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NUMBERS, PARALLELISM, MISPLACED &

DANGLING MODIFIERS
DANGLING MODIFIERS

NUMBERS DIFFER ACCORDING TO STYLE GUIDE

NUMBERS DIFFER ACCORDING TO STYLE GUIDE  MLA – use numerals for numbers above one hundred
NUMBERS DIFFER ACCORDING TO STYLE GUIDE  MLA – use numerals for numbers above one hundred
  • MLA use numerals for numbers above one hundred (starting with 101)

  • MLA spell out numbers one hundred and below

  • MLA spell out large round numbers (fifteen million)

  • APA spell out numbers one through nine, 10 and above written numerically

  • Both when one number immediately follows another, spell out one number and use numerals for other (three 100-meter events, 25 four-poster beds)

  • Both always write out numbers that begin a sentence

NUMBERS

NUMBERS USE NUMERALS ACCORDING TO CONVENTION  Dates – July 4, 1776; 56 BC; AD 30

USE NUMERALS ACCORDING TO CONVENTION

NUMBERS USE NUMERALS ACCORDING TO CONVENTION  Dates – July 4, 1776; 56 BC; AD 30

Dates July 4, 1776; 56 BC; AD 30

Addresses 77 Latches Lane, 519 West 42 nd Street

Percentages 55 percent (or 55%)

Fractions, Decimals ½, 0.047

Scores 7 to 3, 21 18

Statistics average age 37, average weight 180

Surveys 4 out of 5

Exact amounts of money - $105. 37

Divisions of books volume 3, Chapter 4, page 189

Divisions of plays act 3, scene 3 (or act III, scene iii)

NUMBERS

NUMBERS USE NUMERALS ACCORDING TO CONVENTION  Identification numbers – serial number 10988675  Time of

USE NUMERALS ACCORDING TO CONVENTION

NUMBERS USE NUMERALS ACCORDING TO CONVENTION  Identification numbers – serial number 10988675  Time of
  • Identification numbers serial number
    10988675

  • Time of Day 4:00 p.m., 1:30 a.m.

    • When not using a.m. or p.m., write out the time in words (two o’clock in the afternoon, twelve noon, seven in the morning)

Parallelism

ENG 101

Parallelism ENG 101

WHAT IS PARALLELISM?

WHAT IS PARALLELISM? Using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas

Using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same importance

  • Patterns fall into four areas:

    • Words and phrases

    • Forms

    • Clauses

    • Lists

PARALLELISM WORDS & PHRASES

PARALLELISM – WORDS & PHRASES Do not mix patterns with the – ing form (gerund) of

Do not mix patterns with the ing form (gerund) of words:

  • I like playing baseball, reading about sports, and tacos.

  • I like playing baseball, reading about sports, and eating tacos.

PARALLELISM WORDS & PHRASES

PARALLELISM – WORDS & PHRASES Do not mix patterns of infinitive phrases. Mary likes to shop,

Do not mix patterns of infinitive phrases.

Mary likes to shop, to read, and jogging ..

Mary like to shop, to read, and to jog.

PARALLELISM WORDS & PHRASES

PARALLELISM – WORDS & PHRASES Balance parallel ideas presented as pairs Either…or neither…nor not only…but also

Balance parallel ideas presented as pairs

Either…or

neither…nor

not only…but also

both…and

whether…or

The teacher not only wants his students to keep quiet but also to do the task.

The teacher wants his students not only to keep quiet

but also to do the task.

Thomas Edison was not only a prolific inventor but also was a successful entrepreneur.

Omit was

PARALLELISM FORMS

PARALLELISM – FORMS Do not mix forms. The teacher said that he was a poor student

Do not mix forms.

The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to

study for the exam, completed his lab problems

in a careless manner, and his motivation was

low.

The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to study for the exam, completed his lab problems

in a careless manner, and lacked motivation.

PARALLELISM CLAUSES

PARALLELISM – CLAUSES A parallel structure that begins with clauses must continue using clauses. The salesman

A parallel structure that begins with clauses must

continue using clauses.

The salesman expected that he would present his

product at the meeting, that there would be time for him to show his slide presentation, and questions would be asked by prospective buyers.

The salesman expected that he would present his

product at the meeting, that there would be time for him to show his slide presentation, and that

prospective buyers would ask him questions.

PARALLELISM CLAUSES

PARALLELISM – CLAUSES Repeat function words to clarify parallels  By, to, that, because Our study

Repeat function words to clarify parallels

  • By, to, that, because

Our study revealed that left-handed students were

more likely to have trouble with classroom desks

and rearranging desks for exam periods was

useful.

Our study revealed that left-handed students were more likely to have trouble with classroom desks

and that rearranging desks for exam periods was

useful.

PARALLELISM LISTS

PARALLELISM – LISTS Be sure to keep al the elements in a list in the same

Be sure to keep al the elements in a list in the same form.

The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to

find word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and looking up irregular verbs.

The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to

find word meanings, pronunciations, correct

spellings, and irregular verbs.

Misplaced & Dangling Modifiers

ENG 101

MISPLACED & DANGLING MODIFIERS

MISPLACED & DANGLING MODIFIERS  Modifiers are words that describe other words in a sentence 
  • Modifiers are words that describe other words in a sentence

  • Modifiers should be near the words they modify

Linda saw the White House flying over Washington, D.C.

Flying over Washington, D.C., Linda saw the White House.

Trying to eat a hot dog, my bike swerved off the

path.

While I was trying to eat a hot dog, my bike

swerved off the path.

PUT LIMITING MODIFIERS IN FRONT OF THE

WORDS THEY MODIFY  Limiting modifiers = only, even, almost, nearly, just
WORDS THEY MODIFY
Limiting modifiers = only, even, almost, nearly, just
  • These should appear in front of a verb only if they

modify the verb

At first, I couldn’t even touch my toes, much less grasp

them.

  • If they limit the meaning of some other word in the

sentence, they should be placed in front of that word.

  • The cathedral took six centuries to almost complete.

  • The cathedral took almost six centuries to complete.

  • The cathedral almost took six centuries to complete.

PUT LIMITING MODIFIERS IN FRONT OF THE WORDS THEY MODIFY



Limiting modifiers = only, even, almost, nearly, just

These should appear in front of a verb only if they modify the verb

At first, I couldn’t even touch my toes, much less grasp

them.

If they limit the meaning of some other word in the sentence, they should be placed in front of that word.

The cathedral almost took six centuries to complete.

The cathedral took almost six centuries to complete.

PUT LIMITING MODIFIERS IN FRONT OF THE WORDS THEY MODIFY

 If you just interview chemistry majors, your
If you just interview chemistry majors, your

picture of the student body’s response to the

new grading policies will be incomplete.

We are only interviewing as opposed to any other

options

  • If you interview just chemistry majors, your

picture of the student body’s response to the

new grading policies will be incomplete.

We are only dealing with chemistry majors

  • If you interview just chemistry majors, your

picture of the student body’s response to the

new grading policies will be incomplete.

PLACE PHRASES AND CLAUSES SO THAT READERS CAN SEE AT A GLANCE WHAT THEY MODIFY

PLACE PHRASES AND CLAUSES SO THAT READERS CAN SEE AT A GLANCE WHAT THEY MODIFY 
  • The soccer player returned to the clinic where he had undergone emergency surgery

in 2004 in a limousine sent by Adidas.

  • He had surgery in a limousine???

  • Traveling in a limousine sent by Adidas, the soccer player returned to the clinic where he had undergone emergency surgery in 2004

PLACE PHRASES AND CLAUSES SO THAT READERS CAN SEE AT A GLANCE WHAT THEY MODIFY

PLACE PHRASES AND CLAUSES SO THAT READERS CAN SEE AT A GLANCE WHAT THEY MODIFY 

There are many pictures of comedians who

have performed at Gavin’s on the walls.

The comedians are performing on the walls?

On the walls are many pictures of comedians

who have performed at Gavin’s.

The robber was described as a six-foot-tall man

with a heavy mustache weighing 170 pounds.

That’s a heavy mustache!!!

The robber was described as a 170-pound, six- foot-tall man with a heavy mustache.

PLACE PHRASES AND CLAUSES SO THAT READERS CAN SEE AT A GLANCE WHAT THEY MODIFY

PLACE PHRASES AND CLAUSES SO THAT READERS CAN SEE AT A GLANCE WHAT THEY MODIFY 
  • A squinting modifier leads to ambiguity

  • The exchange students we met for coffee occasionally questioned us about our latest

slang.

  • Did they meet occasionally? Or did the questioning happen occasionally?

  • The exchange students we occasionally met for coffee questioned us about our latest slang.

  • The exchange students we met for coffee

questioned us occasionally about our latest slang.

MOVE AWKWARDLY PLACED MODIFIERS

MOVE AWKWARDLY PLACED MODIFIERS  A sentence should flow from subject to verb to object without
  • A sentence should flow from subject to verb to object without lengthy detours along with way

  • Upset by the bad call, a hot-tempered tennis player who charged the umpire and tried to

crack the poor man's skull with a racket, the

crowd cheered Robbie.

  • Upset by the bad call, the crowd cheered

Robbie, a hot-tempered tennis player who charged the umpire and tried to crack the

poor man's skull with a racket.

AVOID AWKWARD SPLIT INFINITIVES

AVOID AWKWARD SPLIT INFINITIVES  Infinitive = to plus base form of a verb (to think)
  • Infinitive = to plus base form of a verb (to think)

  • Split infinitive = modifier between to and verb (to carefully balance, to completely understand)

  • When a long word or phrase appears between

parts of the infinitive, result is usually awkward

  • The patient should try to if possible avoid going up and down stairs.

  • If possible, the patient should try to avoid going up and down stairs.

DANGLING MODIFIERS

DANGLING MODIFIERS  Modifier fails to refer logically to any word in the sentence  Understanding
  • Modifier fails to refer logically to any word in

the sentence

  • Understanding the need to create checks and balances on power, the Constitution divided the government into three branches.

  • The document understood the need for checks and balances?

  • Understanding the need to create checks and balances on power, the framers of the Constitution divided the government into three branches.

WHERE VS. WHEN April the first is known as All Fools’ Day ______ people play practical
WHERE VS. WHEN April the first is known as All Fools’ Day ______ people play practical
WHERE VS. WHEN April the first is known as All Fools’ Day ______ people play practical

WHERE VS. WHEN

WHERE VS. WHEN April the first is known as All Fools’ Day ______ people play practical
WHERE VS. WHEN April the first is known as All Fools’ Day ______ people play practical

April the first is known as All Fools’ Day ______

people play practical jokes on each other.

The pound Kittanning.

Bella found me is in

_____

WHICH VS. THAT

WHICH VS. THAT Gems _____ sparkle often elicit forgiveness. Diamonds, _____ are expensive, often elicit forgiveness.

Gems

_____

sparkle often elicit forgiveness.

Diamonds,

_____

are expensive, often elicit

forgiveness.

There was an earthquake in China, bad.

is

_____

WHICH VS. THAT

Gems _____
Gems _____

sparkle often elicit forgiveness.

Restrictive ClauseThat

A restrictive clause is just part of a sentence that you can't get rid of because it specifically restricts some

other part of the sentence.

Here's an example: The words that sparkle restrict the

kind of gems you're talking about. Without them, the meaning of the sentence would change. Without them,

you'd be saying that all gems elicit forgiveness, not just

the gems that sparkle. (And note that you don't need

commas around the words that sparkle.)

WHICH VS. THAT

WHICH VS. THAT Diamonds, _____ are expensive, often elicit forgiveness. There was an earthquake in China,

Diamonds,

_____

are expensive, often elicit forgiveness.

There was an earthquake in China,

_____

is bad.

Nonrestrictive ClauseWhich

A nonrestrictive clause is something that can be left off without changing the meaning of the sentence. You can think of a

nonrestrictive clause as simply additional information.

Explanation: Diamonds are always expensive, so leaving out the words which

are expensive doesn't change the meaning of the sentence. (Also note that the

phrase is surrounded by commas. Nonrestrictive clauses are usually

surrounded by, or preceded by, commas.)

FOR MONDAY

FOR MONDAY …  Complete the task below this powerpoint slide on weebly. Bring this to
  • Complete the task below this powerpoint slide on weebly. Bring this to class in order to get credit for today’s canceled class.

  • Be prepared to discuss causal readings