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Kinematics and dynamics

2nd half of semester


Lecture note #2: Friction and
dynamics of circular motion
Dr. Eng. Radon Dhelika
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

Syllabus
Kinematics:

Properties of motion: position, velocity, acceleration


NO force

To study the interaction between those properties


Involving force, work, energy, impulse, etc

Dynamics

1. Particle: force and acceleration


2. Particle: work and energy
3. Particle: impulse and momentum
4. Particle: collision and relative motion
5. Systems of particles
6. Rigid body: force and acceleration
7. Rigid body: work and energy
8. Rigid body: impulse and momentum

Schedule (tentative)
Lecture No

Topic

1 (25 Oct)

Intro, Newton's second law

2 (27 Oct)

Friction, forces in circular motion

3 (1 Nov)

Work, kinetic energy

4 (3 Nov)

Power, gravitational and elastic potential energy

5 (8 Nov)

Gravitational and elastic potential energy (2)

6 (10 Nov)

Quiz 1 (5%), Impulse + momentum (1)

7 (15 Nov)

Impulse + momentum (2)

8 (17 Nov)

Quiz 2 (5%), Moment of inertia

9 (22 Nov)

Torque (1)

10 (24 Nov)

Kosong (ke luar kota)

11 (29 Nov)

Quiz 3 (7.5%), Torque (2)

12 (1 Dec)

Angular momentum

13 (6 Dec)

Quiz 4 (7.5%)

14 (8 Dec)
14 (13 Dec)

UAS

Friction (1)
Friction force can be categorized into
Static friction
Friction that is in action even when there is no motion

Kinetic friction
Friction that is in action when there is a motion

Friction (2)

Friction (3)
Coefficient of friction is
determined for two materials
in contact
Friction is actually a more
complicated phenomenon; for
kinetic friction, speed of the
object affects the friction force
But for simplicity, in this
course we will only consider
friction force that is linearly
proportional with the normal
force N
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Measuring coefficient of friction


An "inclined plane tester" is common for measuring
coefficient of friction, especially in the field of tribology.

Explain how it works


Does this measure coefficient of static or kinetic friction?

How can you measure


coefficient of kinetic
friction?
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Visualization with Excel


Can use Microsoft Excel to visualize the Wsin and
Wcos in the experiment of inclined plane

Solved problem 1
A 500-N crate is pulled at constant speed along a level
floor by a force T that is at an angle above the
horizontal. Assume k= 0.4. How hard must you pull to
keep it moving with constant velocity if:

(a) = 0o
(b) = 30o

Ans:
(a) 200N; (b) 188 N

Solved problem 1
When = 30o :

Notice: N < W for = 30o


Can you find an angle where
the required pull is
minimum?

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Solved problem 2
Hint: you may use this

Dynamics with constant force

Friction and acceleration


A mass of 2 kg is traveling with a speed of 3 m/s up a plane
inclined 20o with the horizontal. After traveling 0.8 m, the
mass comes to rest. determine the coefficient of kinetic
friction.
Ans: k = 0.247

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Solved problem 2
First, with the known parameters,
need to determine the a
(deceleration)

a = -5.62 m/s2

k = 0.247

Other useful formula of


kinematics:
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(Amusing) research on friction

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Dynamics of circular motion


Centripetal force is the force that lets
the ball go in a circular motion
In this example, the centripetal force is
provided by the string's tension

Centripetal can be understood to be


"center-seeking"
Hence: it is perpendicular to the direction
of the velocity, towards the center of the
rotation

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Solved problem 3

A 1.3 m long fishing line rated as "10 lb test" that can stand a
force of 10 lb (44.48 N) is attached to a rock of mass 0.5 kg.
Calculate the maximum speed at which the rock can be
rotated without breaking the line
Ans: 10.75 m/s

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Solved problem 4
A sports car is rounding a flat, unbanked curve with
radius R. If the coefficient of static friction between
tires and road is s, what is the maximum speed vmax
at which the driver can take the curve without sliding?

Ans:

Why can friction force act


as the centripetal force in
this case?
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Solved problem 4

The centripetal force is provided by the friction force.


Since the available max friction force is
vmax is proportional to R
and s

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No centrifugal force

Solved problem 5
A 250 kg motorcycle is driven around
a 12 meter tall vertical circular track at
a constant speed of 11 m/s.
Determine the normal and friction
forces at the three points labeled in
the diagram.
Determine the minimum coefficient
of static friction needed to complete
the stunt as planned.
Ans:
(i) N = 7490 N; f = 0
(ii) N = 5040 N; f = 2450 N
(iii) N = 2590 N; f = 0
min = 0.485
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Solved problem 5

fi = 0

What variables remain


constant?

fiii = 0

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Soal lain-lain

Solved problem 6

Concept of tension; two


bodies with the same a

In a device called Atwood's


machine, two equal masses M are
connected by a very light
(negligible mass) tape passing over
a frictionless cylinder. A mass m
whose magnitude is much less than
M is added to one side, causing
that mass to fall and the other to
rise. Find an expression for the
acceleration a
Ans:

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Solved problem 6

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Solved problem 7
An air-track glider with mass
m1 moving on a level,
frictionless air track. The
glider is connected to a lab
weight with mass m2 by a light,
flexible, nonstretching string
that passes over a stationary,
frictionless pulley. Find the
acceleration of each body and
the tension in the string.
Ans:

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Solved problem 7

The a is less than g; why?


The T is not the same as m2g;
why?

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Solved problem 8
You are lowering two boxes, one on top of the other, down the ramp
shown in by pulling on a rope parallel to the surface of the ramp. Both
boxes move together at a constant speed of 15 cm/s. The coefficient of
kinetic friction between the ramp and the lower box is 0.444, and the
coefficient of static friction between the two boxes is 0.800. (a) What
force do you need to exert to accomplish this? (b) What are the
magnitude and direction of the friction force on the upper box?

Ans:
(a) 57.1 N, directed up the ramp
(b) 146 N, directed up the ramp