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# BBA 4009

COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS

940928-14-5531
201565

FEBRUARY 2016
NO

DETAIL

PAGE

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1.0

Content

1-2

2.0

## Chapter 4 Research Finding

Introduction
Chapter Description
Response rate
Measurement scale on reliability analysis
Frequency Distribution
Cross Tabulation of variables
General Analysis of research data
Hypothesis testing
Chapter 5 Conclusion and Recommendation
Introduction
Chapter Description
Discussion
Managerial Implication
Limitation and direction for futurestudy
Conclusion

3-12

4.0

Reference

18

5.0

Coursework

18-21

3.0

13-17

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## 2.0 Chapter 4 Research Finding

Introduction
The chapter reveals the finding of the study. All the data or input has been analysed the
SPSS version 12.0. Therefore, the interpretation of the results of the analysis will be
based on the outcomes through the SPSS.
Based on Sekaran (2003), there are three objectives in data analysis. The first objective
is to get the coding and entering of data have been done. The second objective is to test
the goodness of the data collected, while the third objective is to test the hypothesis that
was developed for the research.
Chapter Description
In collecting data, 60 questionnaires were distributed to the selected respondent,i.e the
undergraduate students of University of Tunku Abdul Rahmana (UTAR), specifically
from COB. The distribution of questionnaires started in August and ended two weeks
later. From 140 questionnaires distributed, 50 were returned, 5 questionnaires were
missing and another 10 questionnaires were incomplete.

Response rate
The reliability of a measure indicated the extent to which it is without bias (error free)
and hence ensures consistent measurement across time and across the various items in
the instrument. In other words, the reliability of measure is an indication of the stability

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and consistency with which the instrument measures the concept and helps to assess the
goodness of a measure (Sekaran 2003). In statistics (Classical Test
Theory), Cronbach's

## (alpha) is used as a (lowerbound) estimate of the reliability of

a psychometric test.
It has been proposed that

## can be viewed as the expected correlation of two tests that

measure the same construct. By using this definition, it is implicitly assumed that the
average correlation of a set of items is an accurate estimate of the average correlation of
all items that pertain to a certain construct. Cronbach's

## is a function of the number of

items in a test, the average covariance between item-pairs, and the variance of the total
score. It was first named alpha by Lee Cronbach in 1951, as he had intended to continue
with further coefficients.
The measure can be viewed as an extension of the Kuder Richardson Formula 20 (KR20), which is an equivalent measure for dichotomous items. Alpha is
not robust against missing data. Several other Greek letters have been used by later
researchers to designate other measures used in a similar context. Somewhat related is

in psychology,

but Cronbach's alpha statistic is widely used in the social sciences, business, nursing,
and other disciplines. The term item is used throughout this article, but items could be
anythingquestions, raters, indicatorsof which one might ask to what extent they

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"measure the same thing." Items that are manipulated are commonly referred to
as variables.
Variable
Perfectionist/High-Quality
Brand
Novelty / Fashion
Recreational / Hedonic
Price
Impulsive / Careless
Confused by Over Choice
Habitual / Brand-Loyal
Total

Number of items
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
24
Table 4.1

## Measurement scale on reliability

Frequency distribution were obtained for all demographic datas such as the
respondents profile (gender, age, marital status, ethnic group, and religion). All these
data were tabulated using frequency analysis and the findings are shown in Table 4.3
Demographic Profile
Gender
Male
Female
Age
15-20
21-25
26-30
Marital status
Single
Married
Ethnic group
Malay
Indian

Frequency
25
25
20
20
10
40
10
5
5

Percentage
50.0
50.0
40.0
40.0
20.0
80.0
20.0
10.0
10.0

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Religion

Chinese
Others
Islam
Christian
Buddhism
Hinduism
Others

35
5
5
15
15
5
5

70.0
10.0
10.0
30.0
30.0
10.0
10.0

Table 4.2
In Table 4.2 above shows the frequency analysis for demographic profile of
respondents. It shows that 50.0% of respondents are male and 50.0% of respondents are
female. In the terms of age, 40% of respondents are 15-20 , 40.0% of respondents are
21-25, 20.0% of respondents are 26-30. Regarding the marital status, majority of
respondents (80%) were single and only 20.0% were married. In the term of ethnicity of
the respondents it indicates that 10.0% of the respondents are Malay and Indian, 35%
are Chinese, and 10.0% are other ethnic group. With the regard to the religion of the
respondents, 10% are Hinduism. Others and Islam, 30 % of majority religion are 30.0%.

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## Cross Tabulation of variables

Zikmund (2003), coded that most of the data can be further organized in a variety of
ways. One of the ways is by using the cross-tabulation method. Cross tabulation is a
joint frequency distribution of observation on two or more sets of variables. In order to
facilitate comparisons, the data should be organized according to groups, categories or
classes.
The purpose of categorization and cross-tabulation is to allow the inspection of
differences among groups and to make comparisons. Moreover, this form of analysis
also helps determine the form of relationship between two variables. The reason
researcher chooses to cross tabulated two variables is because the researcher wants to
know the different perception of answers between male and female respondents on their
shopping behavior.
Table 4.3 Gender Frequency Cross tabulation

Gender

Male
Female
Total

One-

Three-

Twice

Five

8
3
11

8
3
11

Six-nine

More

Total

than 10
8
4
12

times
1
15
16

25
25
50

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Based on table 8 males and 3 males are shop around one to thrice time. There are 8
males and 4 females are shop around three to five times. There are 8 males and 4
females are shop around six to nine times. Lastly, there are 1 male and 15 females shop
around more than 10 times. In conclusion, female tend to shop frequently compare to
male.
Table 4.4 Gender Purpose Cross tabulation
Only
Entertainment Habit

Gende

Male
Female

for

- to release

as a

necessity

for

tension

hobby

good

necessar

5
15

y good
15
4

2
3

2
1

20

19

Others

Total

1
2

25
25

r
Total

50

Based on the table 4.4, there are 5 males and 15 males are buying for necessity and 15
males and 4 female are only buying for necessary good. There are 2 males and 3
females are interest in entertainment which is to release tension. Lastly there are 2 males
and 1 female spend money to habit and there 1 male and 2 females are spend money to
others.
General analysis of research data

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Descriptive statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data features of the
data in a study. They provide simple summaries about the sample and the measures.
Mean and standard deviation were use in order to measure the level of the variables. All
the eight dimensions of consumer decision making style which the perfectionist/ HighQuality Conscious, Brand Conscious, Novelty/Variety Conscious, Price/Value
Conscious, Recreational/ Hedonistic Conscious, impulsive/ Careless Conscious,
Confused by Over-Choice Conscious, and Habitual/Brand Loyal conscious were
measured using Five point Likert scale
Hypothesis testing
Decision

Male

Female

Mean

Variance

Mean

making style
Perfectionist

Variance

9.68

8.56

9.36

Brand

10.08

8.66

10.52

6.343333

Conscious
Novelty

10.84

8.89

11.36

4.74

Recreation /

10.32

8.06

10.76

4.19

consumer
Price

9.36

5.406667

11.2

4.25

conscious
Impulsive/

10.28

8.293333

10.48

4.426667

4.49

hedonistic

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careless
consumer
Confused

10.92

7.743333

10.84

4.89

11.28

7.46

11.32

4.06

choice
consumer
Habitual/
Brand loyalty
consumer
Table 4.5
Independent sample t-test was conducted to test the hypothesis developed. The results
of the independent t-test are shown in the Table 4.5 above. From table, it shows there
was no statictically significant in the mean score of high Quality, Novelty fashion,
Recreational, Confused by Over Choice and Brand Loyal Conscious decision
making styles between mae and female. However, there was significant different on
Brand conscious, Price Conscious and Impulsive Conscious shopping between male and
female. In perfectionist, it was found that the males respondents were more conscious
on perfectionist than female (mean value for male = 9.68 , female = 9.36) In Brand
conscious, it was found that the males respondents were less conscious on perfectionist
than female (mean value for male = 10.08, female = 10.52) In Novelty, it was found that
the males respondents were less conscious on perfectionist than female (mean value for
male = 10.84 , female = 11.36) In Recreation, it was found that the males respondents

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were less conscious on perfectionist than female (mean value for male = 10.32 , female
= 10.76) In price conscious, it was found that the males respondents were less conscious
on perfectionist than female (mean value for male = 9.36 , female = 11.2) In impulsive,
it was found that the males respondents were less conscious on perfectionist than female
(mean value for male = 10.28 , female = 10.48) In confused choice consumer, it was
found that the males respondents were more conscious on perfectionist than female
(mean value for male = 10.92 , female = 10.84) In habitual, it was found that the males
respondents were less conscious on perfectionist than female (mean value for male =
11.28 , female = 11.32)

## 3.0 Chapter 5 Conclusion and Recommendation

Introduction
This chapter discusses the overall findings of the research. It highlights some of the
implications of the research findings. Finally, limitations and directions for future
research were also discussed.
Chapter Description

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In Table 4.2 above shows the frequency analysis for demographic profile of
respondents. It shows that 50.0% of respondents are male and 50.0% of respondents are
female. In the terms of age, 40% of respondents are 15-20 , 40.0% of respondents are
21-25, 20.0% of respondents are 26-30. Regarding the marital status, majority of
respondents (80%) were single and only 20.0% were married. In the term of ethnicity of
the respondents it indicates that 10.0% of the respondents are Malay and Indian, 35%
are Chinese, and 10.0% are other ethnic group. With the regard to the religion of the
respondents, 10% are Hinduism. Others and Islam, 30 % of majority religion are 30.0%.
Based on the table 4.4, there are 5 males and 15 males are buying for necessity and 15
males and 4 female are only buying for necessary good. There are 2 males and 3
females are interest in entertainment which is to release tension. Lastly there are 2 males
and 1 female spend money to habit and there 1 male and 2 females are spend money to
others.
Brand conscious, Price Conscious and Impulsive Conscious shopping between male and
female. In perfectionist, it was found that the males respondents were more conscious
on perfectionist than female (mean value for male = 9.68 , female = 9.36) In Brand
conscious, it was found that the males respondents were less conscious on perfectionist
than female (mean value for male = 10.08, female = 10.52) In Novelty, it was found that
the males respondents were less conscious on perfectionist than female (mean value for
male = 10.84 , female = 11.36) In Recreation, it was found that the males respondents

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were less conscious on perfectionist than female (mean value for male = 10.32 , female
= 10.76) In price conscious, it was found that the males respondents were less conscious
on perfectionist than female (mean value for male = 9.36 , female = 11.2) In impulsive,
it was found that the males respondents were less conscious on perfectionist than female
(mean value for male = 10.28 , female = 10.48) In confused choice consumer, it was
found that the males respondents were more conscious on perfectionist than female
(mean value for male = 10.92 , female = 10.84) In habitual, it was found that the males
respondents were less conscious on perfectionist than female (mean value for male =
11.28 , female = 11.32)

MANAGERIAL IMPLICATION
Companies and marketers may benefit from this present study. This study is about
understanding of individual characteristics of decision making styles in shopping
behavior. This study found that there are differences in consumer decision-making
styles across gender. For example, males were more conscious on brand rather than
females in their decision making styles in shopping behavior. Meanwhile, female are
more price and impulsive conscious decision making style rather than males.

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This research indicates the marketers and practitioners need to consider gender
differences in consumer decision making styles of shopping behavior. The findings
provide insights that need to be understood by marketers to improve marketing
activities and effective communication to support consumer decision styles based on
consumer preferences across gender.
This study benefits marketers not only on product design and promotional activities, but
also personalization and purchase processes of their target consumer. Marketers need to
know the distinctive and similarity of shopping styles between males and females to
make effective marketing plan. It is important to modify their messages and
communication according to differences in gender of consumer decision-making styles.
Overall, the study suggests that it is important for marketers and company toinvestigate
and understand their target consumers decision-making styles, across different gender
for better marketing strategy and be success in the market.

## LIMITATIONS AND DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

This study contributes to practical and theoretical research on gender differences in
consumer decision-making styles by testing and providing empirical support regarding
consumer marketing choices in Malaysia. However, there are some number of

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limitations and suggestion which need to be recognized. It may also prove valuable
information for them to make better research in the future. Firstly, because of limited of
time, the study used cross-sectional research. As a direction to future research, a
longitudinal study should be examined in order to gain more data or output about the
topic study.
Future studies may increase the sample size and not only focusing only on student to
gain better generalization and in depth of the research area. Adults also have distinctive
characteristic of decision making styles in shopping behavior that can provide more

This research focused on decision making style only on gender difference. Future
research could examine other specific demographic variables on each decision-making
style such as culture, age and income. Integrating different variables could provide more
In depth information. Finally, this study employed the original eight characteristics
decision making style of CSI by Sproll & Kendall (1984). Future researcher need to
continuously observe the existing and emerging of decision making style since change
hi macro environment might require change to the other or different dimensions.

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4.0 Reference
- https://en.wikipedia.org

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5.0 Coursework
Please describe the role of analysis in strategy formulation.
Despite the criticism of rational, analytical approaches to strategy formulation by Henry
Montzberg and others, the approach of this book is to emphasize analytic approaches to
strategy formulation. This is not because I wish to downplay the role of intuition,
creativity and spontaneity these qualities are essential ingredients of successful
strategies. Nevertheless, whether strategy formulation is formal or informal, whether
strategies are deliberate or emergent, systematic analysis is a vital input into the strategy
process. Without analysis, strategic decisions are susceptible to power battles, individual
whims, fads and wishful thinking. Concepts, theories, and analytic tools are
complements not substitutes for experience, commitment and creativity. Their role is to
provide frameworks for organizing discussion, processing information and opinions and
assisting consensus.

## This is not to endorse current approaches to strategy analysis. Strategic management is

still a young field and the existing toolbox of concepts and techniques remains woefully

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## inadequate. Our challenge is to do better. If existing analytical techniques do not

conditions of uncertainty, technological change and complexity, we need to augment
and extend our analytical toolkit. In the course of the book you will encounter concepts
such as real options, tacit knowledge, hyper competition, complementarity, and
facing in todays turbulent business environment. We must also recognize the nature of
strategy analysis.

## Unlike many of the analytical techniques in accounting, finance, market research, or

production management, strategy analysis does not generate solutions to problems. It
does not yield rules, algorithms, or formulae that tell us the optimal strategy to adopt.
The strategic questions that companies face (like those that we face in our own careers
and lives) are simply too complex to be programmed. The Concept of Strategy 27 The
purpose of strategy analysis is not to provide answers but to help us understand the
issues. Most of the analytic techniques introduced in this book are frameworks that
allow us to identify, classify and understand the principal factors relevant to strategic
decisions. Such frameworks are invaluable in allowing us to come to terms with the
complexities of strategy decisions. In some instances, the most useful contribution may
be in assisting us to make a start on the problem. By guiding us to the questions we need

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## to answer and by providing a framework for organizing the information gathered,

strategy analysis places us in a superior position to a manager who relies exclusively on
experience and intuition.
Finally, analytic frameworks and techniques can improve our flexibility as managers.
The analysis in this book is general in its applicability; it is not specific to particular
industries, companies, or situations. Hence, it can help increase our confidence and
effectiveness in understanding and responding to new situations and new circumstances.
By encouraging depth of understanding in fundamental issues concerning competitive
advantage, customer needs, organizational capabilities, and the basis of competition, the
concepts, frameworks and techniques in this book will encourage rather than constrain
innovation and flexibility.
Summary this chapter has covered a great deal of groundI hope that you are not
suffering from indigestion. If you are feeling a little overwhelmed, not to worry: we
shall be returning to most of the themes and issues raised in this chapter in the
subsequent chapters of the book. The next stage is to delve further into the basic
strategy framework shown in Figure 1.2. The elements of this frameworkgoals and
values, the industry environment, resources and capabilities, and structure and systems
comprise the basic components of strategy analysis. The next part of the book devotes
separate chapters to each. We then deploy these tools in the analysis of competitive
advantage (Part III), in the formulation and implementation of business strategies in

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different industry contexts (Part IV), and then in the development of corporate strategy
(Part V).

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