plexity demandsthat the so neerslearn the samelessons engineerslearned, but from a

perspective. Mathematicians

ateprecise boundaries arounda
and make it as neat as can solve it. However. systems

1970 papers structured Seminal on analvsis and viewpoint analysis, Arpanet Unix, 1957 systems First engineering textboo[ Sputnik 1955 RAND Systems Development Division 1945 War Cold begins 1937 Brilish Defense Air Systems

Figure l. $ystems enginceringand soltware engineeringhistory.
learning." From a cultural anthropology approach, we can examine some fundamental beliefs and assumptions,shared values,behavioralpatterns (or customs). behavioral norms, and artifacts to gain insight into how the .software and systems engineeringcommunities approach the requirements discipline. These elementswork togetherto form cultural filters that predispose our problem-solving approach(see Thble1). So, we can see that sofrware's com-

don't usuallyexpecta piecise < they a IemsbfGlecring from a serof basedon trade-offs(equally and management-oriented) project life cycle. On the the system engineeringdisci methods that engineers have the yearsto reinforcea proach. These come from an based on requirements and allocation.I7hile rcqu based strategic on needand the functional allocation is ba torical precedenceand is stovepipes, such as the telemetn
nent, radar, and so forth.

composition approach, s
neers regard solfware as a

rather than a complex svsrem and intertwined much like

$oltwareengineering cultureuercussystemsengineeringculture

be'iefsandI ::ijffi:fl

Softwarc engineering

Systems engineering I I Formalisms butcommunication help, ismost Collect, and mix, match methods techniques and them your in toolkit. asappropriate; Apply none guarantees. The softwarea system is component. (inctuding nonnegotiables) interpersonal and their dynamics most important. Develop understandrnf a full ofalro$ictive operational and natural aspects, use language to establish agreement. an Apply a of management and engineerrng toachieve desired the outcome. Berisk averse.


patterns customs) I Behavioral (or r I

I Artifacts r

Engineers reduce can problemsproblem or solutions set formalisms. to a of Precisely specifying applying and methods willproduce results equal regardless ofthe people involved. The softwarethesystem. is Developing formalismsa problem for oi domain themost is important insolving step theproblem. Precisely orformalize problem state the jf even it requires narrowing scope. the Model problem formalisms. the using Avoid messiness the oi systemsthereal in wodd, asdeployment, poor such aging, physical environments, and chaos. Be faddish-sometimes cultish-about new methods. Artifacts include diagrams user UML and scenarios.




Artifacts include operationiGcenarioffi management documents, asSEMp such (systems engineering management TEMp and plan), (test management risk plan). management and plans,



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