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Oil Supply, Load Sense, & Cooling Hydraulics

Oil Supply, Load


Sense, & Cooling Hydraulics
Information in this section will help the service technician troubleshoot the components that make up the oil
supply, and hydraulic oil cooling systems of this machine.
The section is organized in four groups: Principles, Components, Troubleshooting and Hydraulic Schematic
Diagrams. Within each group, the illustrations are numbered starting with Fig. 1 and so on through the
group. Illustrations in each succeeding group begin once more with Fig. 1.
Some Part numbers are provided as a convenience to the service technician. Always check part numbers
against current parts information.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

COMPONENT LOCATOR..............................................................5-3

PUMP ARRANGEMENT................................................................5-4

PRINCIPLES AND CIRCUITS.......................................................5-5

System Block Diagram........................................................5-5

General Description............................................................5-6

LOAD SENSE CONTROL.............................................................5-7

System Block Diagram........................................................5-7

HYDRAULIC OIL RESERVOIR.....................................................5-8

HYDRAULIC PUMP . ..................................................................5-10

System Block Diagram......................................................5-10

Pump Destroke Solenoid Valve.........................................5-13

Bias Control Valve.............................................................5-13

Pilot Control Valve.............................................................5-13

Pressure Compensator Valve...........................................5-13

Flow Compensator Valve..................................................5-13

OIL COOLER...............................................................................5-14

System Block Diagram......................................................5-14

HYDRAULIC TROUBLESHOOTING...........................................5-17

Introduction.......................................................................5-17

Troubleshooting Charts.....................................................5-18

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATICS........................................................5-21

2006, BLOUNT INC. Information on vended components reprinted by permission. This Manual has been compiled from materials available at the time of approval for reproduction. BLOUNT reserves the right to improve its
products without giving prior notice or incurring obligation.

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SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

WARNING
potential crush point.

WARNING

Center hinge area is a

Flying particles from


using air pressure for cleaning can cause severe
personal injury.

Be SURE to engage articulation lock (see Section


1, Safety) before beginning service or repair of any
pump, motor or controller.

WARNING

Uncontrolled movement
of the tractor can cause severe personal injury
or death.
Prior to removing or doing other work on any pump,
motor or controller, place the machine on a clean,
level work area, lower the blade and grapple to the
ground, install the articulation lock (see Section 1,
Safety), set the parking brake, chock the wheels so
they cannot move, and tilt the cab to the over-center
position (see Section 3, Maintenance).
Certain service procedures may require the unit to
be disabled (tires raised off the ground, work function disconnected, etc.) in order to prevent injury to
the technician and to bystanders.

WARNING

Fluids escaping under


pressure can penetrate skin and cause severe
injury or death.
DO NOT use your hands to search for leaks.
Before disconnecting lines, relieve ALL pressure.
If ANY fluid is injected into your skin, seek medical
help immediately. Serious infection can result without proper medical treatment.
Before working on the hydraulic system, follow HYDRAULIC SAFETY instructions in Section 1, Safety.
Make sure the brake release pressure accumulator is FULLY DISCHARGED before working on the
brake system or transmission charge system. To
discharge accumulator, shut down the engine and
apply the service brake seven or eight times.

FT 546C

Wear a face shield and protective clothing. Use a


maximum air pressure of 30 PSI (210 kPa) for
cleaning purposes.

CAUTION

Improper lifting of
heavy objects can cause serious personal injury.
Always use a lifting device.

CAUTION

Some cleaning solvents

are flammable.
To avoid possible fire, do not use cleaning solvents
in an area where a source of ignition may be
present.

NOTICE

Dirt is the enemy of hydraulic systems. Keep tools and work area clean.
Dirt that accumulates around relief valve and compensator cartridges can be carried into threads while
the cartridge is being adjusted, possibly damaging
the seals. Be sure to thoroughly clean components
and surrounding area before making adjustment.
Ambient dirt can enter a disconnected hose or tube
without the technicians knowledge. Clean hose and
tube fittings before disconnecting. Keep open ports
and open hose and tube ends capped unless procedure requires that they be left open. Always clean
lines or hoses prior to installation by flushing and
blowing out with filtered compressed air.

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OIL SUPPLY, LOAD SENSE, AND COOLING COMPONENT LOCATOR


WARNING: TO AVOID PERSONAL INJURY OR PROPERTY DAMAGE,
READ AND FOLLOW ALL SAFETY MATERIALS IN THE OPERATORS
MANUAL AND AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SERVICE MANUAL.

FT546C-05-001

Fig. 1: Left side view of FABTEK 546C Forwarder showing the locations of major oil supply, load
sense, and cooling components.

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PUMP ARRANGEMENT

FT546C-05-002

Fig. 2: Top view of torque converter, hydraulic


pump, and pump controller.

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PRINCIPLES AND CIRCUITS

FT546C-05-003

Fig. 3: Block diagram showing major components of the oil supply, load sense, and oil cooling
systems and connections.

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PRINCIPLES AND CIRCUITS


HYDRAULIC SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The Oil Supply, Load Sense, and Cooling Hydraulic
System on the 546C Forwarder includes the reservoir and filtration system, the load sense system,
and the oil cooling system (Fig. 3).
Major components of those systems include the
oil reservoir, hydraulic pump, pump controller, and
hydraulic oil cooler (Fig. 3).
The Steering, Loader and Grapple hydraulic systems are covered in Section 6, Steering, Loader and
Grapple Hydraulics.
Oil Reservoir

To ensure proper cooling, the radiator and oil cooler


should periodically be cleaned with a water-soluble
degreaser. Flush with clean water and blow dry with
compressed air in the opposite direction of coolingfan air flow.

CAUTION

Flying particles from


using air pressure for cleaning can cause severe
personal injury.
Wear a face shield and protective clothing.
Compressed air used for parts cleaning must be
regulated at 30 PSI.

The hydraulic reservoir is located underneath the


cab on the left side of the machine. The oil level is
monitored through a sight gauge on the front end of
the reservoir (Fig. 4). A suction filter and return filter
element are mounted in the reservoir.
A 40-micron filler-breather cap aerates the tank and
prevents contamination of the oil.
Oil Fill
The reservoir can be filled using the oil fill pump and
wand stored inside the engine compartment. See the
OIL FILL PUMP topic in this section, just beyond the
OIL RESERVOIR description.
Main Pump
FT546C-05-004

An Oilgear PVG 100cc pressure compensated,


piston-type pump supplies oil flow to the main hydraulic system. The main pump draws oil through a
20-mesh suction screen in the lower section of the
hydraulic reservoir (Fig. 3). A detailed description of
the hydraulic pump can be found in Section 6, Steering, Loader & Grapple Hydraulics. The operation of
the pump controller is described in the section.

Fig. 4: Hydraulic oil reservoir sight gauge.

Pump Destroke Solenoid Valve


A manually operated solenoid valve (Fig. 3) directs
the main pump load sense signal to the reservoir,
preventing the pump from pressurizing until the
engine starts.
Oil Cooler
After circulating through the hydraulic system oil is
routed to the oil cooler (Fig. 3) where excess heat is
removed.
The oil cooler has steel tubes running through the
center and fins to cool the oil.

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FT546C-05-005

Fig. 5: Hydraulic pump and controller.

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LOAD SENSE CONTROL


Main ValVe

p

p

pl

Oil preSSure
lineS

COMBinaTiOn
ValVe

lV

pX

HydrauliC Oil
reSerVOir

pgp
BypaSS
ValVe

lV

HydrauliC
puMp

lS

lOad SenSe
preSSure line
(60 pSi [4. Bar])
FT546C_05_009

Fig. 6: Diagram showing pump pressure and load sense circuit.

LOAD SENSE (LS) CONTROL


The load sense (LS) system senses the pressure
demands of the system and, working in conjunction
with the pump controller, increases, decreases or
cuts off oil pressure and flow. When all components
are at neutral position (no-load) the pump maintains
standby pressure equal to or slightly higher than the
load-sense controller setting.
Through a system of shuttle valves, the load-sense
system always sends the highest pressure
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requirements to the pump controller to maintain a


constant flow, regardless of the number of components in use.
The load-sense system allows the pump to produce
only the flow demanded by the actuators, making
the pump energy efficient, producing less heat, and
providing better pressure control.
See Section 4: Hydraulic Specifications & Test
Procedures for information on the hydraulic system
specifications and testing.

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HYDRAULIC OIL RESERVOIR

FT546C-05-006

Fig. 7: Hydraulic reservoir showing major components.

HYDRAULIC OIL RESERVOIR

Temperature Sender

The hydraulic oil reservoir is located underneath the


cab on the left side of the machine.
The reservoir oil capacity is 32 gallons US [121 l]. A
sight gauge on the end of the reservoir monitors the
hydraulic oil level. An oil level switch mounted on the
side of the reservoir sounds a warning alarm in the
cab when the oil level falls below proper level.

A temperature sender on the end of the reservoir


senses oil temperature, which is indicated on the
hydraulic oil temperature gauge in the cab. The
sender also activates an alarm in the cab to warn the
operator when the oil temperature exceeds 190 F.
A filter bypass sender senses when pressure differential through the filter exceeds 25 PSI [1.7 BAR].

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HYDRAULIC OIL RESERVOIR


Return Filter Specifications

Element Micron Rating................................................................................................. 5 micron


Filter Bypass Valve.................................................................................................25 PSI crack

Major Component Part Numbers



Return Filter element........................................................................................................ 10116

Gasket..................................................................................................................... 12031

Filter head (incl. Bypass valve)........................................................................................... 8586

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HYDRAULIC OIL FILL PUMP

HYDRAULIC OIL FILL PUMP

FT546C_05_012

Fig. 8: A view of the hydraulic oil fill pump assembly.

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HYDRAULIC OIL FILL PUMP


HYDRAULIC OIL FILL PUMP
The hydraulic oil fill pump is mounted inside the
engine compartment. The pump is used to transfer
hydraulic oil from a drum to the hydraulic tank.
A hydraulic hose mounted in the engine compartment is inserted into the hydraulic oil drum. The
other end of the hose is connected to the inlet side
of the fill pump. The outlet side of the pump is connected to the hydraulic tank with a hydraulic hose.
A switch mounted in the control box activates the
pump. The pump is protected by a 10-amp circuit
breaker mounted in the control box. A 75-amp relay
is mounted between the pump and switched power
circuit. The relay is activated by the pump switch and
connects the pump to the 12-volt power circuit.

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HYDRAULIC PUMP & COMPONENTS

FT546C_05_007

Fig. 9: Diagram showing hydraulic pump and the major components of its controller.
HYDRAULIC PUMP

PUMP CONTROLLER

An Oilgear PVG 100cc pressure compensated, piston-type pump supplies oil flow to the main hydraulic
system. The main pump draws oil from the lower
section of the hydraulic reservoir (Fig. 7). A detailed
description of the hydraulic pump can be found in
Section 6, Steering, Loader & Grapple Hydraulics.

The pump uses a 1NN/F pump controller to control


the pump output pressure and flow. The load sense
control system supplies oil pressure to the controller
for pump operation (See Fig. 9).

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HYDRAULIC PUMP & COMPONENTS


Pump Destroke Solenoid Valve

Pressure Compensator Valve

The pump destroke solenoid valve is mounted on


the lower front side of the hydraulic reservoir. The
valve consists of a valve body and solenoid coil.
When the solenoid is activated by the pump bypass
switch, the pump load sense signal is dumped into
the reservoir, preventing pressure build up.
The hydraulic pump bypass switch, which is located
on the left side of the front gauge console, is used
to save the starter motor from overload while starting the engine, and to reduce the engine load during
warm-up in temperatures below 32 F (0 C).

The pressure compensator valve is mounted on the


hydraulic pump and is part of the 1NN/F controller.
This adjustable valve maintains constant pressure
on the bias valve regardless of pressure requirements. As the load on the hydraulic system
increases, pump pressure also increases. The valve
limits maximum operating pressure by reducing
pump displacement to zero when set pressure
(2950 psi) is reached.

Bias Control Valve


The bias control valve is mounted on the hydraulic
pump. The valve controls the position of the pump
swashblock which controls piston stoke length and
pump output oil pressure and flow. This valve is part
of the Oilgear P-1NN/F pump controller.
Pilot Control Valve

Flow Compensator Valve


The flow compensator valve (also called Load
Sense Controller) controls the oil flow and is part of
the 1NN/F controller. This valve works in conjunction
with the load sense system and the pressure compensator valve to maintain constant oil flow volume
regardless of the demands placed on the hydraulic
system. The flow compensator also causes the
pump to provide constant flow volume regardless of
engine speed.

The pilot control valve is part of the Oilgear 1NN/F


controller and is mounted on the hydraulic pump.
The valve controls load sense flow to the bias control valve for pump operation.

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OIL COOLER

FT546C_05_008

Fig.10: Block diagram showing the hydraulic oil cooler and circuits.

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OIL COOLER
OIL COOLER
As hydraulic oil is pumped through the hydraulic system, heat increases. While heat lowers the viscosity
of the hydraulic oil and helps with flow, excessive
heat causes oil deterioration and component failure.
The oil already in the reservoir cools oil returning
to the reservoir. Because the reservoir oil cannot
remove enough heat to protect the hydraulic system, the oil passes through the oil cooler where it is
cooled by airflow from the engine-cooling fan. The
cooled oil then flows to the reservoir for use by the
hydraulic system.
MAKE-UP CHECK VALVES
Check valves (65 psi) in the return lines from the
main valve prevent reverse flow into the system
when the pump is at minimum stroke. In addition,
they provide make-up back pressure for the anticavitation check valves. See Fig. 10.

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HYDRAULIC TROUBLESHOOTING
WARNING: TO AVOID PERSONAL INJURY OR PROPERTY DAMAGE,
READ AND FOLLOW ALL SAFETY MATERIALS IN THE OPERATORS
MANUAL AND AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SERVICE MANUAL.
INTRODUCTION

HYDRAULIC SPECIFICATIONS

When working with hydraulics, cleanliness is of vital


importance.

Refer to Section 4, Hydraulic Specifications and Test


Procedure, for all hydraulic specifications, settings
and hydraulic test procedures.

NOTICE

Dirt is the enemy of hydraulic systems. Keep tools and work areas clean.
Dirt in any hydraulic system causes premature wear
and erratic performance.
Dirt that accumulates around relief valve and compensator cartridges can be carried into threads while
the cartridge is being adjusted, possibly damaging
the seals. Be sure to thoroughly clean components
and surrounding area before making adjustment.
Dirt that accumulates around test ports can fall onto
the diagnostic nipple after the cap is removed, and
then enter the system and gauges. Be sure to thoroughly clean the test fittings and surrounding area
before connecting the hydraulic test equipment.
Ambient dirt can enter a disconnected hose or tube
without the technicians knowledge. Clean the hose
and tube fittings before disconnecting. Keep open
ports and open hose and tube ends capped unless
the procedure requires that they be left open. Always
clean lines or hoses prior to installation by flushing
and blowing them out with filtered, compressed air.
Add fluid to the hydraulic system through the filters
only. New oil in jobbers or distributors drums may
be clean only to a particle size of 25 microns.

HOW TO USE THIS SECTION


Most hydraulic system malfunctions can be readily
corrected by referring to the troubleshooting charts
and schematics at the end of this section, and following the step-by-step instructions in Section 4,
Hydraulic Specifications & Test Procedures.
These aids assume that the reservoir has sufficient
quantity of oil, the filters are clean and that the reservoir breather is undamaged and free of obstructions.

CONTAMINATION PARTICLES
Contamination particles are measured in microns.
The micron is a unit of measurement equal to onemillionth of a meter or 0.00039 inch. Twenty-five
microns equal approximately 0.001 inch. Clearances
in hydrostatic and hydraulic components may be
extremely close, less than 0.00001 inch. The chart
(Fig. 10) is a comparison of various known sizes of
particles measured in microns and inches.
The 546C Forwarder is equipped with filters that
do an excellent job of filtering oil, but the filter must
be regularly maintained. It is important to reduce
contaminants in the system as much as possible and
to change filters at recommended intervals, or more
frequently if necessary.

FT546C_05_010

Fig. 1: Diagram comparing particle sizes.


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HYDRAULIC TROUBLESHOOTING
PROBLEM
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
OVERHEATING

PROBABLE CAUSE

POSSIBLE SOLUTION

Low hydraulic oil level

Fill to proper level.

Oil cooler and/or radiator air flow


restricted

Clean by washing with hot water or air. If the oil


cooler or radiator fins are oil coated, the oil film
must be washed off using a household degreaser
such as Purple Stuff or Greased Lightning.

Fan belt loose

Adjust to proper tension. Check fan to insure


proper installation to push air through the radiator
away from the engine.

Damaged or incorrectly installed


fan

Check the fan blades for damage or blades bent


out of position.
Check temperature gauge and sending unit to
ensure correct operating temperature.

Faulty temperature gauge or


sending unit

Make sure temperature gauge and sending unit


are matched for correct readings.

Faulty instrument wiring

Check that wires are securely attached to the


gauge and sender.
Check ground for proper security.

FT 546C

Incorrect system pressure

Using Section 4, Hydraulic Specifications and


Test Procedures, check all pressures for correct setting.

Relief valve stuck open

Check and clean.

Engine rpm set too high

Using the Pressure Specification Sheet, check


engine rpm and adjust as necessary.

Faulty plumbing

Check for kinked or pinched hoses creating a


heat-producing orifice. Ensure hoses are not deteriorated internally causing a restriction. Check
for proper hose connections at correct locations.

Operational misuse

Make sure the operator is using the machine


correctly. Watch and listen as the operator
runs the machine. Be sure the operator is not
holding the hydraulics over relief, or shifting
direction at high speeds.

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HYDRAULIC TROUBLESHOOTING
PROBLEM

PROBABLE CAUSE

POSSIBLE SOLUTION

POOR PUMP PERFORMANCE OR


SLOW COMPONENT
ACTUATION

Load sense pump controller not


properly adjusted

Using Section 4, Hydraulic Specifications and


Test Procedures, check all pressures for correct
setting and adjustment.

MAIN VALVE OPERATES SLOWLY OR


NOT AT ALL

Faulty hydraulic pump

Using Section 4, Hydraulic Specifications and


Test Procedures, check all pressures for correct
setting and adjustment.

Port or main relief valve stuck


open

Check and clean.

Faulty electrical connection at


main valve solenoid valves

Check solenoid operation and wiring


connections.

Faulty load sense supply at


pump

Check load sense hose connections at controller


and valves.

Pump controller not properly


adjusted

Using Section 4, Hydraulic Specifications and


Test Procedures, check all pressures for correct
setting and adjustment.

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FT546C_05_011

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