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Human Evolution Checklist

AS91606- Demonstrate understanding of trends in human evolution


In order to achieve Excellence in this standard you are required to: Demonstrate
comprehensive understanding which involves linking biological ideas about
trends in human evolution. The linking of ideas may involve justifying, relating,
evaluating, comparing and contrasting, and analysing using scientific evidence.
This checklist is designed for you to use when you are studying this standard.
Tick the boxes as you go to establish which concepts you know and which you
may need to revise.

Unit 1: Hominins
By the end of this unit you should be able to:
Define the terms hominoid, hominin and hominind
Define the term evolution
State the relationship between humans (Homo sapiens) and primates
Identify the five main groups of primates and list some of the
characteristics of the members within these groups
Describe some of the human similarities to primates

Unit 2: Human Biological Evolution

By the end of this unit you should be able to:


Define what biological evolution is
Identify skeletal differences between an ape and a human from a photo
or diagram.
Describe skeletal changes linked to bipedalism (pelvis shape, valgus
angle, femur size, big toe facing forward, shape of foot, spine) i.e.
describe the skeletal differences between Apes and Humans and how
these changes allowed humans to become bipedal as opposed to walking
on all fours.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of bipedalism.
Explain the differences between hair length and number between Apes
and Humans and why this is significant.
Describe changes in skull and endocranial features (eyes, saggital crest,
medial crest, dentition, jaw, skull size, foramen magnum) of a Gorilla and
a Human and explain why these changes have occurred over time.
Link the size of the skull to increase in brain capacity and discuss the
outcomes/ advantages of this.
Describe the changes in the manipulative ability of the hand from Ape to
Human.

Unit 3: Human Cultural Evolution


By the end of this unit you should be able to:
Define what cultural evolution is

Link tool culture and tool periods to the species that used them and the
time that they used them.
Identify the names and times of major tool periods (Oldowan, Acheulean,
Mousterian, Upper Palaeolithic) and identify who the tools were used by.
Discuss some of the features of the tools from each major tool period.
Identify the time when fire was first discovered and discuss how the use
of fire was beneficial to the species that used it.
Identify the first early humans to use clothing and discuss what benefits
clothing provided.
Describe changes in food-gathering in early humans (from huntergatherer to the domestication of plants and animals i.e. agriculture and
farming).
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of farming and crop-growing
for early humans.
Discuss the changes in shelters made/ constructed/ used by early
humans and how these changes were beneficial and/ or detrimental to
these groups.

Unit 4: Key Players (Species)


By the end of this unit you should be able to:
Identify key hominins by their scientific name and common name (e.g.
Homo habilis also known as handy man).
Know the chronological order of early humans with reference to
approximate time periods.
Identify any new cultural or biological features that this species did e.g.
Homo habilis first to use tools.

Unit 5: Dispersal Theories

By the end of this unit you should be able to:


Name and define the two main theories of dispersal for humans.
Use your knowledge of scientific evidence (mtDNA, Y chromosome DNA,
Fossil records) to critique both dispersal models and state which one is
more likely to be correct.