given examples.
Discuss the differences between complete dominance, incomplete
dominance and co-dominance with respect to expected phenotype
ratios.
Draw and complete a Punnett square to determine genotype ratios and
phenotype ratios of offspring.
Explain what occurs during a test-cross and the purpose for using a test
cross.
Explain what multiple alleles are and give an example
Explain what lethal alleles are and discuss how we know when lethal
alleles are present for a gene (hint: refer to phenotype ratios).
Solve problems involving pedigree charts and Punnett squares.

Unit 3: Dihybrid Inheritance


By the end of this unit you should be able to:
Define dihybrid inheritance

Explain the difference between no linkage and linkage between genes


in dihybrid inheritance
Calculate the expected genotype ratio for non-linkage between two
genes (cross two organisms that are heterozygous for both traits)
Describe what linkage is and how it occurs
Solve problems to determine whether there is linkage or no linkage
between genes in a dihybrid cross and discuss why you know this.

Unit 4: Genetic populations


By the end of this unit you should be able to:
Define gene pool, genetic population, genetic change and evolution.
Calculate genetic change in a population using appropriate formulae.
Discuss natural selection and its effect on genetic populations with
reference to examples.
Discuss sexual selection and its effect on genetic populations with
reference to examples.
Discuss artificial selection and its effect on genetic populations with
reference to examples.
Discuss how migration has an effect on genetic populations
Describe what the bottle neck effect AND founder effect are and
discuss the effects they have on allele frequencies.
Discuss genetic drift and its effect on genetic populations with
reference to allele frequencies.