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Speciation Checklist

AS91605- Demonstrate understanding of evolutionary processes


leading to speciation
In order to achieve Excellence in this standard you are required to: Demonstrate
comprehensive understanding which involves linking biological ideas and/or
scientific evidence about evolutionary processes leading to speciation. The
linking of ideas may involve justifying, relating, evaluating, comparing and
contrasting, or analysing the evolutionary processes that lead to speciation.
This checklist is designed for you to use when you are studying this standard.
Tick the boxes as you go to establish which concepts you know and which you
may need to revise.

Unit 1: Evolution and Selection

By the end of this unit you should be able to:


Define the term evolution.
Discuss variation with reference to mutations, gene flow, allele
frequency and gene pools.
Discuss the role of natural selection in evolution.
Explain that natural selection involves the change in allele frequency
over time.
Identify and explain the effects on populations of a range of selection
pressures e.g. competition, predators, climate, food availability.
Distinguish between directional, disruptive and stabilizing selection.
Describe sexual selection.
Discuss the role of genetic drift in evolution.
Describe the founder effect and the bottleneck effect.

Unit 2: Speciation
By the end of this unit you should be able to:
Define the terms species and speciation.
Discuss the differences between allopatric and sympatric speciation.
Discuss the role of selection pressures and gene flow in allopatric and
sympatric speciation.
Distinguish between prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive isolating
mechanisms.
Discuss how geographical, temporal, ecological, behavioural or structural
barriers and polyploidy can act as reproductive isolating mechanisms.
Discuss the role of polyploidy in sympatric speciation.

Unit 3: Evolutionary Relationships and Evidence of Evolution


By the end of this unit you should be able to:
Explain how non-disjunction can result in polyploidy.
Explain the differences between gradualism and punctuated
equilibrium and apply them to real world examples.

Distinguish between convergent and divergent evolution.


Discuss the major features of adaptive radiation.
Discuss co-evolution and explain how co-evolutionary relationships
develop.
Discuss how the fields of palaeontology, comparative anatomy
(homologous and analogous structures), molecular biology (DNA and
protein analysis) and biogeography have provided evidence of evolution.
ALSO: Use the knowledge acquired from these learning objectives and apply it
when discussing New Zealand-based examples of evolution.