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Lecture note #2: Friction and

dynamics of circular motion

Dr. Eng. Radon Dhelika

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

Syllabus

Kinematics:

NO force

Involving force, work, energy, impulse, etc

Dynamics

2. Particle: work and energy

3. Particle: impulse and momentum

4. Particle: collision and relative motion

5. Systems of particles

6. Rigid body: force and acceleration

7. Rigid body: work and energy

8. Rigid body: impulse and momentum

Schedule (tentative)

Lecture No

Topic

1 (25 Oct)

2 (27 Oct)

3 (1 Nov)

4 (3 Nov)

5 (8 Nov)

6 (10 Nov)

7 (15 Nov)

8 (17 Nov)

9 (22 Nov)

Torque (1)

10 (24 Nov)

11 (29 Nov)

12 (1 Dec)

Angular momentum

13 (6 Dec)

Quiz 4 (7.5%)

14 (8 Dec)

14 (13 Dec)

UAS

Friction (1)

Friction force can be categorized into

Static friction

Friction that is in action even when there is no motion

Kinetic friction

Friction that is in action when there is a motion

Friction (2)

Friction (3)

Coefficient of friction is

determined for two materials

in contact

Friction is actually a more

complicated phenomenon; for

kinetic friction, speed of the

object affects the friction force

But for simplicity, in this

course we will only consider

friction force that is linearly

proportional with the normal

force N

6

An "inclined plane tester" is common for measuring

coefficient of friction, especially in the field of tribology.

Does this measure coefficient of static or kinetic friction?

coefficient of kinetic

friction?

7

Can use Microsoft Excel to visualize the Wsin and

Wcos in the experiment of inclined plane

Solved problem 1

A 500-N crate is pulled at constant speed along a level

floor by a force T that is at an angle above the

horizontal. Assume k= 0.4. How hard must you pull to

keep it moving with constant velocity if:

(a) = 0o

(b) = 30o

Ans:

(a) 200N; (b) 188 N

Solved problem 1

When = 30o :

Can you find an angle where

the required pull is

minimum?

10

Solved problem 2

Hint: you may use this

A mass of 2 kg is traveling with a speed of 3 m/s up a plane

inclined 20o with the horizontal. After traveling 0.8 m, the

mass comes to rest. determine the coefficient of kinetic

friction.

Ans: k = 0.247

11

Solved problem 2

First, with the known parameters,

need to determine the a

(deceleration)

a = -5.62 m/s2

k = 0.247

kinematics:

12

13

Centripetal force is the force that lets

the ball go in a circular motion

In this example, the centripetal force is

provided by the string's tension

"center-seeking"

Hence: it is perpendicular to the direction

of the velocity, towards the center of the

rotation

14

Solved problem 3

A 1.3 m long fishing line rated as "10 lb test" that can stand a

force of 10 lb (44.48 N) is attached to a rock of mass 0.5 kg.

Calculate the maximum speed at which the rock can be

rotated without breaking the line

Ans: 10.75 m/s

15

Solved problem 4

A sports car is rounding a flat, unbanked curve with

radius R. If the coefficient of static friction between

tires and road is s, what is the maximum speed vmax

at which the driver can take the curve without sliding?

Ans:

as the centripetal force in

this case?

16

Solved problem 4

Since the available max friction force is

vmax is proportional to R

and s

17

No centrifugal force

Solved problem 5

A 250 kg motorcycle is driven around

a 12 meter tall vertical circular track at

a constant speed of 11 m/s.

Determine the normal and friction

forces at the three points labeled in

the diagram.

Determine the minimum coefficient

of static friction needed to complete

the stunt as planned.

Ans:

(i) N = 7490 N; f = 0

(ii) N = 5040 N; f = 2450 N

(iii) N = 2590 N; f = 0

min = 0.485

19

Solved problem 5

fi = 0

constant?

fiii = 0

20

Soal lain-lain

Solved problem 6

bodies with the same a

machine, two equal masses M are

connected by a very light

(negligible mass) tape passing over

a frictionless cylinder. A mass m

whose magnitude is much less than

M is added to one side, causing

that mass to fall and the other to

rise. Find an expression for the

acceleration a

Ans:

22

Solved problem 6

23

Solved problem 7

An air-track glider with mass

m1 moving on a level,

frictionless air track. The

glider is connected to a lab

weight with mass m2 by a light,

flexible, nonstretching string

that passes over a stationary,

frictionless pulley. Find the

acceleration of each body and

the tension in the string.

Ans:

24

Solved problem 7

The T is not the same as m2g;

why?

25

Solved problem 8

You are lowering two boxes, one on top of the other, down the ramp

shown in by pulling on a rope parallel to the surface of the ramp. Both

boxes move together at a constant speed of 15 cm/s. The coefficient of

kinetic friction between the ramp and the lower box is 0.444, and the

coefficient of static friction between the two boxes is 0.800. (a) What

force do you need to exert to accomplish this? (b) What are the

magnitude and direction of the friction force on the upper box?

Ans:

(a) 57.1 N, directed up the ramp

(b) 146 N, directed up the ramp

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